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Re: Kaip Eičiūniuose padėsime afrikiečiam s?

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  • ms@ms.lt
    Audrone, Virgilijau, Broniau, Tomai, Irena, Vytautai, Ačiū už laiškus! Taip, reikės paraiškas rašančių vadovų ir talkininkų. Pirmiausia, mums
    Message 1 of 1 , Aug 23, 2008
      Audrone, Virgilijau, Broniau, Tomai, Irena, Vytautai,

      Ačiū už laiškus! Taip, reikės paraiškas rašančių vadovų ir talkininkų.
      Pirmiausia, mums reikia svajonių, kaip ir vėjo jėgainių. Kaip
      įsivaizduojame Anušauskų centrą už dešimts metų? Ar bus šiaudinių namų?
      Įvairiausių technologijų ir svečių? Prašau pasvajoti. Afrikiečius
      pakviesime praplėsti jų akiratį, pabendrauti su žemdirbiais, rinkti jų
      pasipasakojimus, palaikyti jų sumanymus ir pastangas, atkreipti dėmesį.
      Įsivaizduokite, kaip akrobatai moka atkreipti dėmesį, ką galėtų per tris
      mėnesius? Ir kaip padrąsinti kartu su lietuviais galėtų paskatinti
      saviškius. Štai mano sumanymo esmė, kad inovacijų diegimą skatina ryšys
      su pasauliu.

      Andrius Kulikauskas, Minčių sodas, http://www.ms.lt, ms@...


      I'm encouraged by response to my invitation to join my proposal for the
      African Innovation Challenge Fund which is due September 1, 2008.
      I reply to our letters and I share more of my ideas.

      My main goal is to provide work for myself. I will ask for 50,000 USD
      per year for three years. I also want to live at least part of the year
      in Lithuania, in other words, live no more than half the year in Africa.
      I want to strengthen our Minciu Sodas laboratory http://www.ms.lt not
      only in Africa, but around the world. Our achievements have come from
      working globally. I want to include as many participants as possible.
      These are my constraints which shape my proposal. Please let us know
      your vision for your life these next three years so that I might include
      you, if possible.

      Graham Knight, Thank you for your helpful letter to me. I take a rather
      crass view. My impression is that the UK government has spent millions
      of pounds for UK researchers to do agricultural research that might
      benefit Africans. This is to strengthen UK ties - commerical,
      political, cultural, academic - and this is the UK's response to
      poverty. Now there is a question, how to justify those expenses if the
      innovations are not being taken up? Hence they established "Research
      Into Use" http://www.researchintouse.com I look at this as a business
      challenge for which I offer my services and those of our Minciu Sodas
      laboratory. I expect this work to pay me well enough and to strengthen
      our laboratory. I believe that they are quite flexible as to How we do
      this, so long as we Do gain acceptance for the innovations in the
      Natural Resources Knowledge Database
      http://www.stepsystemsdata.co.uk/cgi-bin/RIU.isa I don't expect them
      to care about our participants, our innovations, our concerns, our
      values, our ideas. If we win the work, then we can take care of
      ourselves and our own concerns, moral and otherwise. I personally don't
      believe that "productivity" or even "innovation" is the issue. I
      believe that reaching out, sharing with and caring for each other is
      what addresses our challenges, and I think we're showing that, and we
      have much to show. I do think that our proposal will be strengthened if
      we structure this so we can highlight our participants in the United
      Kingdom, including your own and also Pamela McLean, Ricardo, John
      Rogers, Markus Petz and others. For example, I would love to use this
      money to send you, Pamela and others for several months to Africa. I
      also hope that we will find that at least some of the innovations are
      indeed worthwhile.

      Patrick Reilly,
      Yes! Patent law services pro Bono are a great asset and qualify as
      cofinancing. We can also include the work of Pamela McLean, Maria
      Agnese Giraudo, Janet Feldman and many others, online and on-the-ground
      in Africa. I ask us to estimate the hours that we do or might
      "work-for-free" and the professional rate for the volunteer work that we do.

      Janet Feldman, Thank you for bringing to us this opportunity, for your
      wisdom, knowledge and many links.
      I would be happy to support an African who took the lead to write a
      proposal. Indeed, we're all welcome to write them. I would even write
      a proposal for somebody else if they might pay me $1,000 more or less.
      I myself need to focus on finding income for myself and so I'm writing
      my proposal with this in mind. I'm building on our achievements and the
      leadership that I have demonstrated. I want to write a proposal that
      reflects how our lab might develop globally. The rules are very
      flexible and Minciu Sodas qualifies as a coordinator. However, they
      want us to promote innovations in certain countries, such as Kenya,
      Uganda, Ghana and Nigeria. I note that Cameroon and Tanzania are not on
      the list, but I will find ways to include them, just as I will for
      participants in Lithuania, Austria and the US. I will focus on
      establishing Minciu Sodas centers in rural Kenya (led by Samwel Kongere)
      and urban Kenya (led by Kennedy Owino) just as we have been dreaming.
      Janet, if you have any grants that you can post and share, that would be
      helpful, as are your thoughts. You are a winner! I want to organize
      around those who have led us as social networkers rather than
      agricultural experts. Samwel's work in East Africa is amazing and
      brings us together. He lifts me up. I contrast that with my unhappy
      relationship with Wendi. Why should I care much about her? What does
      she care about me or others at our lab? She may ask likewise of me. I
      think we will find a way. What I and our laboratory offer at our best
      is a group of people around the world care about each other - not just
      themselves - and who can motivate each other and reach out further.
      This is the essence of my proposal.

      The main point of my proposal is that we can promote agricultural
      practices by collecting and sharing "food stories" that highlight
      exemplary people in the food supply chain. The main motivator is not
      productivity but rather inclusion in the world. We will focus our
      resources on "food story" storytellers who can link us by taking African
      "food story" storytellers to the West and Western "food story"
      storytellers to Africa. The result will be a heartfelt bridge that
      will move people locally to present themselves to the world, and will
      move people from far away to get involved and help out. I believe, as
      we have shown, that this opening of our eyes to each other will have
      more tangible result than any local intervention. Change comes from
      independent thinkers who are moved by their spiritual peers who sustain
      them rather than their local peers who shut them down.

      David Alan Foster, It's wonderful to hear from you. I would like to
      involve you, Mark Roest, Ben de Vries and others you know, both in
      Silicon Valley and in Africa. I will describe to you how I think to
      apply the funding which I admit is self-centered but also opens up many
      resources for us that we can leverage further. What I want to end up
      with is a network of Minciu Sodas bases around the world. I think it is
      natural for them to be paired, rural and urban, because both locally and
      globally we always have interests in both. My thought is for each year:
      * to ask for 50,000 USD for myself so that I can work in Africa,
      Lithuania, Europe, US to lead work and build relationships
      * to ask for 5 x 10,000 USD for 1 software developer for our online web
      system, and also so that at any one time, 2 Africans might be in the
      West, and 2 Westerners might be in Africa. These will be our champion
      storytellers whose purpose is to help us take a fresh look at collecting
      food stories. Africans in the West can visit traditional and
      alternative Western farms and the food industry, interview people and
      see their own country's possibilities with fresh eyes, and likewise
      Westerners in Africa. We will be in touch with each other through video
      bridges. These people will have have a great challenge to work as
      ambassadors to encourage the many local projects. Part of the 10,000
      USD will go for air travel and part for food and rent to support stays
      at locations such as Marcins' Factor E Farm or David Ellison-Bey's home
      in Chicago.
      * to ask for 25 x 2,000 USD for 5 software developers, and about 20
      local leaders. Indeed, we will have 16 centers in our network and We
      will have a rural and an urban "Food Story Station" in Kenya and
      likewise in Lithuania (at the Eiciunai village and the city of Vilnius)
      and we will work towards a network of such pairs of locales (in Uganda,
      Ghana, Nigeria and in Austria, Missouri/Chicago, Silicon Valley).
      2,000 USD is not much money but yet a substantial income stream for a
      person in Africa. 2,000 USD can also be helpful for a project or
      equipment at a site in the US or Europe.
      * to ask for 125 x 400 USD for local advocates of one or more of the
      innovations. We would provide 50% cofinancing for this (by giving out
      half as a loan to be returned and then loaned out to another).
      Generally, the advocate would receive 200 USD in work and 200 USD in a
      no-interest loan, much as we're working with Peter Ongele. They would
      be responsible for guiding and motivating practitioners.
      * to ask for 625 x 100 USD for no-interest loans for local practitioners
      . We would provide 75% cofinancing for this (loaning out the money
      about four times per year). The practitioners who are interested to
      "work for free" in our networks would get no-interest loans. I will
      propose that 25% of the loans go to people to apply RIU innovations,
      another 25% go to such people but for other projects they may have, and
      another 50% go to small projects in general. I will explain that this
      will make for an ecosystem of small projects that fleshes out, along
      with the food stories, the food supply chain, and will grab global
      attention onto it. A major goal of our ambassadors, storytellers, local
      leaders, local advocates is that we make a simple way for people,
      schools, churches, organizations to support such small projects, much as
      we have at Minciu Sodas, with a system that is straightforward like
      Kiva. So our goal and exit strategy is to gain more and more
      cofinancing in the spirit of our lab.

      We will also have more cofinancing in the form of our volunteer time,
      both Westerners and Africans. Also, we will provide on our own all of
      the video bridge equipment, Internet access, mobile phone time, and any
      physical locations. We will do this over the course of three years. We
      can find other resources for that and we are ever flexible. We want
      cash from the grant.

      I spoke with Ben de Vries and he is interested to travel to Africa. I
      am glad that Edward Cherlin might likewise. And we can fund or support
      trips by Pamela McLean, Maria Agnese Giraudo, Jeff Buderer and Joy Tang
      and others, depending on if that makes sense. Often we may share
      resources. You know me that I am both miserly and generous, but also
      that I am trying to open up resources that we can apply to support our
      individual dreams.

      David, it would be great if you might think with Mark, Jeff, Ben and
      others, what kind of bases might we think in terms of in Silicon Valley
      where an African might stay? An urban base (such as Mark's apartment in
      the San Mateo ecovillage) and a rural base (such as the Dharma Gates
      farm). These bases can be simply a couch and Internet access, but as
      you know, it is invaluable to have a place to stay in Silicon Valley.
      We will be able to provide each year $2,000 for an urban agriculture
      project, $2,000 for a rural agriculture project, and a few thousand
      dollars for rent and food for African visitors. Similarly, we can do
      this for Marcin's farm in Missouri along with David Ellison-Bey's home
      in Chicago as an urban base, and likewise in Austria and in Lithuania.
      Imagine an African staying at Marcin's farm and learning how to make
      videos and write blog posts and share stories and generate interest in
      Marcin's work and learn how to do that and apply that back in Africa. Or
      an African staying with David Ellison-Bey and learning about his Moorish
      Cultural Workshop and promoting him and generating interest to buy the
      vacant lots next to his house and make them available for urban
      agriculture and other global village projects.

      So these small bits of money can have a big impact in terms of
      supporting our ambassadors whose job it is to generate interest among
      people who might participate in our microresearch and no-interest
      microloan projects and to see how "food stories" help to build those
      connections and stimulate projects. I hope you see how this global work
      can end up having an enormous impact in Kenya and other African
      countries, much as we have already, by bringing a global excitement and
      fellowship and affirmation to the local work that can draw participation
      just as we did with Pyramid of Peace. The global connections can open
      doors to people who actually probably don't just care about their farm
      but want to think bigger if they can, which is why they are leaving for
      the cities. Instead we provide people with urban and rural bases and
      with global friendship and opportunities and orientation. That's my
      hunch and I think this is an original approach grounded in our
      successful practice and so I believe we have a chance to win. But even
      if we don't, we will be taking steps towards a vision relevant for our
      lab, rather than contorting ourselves to try to win a funder who
      actually isn't grounded in any values that they would live or die for.
      David, I ask you and all for your thoughts, what might you do with such
      resources? Also, we could build our online software networking system
      (and microresearch, microloan system) so that it works with your
      knowledge database vision perhaps. Please write more about that, what
      would you like? And I ask us all to look at the concrete database of
      innovations that we have to work with:

      Peter Ongele, Thank you for your letter:
      Please write how you envisage concretely, what can we accomplish with
      such microloans of $100 or $200? And what problems we might run into?
      And what successes might we have? Your practical examples - and those
      of others in Africa - would be very helpful.

      Edward Cherlin,
      I hope my vision is a bit clearer. I would be excited if you might
      travel to Africa. Also, we will have some funds for the software
      system. We will have a "microresearch" support system so if that might
      fit with your educational ideas that would be great. Please write more
      about what you would like to do and your vision. Also, I want to write
      a proposal for Afghanistan's Ghor province and that is a place where
      OLPC could be very relevant as Internet and electricity are in short
      supply. What can we propose regarding that? Please write separately
      about "Afghanistan".

      Rachel Wambui Kungu, wonderful to see you at the Ushahidi blog

      how might you participate in our proposal? I also ask Dennis Kimambo
      and our many participants in Kenya.

      Arul Das, Welcome! Thank you for writing about love.

      Tom Wayburn,
      The most beautiful sight is the maturing of the mature. I am moved by
      your inventory of your weaknesses, which is to say, how you might yet
      grow. At your age a 2% change makes a 100% difference. That is the
      stance of eternal life, that we can forever grow. We spoke once that
      your deepest value is "the triumph of reason". I feel my own quest
      confirmed that in so many ways you find a sense to "the possibility of
      God". Since childhood I have felt this was the door that I would rather
      keep open than close, and through which I have slowly felt the relevance
      of the reality, the response, the fellowship, the love, the existence or
      nonexistence of God. I look forward to your reflections. Thank you to
      Benoit Couture, Vinay Gupta, Patrick Reilly, Michel Bauwens for your

      Surya Rao Maturu
      Thank you for your critical thinking. As I wrote above to Graham, I
      will take the crass point of view, that we can work for money, and yet
      do the work so that we further our own visions. I ask your help so that
      we all make clear our visions and be true to them, and that we promote
      those UK innovations which do the most good and the least damage.

      Benoit Couture, Fred Kayiwa,
      I apologize that our chat room and our RSS feeds are not working at the
      moment. We installed new versions of PHP, MySQL and Apache because I
      want to set up the Ringside Networks so that we have a social networking
      capability (compatible with Facebook). It seems that the PHP is the
      issue and it will take a week or more to fix. Fred, congratulations on
      teaching the children with the phonics flash cards! I'm curious how you
      do that.

      Franz Nahrada and I spoke today. He's making great steps in
      establishing a new base (and someday, home) at a former monastery in
      Neuberg, Austria. He envisages a center based on the "Village
      Principle" and a conference in 2009. Christine Ax is excited by Marcin
      Jakubowski's Factor E Farm and she wants a virtual village. Franz and
      I agreed that I will try to set up the social networking functionality
      as a core for our online venues and a basis for participation in such a
      virtual village. He is interested to lead a "school for villagers" that
      would provide a vision and context for many working groups at our

      Kofi Thompson, Thank you for your letters. I hope that what I propose
      will support the infrastructure that fosters the connections that lead
      to the businesses as you point to that links Ghana and Italy.

      I conclude with some examples from the database of innovations for
      Kenya. Which ones seem positive? or negative? Which crops are most
      interesting for us? There are more here:
      http://www.stepsystemsdata.co.uk/cgi-bin/RIU.isa My plan is that we
      will focus on engaging and organizing the people who have already
      participated in these projects.

      Thank you all for this great burst of energy! We will surely have more
      proposals and I invite us to take the lead and engage us as I am.

      Andrius Kulikauskas, Minciu Sodas, http://www.ms.lt, ms@..., +1 312
      618 3345



      Private sector serves horticultural industry in Kenya

      Small companies are springing up in Kenya to help growers comply with
      international food safety standards. The export market for fresh
      vegetables is fairly well-developed but small growers are often left out
      when it comes to know-how on food safety and hygiene, and consumer
      preferences. But, by following advice from new small businesses, more than
      23 farmer groups in the Central, Eastern and Rift Valley provinces have
      become certified, and more are in the pipeline. These business services
      spread very quickly to the Rift Valley, Coast and Western Kenya, and are
      rapidly expanding to other areas. Private-sector extension services could
      have a major impact on small-scale horticultural producers in East Africa,
      particularly for high-value crops where producers are more able to pay.

      Kale seed multiplication schemes take off in Kenya

      Smallholders in Kenya are producing healthy, good quality kale seed thanks
      to a new model for sustainable multiplication. The first step was to
      establish the primary virus diseases responsible for crop loss. Then,
      researchers identified and compared new, improved varieties with
      resistance to the major threats to farmer varieties. They also surveyed
      farmer preferences to determine their preferred multiplication methods.
      The new model, together with a scheme for improved seed certification, has
      reached more than 1000 farmers, NGOs and micro-entrepreneurs.
      Multiplication plots are providing large batches of seed and farmers have
      been set up as seed producers in remote zones.

      Promotion of sustainable approaches for the management of root-knot
      nematodes on vegetables in Kenya

      The project aimed to verify and promote sustainable approaches to the
      management of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) through the use of
      micro-organisms, cultural techniques and plant resistance. Through
      research participation, smallholders have been acquainted with the
      production constraint and of potential ways of its alleviation. The
      novelty has been the use of naturally occurring biological control
      organisms within the cropping system. This will become an accepted
      practice when the national regulatory authority approves the use of
      biopesticides , when organisations have the capability to mass produce
      these products at an acceptable price and when there are appropriate
      channels to deliver them to the smallholder grower community. Progress has
      been achieved with each of these stages ensuring the long term benefit to
      all sectors of the vegetable producing community in Kenya. The amendments
      to the pesticide legislation to include those defined as biopesticides
      such as Pochonia chlamydosporia and Pasteuria penetrans, have been drafted
      and await final legislative ratification. This will then enable companies
      to produce and market these products.

      Sweet potato cultivars with improved keeping qualities for East Africa

      The objective of this project was to facilitate development of sweet
      potato cultivars with improved post-harvest qualities, especially improved
      shelf-life and storability, thus improving food security and income
      generation through better marketing and storage. Breeding initiatives for
      sweet potato are at an early stage compared to other staples, so there is
      particular potential for crop improvement, and a need to understand
      quality characteristics and how to select them. A book entitled 'Sweet
      potato post-harvest assessment: Experiences from East Africa' has been
      produced as a collaboration between the Natural Resources Institute, the
      Tanzanian Ministry of Agriculture and the International Potato Center with
      input from the National Agricultural Research Laboratories of Kenya and
      the National Agricultural Research Organisation of Uganda. This book
      consolidates information and expertise gained in this and earlier projects
      and is to be disseminated to organisations involved in sweet potato
      breeding, throughout the world.

      Community Parliaments make voices heard and needs felt

      Community Parliaments (CPs) offer well-structured, innovative mechanisms
      for making local voices heard. They also improve coordination and dialogue
      among community groups, creating an empowering platform to steer local
      development. In Kenya, farmers had little access to market-chain
      information, and lacked basic farm inputs, labour and credit.
      Intermediaries, who deprived farmers of their profits, ran markets.
      Finally, poor infrastructure made it difficult to get farm produce to
      markets. Community Parliaments have helped to change this picture in four
      parts of Kenya, addressing these and other problems. Micro-credit is one
      of the important services they offer. The government, private companies,
      and development agencies are using CPs to reach almost 10,000 people in
      the four locations and the model is quickly spreading to other parts of
      the country.

      The donkey radio shows: helping producers care for draught animals

      In Kenya, weekly radio programmes have helped listeners to keep their
      precious donkeys healthy. Donkeys are a useful source of draught power,
      and poor families need to learn how to ensure that they stay healthy and
      have long working lives. Broadcasting to isolated rural communities also
      gave listeners the opportunity to ask specific questions about their own
      animals. And, recording the shows on CD-ROM provided a useful set of
      information that is being used around the world. The project outputs are
      already benefiting users in Rwanda, Tanzania, and Kenya. And to ensure
      that this very useful exercise can be reproduced in other countries, the
      project has produced a booklet explaining how to set up a radio show that
      will improve animal welfare.

      Evaluation of selected non-industrial tree species and development of
      approaches to facilitate utilisation of results

      The project was designed to investigate improvements to the current
      widespread utilisation of sub-optimal germplasm in agroforestry
      programmes, the poor uptake of results from agroforestry tree evaluation
      programmes, and the lack of availability of seed of superior agroforestry
      tree provenances. The research activities included investigating
      improvements to network management, investigation of uptake pathways for
      research results and development of guidelines for improvements to seed
      orchard design.

      A new animal health and livestock training network for sub-Saharan Africa - 3

      A new network of African universities is being developed to produce
      teaching materials for disseminating the results of DFID-funded research
      into animal health and livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. It aims
      to overcome the fact that the massive amount of DFID-funded research done
      to improve animal health and livestock keeping has had very little impact
      - mainly because new knowledge simply isn t reaching the people who need
      it. The African Universities Veterinary E-Learning Consortium (AUVEC)
      therefore aims to provide bite-sized, easy-to-revise, distance-learning
      materials that animal health professionals can use to regularly update
      their knowledge and skills. This developing network consists of veterinary
      departments and veterinary bodies in Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Sudan,
      Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi.

      An easy-to-use computer program to help plan farmer-friendly tsetse control

      A range of new information is now available to make people aware that
      effective farmer-friendly control methods do exist for tsetse fly, and to
      help them plan better ways of putting them into practice effectively.
      Examples include an easy-to-use program called Tsetse Plan', which helps
      users design and implement tsetse control using bait techniques like
      insecticide-treated cattle and odour-baited traps. A range of other
      information is also available, including slide shows (demonstrating how
      technologies like traps can be built) and the www.tsetse.org website,
      which contains a wealth of information. These resources are now being used
      across many countries, including Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania,
      Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. However, tremendous scope still exists to
      extend this coverage.

      Basket of remedies revives ailing Ugandan banana industry

      In Uganda, worn-out soils, pests, diseases and social problems mean
      trouble for the banana industry. A basket of remedies is helping the
      industry get back on its feet - new varieties, manuring and mulching,
      biological controls for pests, and disease-free planting material. New
      varieties of banana are already being sold in Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda and
      Tanzania. Several agencies distribute clean plantlets produced by tissue
      culture to farmers in these countries, and in Burundi and D.R. Congo as
      well. Plus, in Uganda, a local laboratory has been set up that could
      produce 10 million plantlets a year. Consumers like the new varieties.
      Prices are rising and farmers are expanding their plantings to meet
      demand. So, Uganda has a great opportunity to supply bananas to urban and
      regional markets.

      Maize for food and forage in East Africa

      Now, there s a basket of proven ways for farmers to meet both food and
      forage needs. Farmers in densely populated regions of Kenya need
      dual-purpose maize. They want maize that is good to eat but that also has
      lots of stem and leaf for animal feed. Previously, the focus was on
      raising grain yields in maize. Pests and diseases that affected maize
      foliage, and thus animal feed, were ignored. Small farmers in Kenya,
      Tanzania, Rwanda, Uganda and Ethiopia now use new techniques that work
      best for them. Some opt for maize varieties that are resistant to maize
      streak virus or stem borers. Others grow a fodder legume that repels stem
      borers. These and other techniques mean more and better animal feed in the
      dry season.

      Making stakeholders aware of advances in smallholder dairy farming

      A new toolbox has been developed to make it easier for organizations to
      provide easy-to-understand information to anyone involved in smallholder
      dairy production. Known as the Smallholder Dairy Toolbox (SDTB), its
      software allows users to access useful information and provide it in
      formats that are appropriate to a whole range of stakeholders - from
      farmers and delivery agents to planners and policy makers. The toolbox is
      intended to overcome the fact that the training and information materials
      currently available are often inadequate and difficult to access -
      especially for farmers and extension workers who have very little spare
      time. It is available on CD or as a download from the project website, and
      is already being used in some parts of Kenya.

      Maize farmers in East Africa have a new basket of options

      Farmers in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda are using a new basket of options
      to fight a maize disease know as grey leaf spot (GLS). They tested and
      approved the practices in farmer field schools, and posters, leaflets,
      radio programmes, videos and a television documentary are helping to
      spread the new knowledge. Seed companies are also using a rapid screening
      method to select locally available varieties with good levels of
      resistance. A wide range of stakeholders in the East African region,
      including individual farmers, farmer groups, seed companies,
      community-based organisations, NGOs and researchers, is using these new
      options. More than 20,000 households are benefiting from the package, and
      demand for the promotional materials continues to grow.

      Successful strategies for promoting new farming technologies

      A systematic approach to planning and applying effective pyramidal
      training and dissemination strategies is now available to help get new
      techniques into use by farmers. Originally developed to promote integrated
      pest management (IPM), the system can be used to build capacity in a wide
      range of fields. From innovative, interactive and enjoyable training
      courses for trainers and farmers, to training guides, farmer pocket books
      and pest identification cards, a host of useful and well-targeted outputs
      have already been produced. These are being used in 40 countries. Plus,
      the generic training strategy has already been successfully used locally
      by government agencies and NGOs such as Harvest Help and SACDEP in 10
      countries: Kenya, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Jamaica, Cameroon, Ghana, Lesotho,
      Zambia, Mauritius and India.

      Talking pictures: new tools to boost smallholders milk production

      New tools have been developed and tested in Bolivia, Tanzania, Kenya and
      India to help smallholder dairy farmers manage their animals better and
      greatly boost the amount of milk they produce. The improved breeds of
      cattle now available can produce up to 25 litres of milk per day, but many
      are producing similar amounts to local breeds simply because of poor
      management. To overcome this, researchers have produced software like the
      dairy rationing system for the tropics (DRASTIC), which trained users can
      use to predict what effect a particular mix of feeds will have on milk
      production. Another tool is Talking Pictures Dairy (TP-D) which can be
      used to generate pictorial guides that local producers can easily
      understand and relate to.

      More shrubs mean more milk in East Africa

      Two million small farmers in East Africa could increase milk production
      simply by planting fodder shrubs - as an extra high-protein feed for cows
      and goats. The shrubs don t take up valuable land. They can be planted
      alongside paths, on field boundaries and banks. Plus, not a lot of labour
      is involved. About 48,000 farmers in Kenya, 33,000 in Uganda, 11,000 in
      Rwanda and 8,000 in northern Tanzania now grow fodder shrubs because they
      quickly reap substantial benefits. Farmers consistently report an increase
      of around 1-2 litres of milk per animal per day. So, the market for seeds
      of fodder shrubs is thriving. Over 40 dealers now market seed and
      seedlings across Kenya.

      Farmers take the lead in learning

      Farmer Field Schools (FFS) are helping to turn research results into
      improved livelihoods for the poor in Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and
      Tanzania. In these open-air schools, farmers participate in evaluating new
      technologies, methods and knowledge. They also select the crops they wish
      to focus on, identify the problems they need to solve, and select the
      technologies they want to use. This approach fosters rapid uptake and has
      helped to improve the production of maize, beans, sweet potatoes, sorghum
      and tomatoes. Junior Farmer Field and Life Schools bring together orphaned
      youths in areas with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. They place a strong focus
      on health, nutrition and income generation and use drama and theatre to
      develop self esteem and confidence among the youths.

      Bridging the knowledge gap on a valuable tree

      A project to bridge a critical information gap on the valuable mesquite
      tree, with inputs from 10 countries, has resulted in many valuable
      publications. These include a field guide, country-specific policy briefs
      on India, Ethiopia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Kenya and Brazil, other
      briefs on the weed problem and global issues, and many journal and popular
      articles, as well as a video. Mesquite, Prosopis juliflora, is a common
      species in the world s hot, arid and semi-arid regions. It provides fuel,
      food, fodder, wood products (parquet floors, furniture, fence posts), and
      bee pasturage. However, in many parts of Asia and Africa it remains
      under-used, and is often regarded as an invasive weed. Over 18,000 copies
      of the publications were downloaded from the project website in 2006
      alone; 70% of this demand was from sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia.

      Fussy eaters: improving the benefits of dry-season feed

      A newly developed self-selection technique can boost the amount that
      stall-fed animals will eat. Sorghum stover is a traditional and important
      dry-season forage in countries like Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. However,
      it isn t particularly nutritious or palatable - so animals often don t
      each as much as they should. Research has found, however, that giving
      animals much more stover than they need allows them to select the tastiest
      bits of feed. This means that they eat much more. Plus, the feed that they
      reject isn t wasted, because it can be treated with urea to make it more
      palatable and then fed to them again. Promoting this simple technique
      could make a real difference to the lives of smallholders who struggle to
      keep their animals healthy.

      Information maps: a path to effective solutions

      Practical software tools - known as Step Tools - are helping local users
      to make better and more effective use of information, creating flexible,
      database-driven solutions without the need for high-level technical
      expertise. This contributes to pro-poor development by improving local
      practices and information flow. The innovations apply information mapping
      to help users visualise their requirements. Customised programming
      transforms the information maps into searchable web-based databases. The
      methodologies and tools were developed and pilot-tested with partners in
      Kenya, Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. They are currently in use in Kenya,
      Malawi, Pakistan, Tanzania and Uganda.

      Biological controls to combat root-knot nematodes

      In East Africa, a combination of biological controls, cultural practices
      and new pest-resistant varieties helps reduce damage to valuable tomato
      export crops. Root-knot nematodes are a chronic problem for vegetable
      growers. Crops do not thrive on land that s severely affected, so it s
      often abandoned. Export markets for vegetables from East Africa are
      booming. But growers must make sure their produce meets the safety
      standards set by importing countries. This means they can t use harmful
      pesticides. Many smallholders in western Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda now
      practice safe production, using biological controls and resistant
      varieties. A small company in Kenya already produces 40 kilogrammes a week
      of a biological fungicide. And Kenya has amended its registration system
      to include biopesticides. So, there s a huge potential.

      Community breeding to improve poor farmers flocks

      Creating local associations and community-based buck stations allows local
      farmers to undertake breeding programmes designed to improve their goat
      flocks. Small-scale resource-poor livestock keepers usually can t access
      government services for breed improvement, and this limits their ability
      to improve the productivity of their animals. In Kenya, however, new
      schemes have overcome this by providing poor livestock keepers with
      training, and by setting up community-based buck stations and supporting
      the establishment of local community breeding associations. The model has
      proved popular and is now being used in a range of countries. Examples
      include Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and Kenya.

      Better sweet potatoes boost farmers from subsistence to the market economy

      Sweet potato growers in Uganda have gone from not having enough produce to
      eat, to wondering how best to market all the sweet potatoes they harvest.
      Previously, vines for planting sweet potato crops were in extremely short
      supply. Plus, sweet potato virus severely damaged tubers. Now, farmer
      groups produce and market plenty of quality planting material - varieties
      resistant to virus disease. The new sweet potatoes, high in beta-carotene,
      also help reduce serious vitamin A deficiencies which affect 30% of
      children and 50% of women. Quality sweet potatoes for export fetch high
      prices. A new growers association is already working to export the new
      varieties. The potential is huge and the improved varieties have spread to
      D.R. Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan and even Chad.

      Easy-to-use software provides the poor with access to information

      Interactive learning software has been created to give users in Kenya and
      Bolivia access to information. The Daktari and Promotor programs are
      suitable for use even by the illiterate, and can give poor households who
      aren t reached by the extension services access to vital information. Poor
      users access the software through kiosks placed in their community. And,
      despite the fact that only a small number of these kiosks are available,
      these programs have already been used by more than 6000 households. The
      programs are also complemented by digital forums. These can be accessed by
      policy makers and planners who want to gain better insights into the needs
      of the poor by finding out what information they are requesting.

      Farmers control bean root rot with a blend of science and indigenous

      African farmers - and women farmers in particular -are using a wide range
      of integrated management options to protect against bean root rot.
      Researchers and partners in Uganda, Kenya, Malawi and South Africa are
      using manuals describing new tools, methods and techniques, and Village
      Information Centres are helping community members to access appropriate
      information and technologies. Participatory rural appraisals and surveys
      of indigenous technical knowledge were combined with sophisticated
      screening, selection and diagnostic techniques to come up the management
      components, which are specially designed for use in south-western Uganda,
      as well as in areas with similar conditions.

      Credit and know-how boost farm incomes

      Farm households in the highlands of western Kenya are improving their
      livelihoods using a community credit scheme and a set of decision-support
      tools. Depleted soils, due to continuous maize cropping, together with
      Striga infestation, have trapped farmers in a cycle of low yields and poor
      soil fertility. To diversify into higher value crops on their limited
      land, households must intensify maize production. The credit scheme lets
      farmers invest in fertilisers, while the decision-support tools help
      borrowers with land management questions. Although developed in Kenya,
      these tools are applicable to many areas of Africa dominated by poor,
      food-deficient, semi-subsistence farm households. In Kenya, the tools are
      promoted by a World Bank-funded project, and they have also been
      introduced in Uganda.

      Village forecasts combat armyworm plagues in eastern and southern Africa

      Villages in eastern and southern Africa now make their own forecasts of
      armyworm outbreaks. The low-cost system - using a single trap to catch
      armyworm moths and a rain gauge - means that farmers no longer depend on
      warnings from central pest offices. Warnings from central offices were
      often too late and too general to be useful. Villages now organise the
      forecasts themselves. They decide who will be trained to use the equipment
      and work out the forecast from the moth catch and rainfall data, and who
      will warn everyone. The self-contained forecasts, proven to be accurate
      four times out of five in Tanzania, Ethiopia and Kenya, help farmers
      prepare for outbreaks and prevent damage to their crops.

      There for the picking: cheap feed options and worm treatments

      Research in Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Uganda, India and Kenya has identified
      tree fruits as a promising option for improving the diets of goats. Poor
      goat keepers can t afford to buy commercial feeds to supplement diets in
      the dry season. This causes slow growth and high death rates among kids -
      which are mainly born either at the end or at the beginning of the dry
      season. Tree fruits are a good cheap option to feed pregnant or suckling
      goats, because they can easily be collected and stored for use when
      needed. Related research in Tanzania has also shown that tannin-rich tree
      forages could help to reduce the amount of worms in the stomachs of sheep,
      improving productivity and the animals health.

      Why are research results not reaching farmers fields?

      A compilation of the constraints limiting uptake and scaling-up of natural
      resources research results in Eastern Africa is helping policy makers get
      a better idea of these barriers. Awareness-raising products are explaining
      to researchers their role in the process. Training materials, including a
      learning manual, are helping build the capacity of researchers to
      influence institutional strategies and also design and implement plans for
      communication, sharing, promoting uptake, and scaling-up of their own
      research outputs. These materials are now used extensively throughout
      Eastern and Southern Africa, including in Angola, Botswana, Burundi,
      Comoros, D.R. Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar,
      Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, South Africa,
      the Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

      A new animal health and livestock training network for sub-Saharan Africa - 1

      A new network of African universities is being developed to produce
      teaching materials for disseminating the results of DFID-funded research
      into animal health and livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. It aims
      to overcome the fact that the massive amount of DFID-funded research done
      to improve animal health and livestock keeping has had very little impact
      mainly because new knowledge simply isn t reaching the people who need it.
      The African Universities Veterinary E-Learning Consortium (AUVEC)
      therefore aims to provide bite-sized, easy-to-revise, distance-learning
      materials that animal health professionals can use to regularly update
      their knowledge and skills. This developing network consists of veterinary
      departments and veterinary bodies in Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Sudan,
      Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi.


      Questions for the proposal:

      2.4 Please write a brief description of the existing initiative and how
      RNRRS information and RIU investment will add value to it. (Word limit:
      400 words) (Score 20 marks) Use the RIU database (available on our
      website) to obtain information on the validated RNRRS outputs. State the
      relevant RNRRS programme(s) and R numbers, giving a brief description of
      the technology, process or policy it produced. Briefly outline how you
      propose to up scale and /or out scale, and your objectives and approach.
      Explain how the demand was articulated, by whom and for whom? What was
      the process used to identify this demand? (Are these clients represented
      in your partnership? If not we advise you to engage with them and ensure
      that they are key partners represented in your coalition). You must also
      make clear the outcome you propose to produce within the life of the

      2.5 Who are the client groups? How will these client groups benefit from
      the activities? (Word Limit: 200 words) (Score 10 marks) Client groups
      are the users of the RNRRS information-these may be farmers,
      pastoralists, fisher and forest folk, desert dwellers, processors, (not
      just the advantaged but also disadvantaged, marginalised and socially
      excluded) , extension agents, NGOs, entrepreneurs, traders, policy
      makers, journalists, other communication and media specialists.

      2.6a How many people will benefit from your initiative and by when will
      they benefit? (Word limit 200 words) (Score 10 marks) Please provide
      justification for the numbers here.

      2.6b Explain how the above (2.6a) will be monitored during the project
      and describe what impact you are looking for as a result of your
      initiative. (Word Limit 200 words) (Score 10 marks)

      2.7 Explain why this research is not getting into use at the present
      time, and how the RIU investment will address these constraints. (Word
      limit: 200 words) (Score 10 marks)

      2.8 Indicate the risks that might hinder achievement of your objectives
      in the given timeframe, and state whether the risk is a high, medium or
      low. (Word limit: 200 words) (Score 10 marks)

      2.9 What is the exit strategy for the initiative? (Word limit: 200
      words) (Score 10 marks)
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