Rabia al Basri, Saint of Islam
- Rabia al Basri - Saint of Islam
Rabia al Basri 717-801
Not much is known about Rabia al Basri, except that she lived in
Basra in Iraq, in the second half of the 8th century AD. She was
born into poverty. But many spiritual stories are associated with
her and what we can glean about her is reality merged with legend.
These traditions come from Farid ud din Attar a later sufi saint and
poet, who used earlier sources. Rabia herself though has not left
any written works.
After her father's death, there was a famine in Basra, and during
that she was parted from her family. It is not clear how she was
traveling in a caravan that was set upon by robbers. She was taken
by the robbers and sold into slavery.
Her master worked her very hard, but at night after finishing her
chores Rabia would turn to meditation and prayers and praising the
Lord. Foregoing rest and sleep she spent her nights in prayers and
she often fasted during the day.
There is a story that once, while in the market, she was pursued by
a vagabond and in running to save herself she fell and broke her
arm. She prayed to the Lord .
"I am a poor orphan and a slave, Now my hand too is broken. But I
do not mind these things if Thou be pleased with me. "
and felt a voice reply:
"Never mind all these sufferings. On the Day of Judgement you
shall be accorded a status that shall be the envy of the angels
One day the master of the house spied her at her devotions. There
was a divine light enveloping her as she prayed. Shocked that he
kept such a pious soul as a slave, he set her free. Rabia went into
the desert to pray and became an ascetic. Unlike many sufi saints
she did not learn from a teacher or master but turned to God
Throughout her life, her Love of God. Poverty and self-denial were
unwavering and her constant companions. She did not possess much
other than a broken jug, a rush mat and a brick, which she used as a
pillow. She spent all night in prayer and contemplation chiding
herself if she slept for it took her away from her active Love of
As her fame grew she had many disciples. She also had discussions
with many of the renowned religious people of her time. Though she
had many offers of marriage, and tradition has it one even from the
Amir of Basra, she refused them as she had no time in her life for
anything other than God.
More interesting than her absolute asceticism, however, is the
actual concept of Divine Love that Rabia introduced. She was the
first to introduce the idea that God should be loved for God's own
sake, not out of fear--as earlier Sufis had done.
She taught that repentance was a gift from God because no one could
repent unless God had already accepted him and given him this gift
of repentance. She taught that sinners must fear the punishment
they deserved for their sins, but she also offered such sinners far
more hope of Paradise than most other ascetics did. For herself,
she held to a higher ideal, worshipping God neither from fear of
Hell nor from hope of Paradise, for she saw such self-interest as
unworthy of God's servants; emotions like fear and hope were like
veils -- i.e. hindrances to the vision of God Himself.
"O Allah! If I worship You for fear of Hell, burn me in Hell,
and if I worship You in hope of Paradise, exclude me from Paradise.
But if I worship You for Your Own sake,
grudge me not Your everlasting Beauty."
Rabia was in her early to mid eighties when she died, having
followed the mystic Way to the end. By then, she was continually
united with her Beloved. As she told her Sufi friends, "My Beloved
is always with me"
Taken from www.maryams.net
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