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Israel First to Use Bio Weapons

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  • World View <ummyakoub@yahoo.com>
    Traces of poison Israel, not Iraq, holds that distinction of being the first country in the region to use weapons of mass destruction with genocidal intent.
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 3, 2003
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      Traces of poison

      Israel, not Iraq, holds that distinction of being the first country
      in the region to use weapons of mass destruction with genocidal
      intent. Salman Abu-Sitta digs into a dark history.


      Al- Ahram 27 Feb. - 5 March 2003 - Issue No. 627

      At a time when TV screens are filled with images of perceived
      weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in Iraq among people who are on the
      verge of starvation, the West turns a blind eye to the first
      biological terrorist in the Middle East, Israel, where the largest
      depot of WMD between London and Peking is located.

      When confronted with the anomaly, the United States ambassador to
      the UN, John Negroponti, responds with typical cynicism, "Israel did
      not use these weapons against its people or its neighbours." Assuming
      that the ambassador is well-informed, this statement is a patent lie.
      Israel used biological weapons even before it was created on Arab
      soil in 1948 and ever since. The purpose, according to Ben Gurion, is
      genocide, and if not complete, the purpose is not to allow the
      dispossessed Palestinians to return to their homes.

      POISONING ACRE WATER SUPPLY: In the wake of Haifa's occupation on
      23 April 1948 by the Zionists, under the nose of the British Mandate
      forces commended by General Stockwell, a man still historically
      discredited for this failure, thousands converged on Acre, a nearby
      city, which was still Arab under the "protection" of the British

      Acre was to be the next Zionist target. The Zionists besieged the
      city from the land side, and started showering the population with a
      hail of mortar bombs day and night. Famous for its historical walls,
      Acre could stand the siege for a long time. The city water supply
      comes from a nearby village, Kabri, about 10kms to the north, through
      an aqueduct. The Zionists injected typhoid in the aqueduct at some
      intermediate point which passes through Zionist settlements. (see

      The story can now be told, thanks to the International Committee of
      the Red Cross (ICRC) files which have now become available, 50 years
      after the event. A series of reports, under the reference G59/1/GC,
      G3/82, sent by ICRC delegate de Meuron from 6 May to about 19 May
      1948 describe the conditions of the city population, struck by a
      sudden typhoid epidemic, and the efforts to combat it.

      Of particular importance are the minutes of an emergency conference
      held at the Lebanese Red Cross Hospital in Acre on 6 May, to deal
      with the typhoid epidemic. The meeting was attended by: Brigadier
      Beveridge, Chief of British Medical Services and Colonel Bonnet of
      the British Army, Dr Maclean of the Medical Services, Mr de Meuron,
      ICRC delegate in addition to other officials of the city. The minutes
      stated that there are at least 70 known civilian casualties, others
      may not be reported. It was determined that the infection is "water
      borne", not due to crowded or unhygienic conditions as claimed by the
      Israelis. It was decided that a substitute water supply should now
      come from artesian wells or from the agricultural station, just north
      of Acre (see map), not from the aqueduct. Water chlorine solution was
      applied, inoculation of civil population started, movement of civil
      population was controlled (lest refugees heading north towards
      Lebanon will carry the typhoid epidemic with them, as intended by the

      In his other reports, de Meuron mentioned 55 casualties among
      British soldiers, who were spirited away to Port Said for
      hospitalisation. General Stockwell arranged for de Meuron to fly on a
      military plane to Jerusalem to fetch medicine. The British, who left
      Palestine in the hands of the Jews, did not want another embarrassing
      incident to delay their departure.

      Brigadier Beveridge told de Meuron that this is "the first time
      this happened in Palestine". This belies the Israeli story, including
      that of the Israeli historian Benny Morris, that the epidemic is due
      to "unhygienic conditions" of the refugees. If that was so, how come
      there was an almost equal number of casualties among British
      soldiers? Why did such conditions not cause epidemic in such other
      concentrations of refugees, under far worse conditions, in Jaffa,
      Lydda, Nazareth and Gaza?

      ICRC delegate, de Meuron admired greatly the heroic efforts of Arab
      doctors, Al-Dahhan and Al-Araj from the Lebanese Red Cross hospital
      in Acre, Dr Dabbas from Haifa and Mrs Bahai from Haifa.

      The city of Acre, now burdened by the epidemic, fell easy prey to
      the Zionists. They intensified their bombardment. Trucks carrying
      loudspeakers proclaimed, "Surrender or commit suicide. We will
      destroy you to the last man." That was not a figure of speech.
      Palumbo, in The Palestinian Catastrophe, notes the "typical" case of
      Mohamed Fayez Soufi. Soufi with friends went to get food from their
      homes in a new Acre suburb. They were caught by Zionist soldiers
      and forced at gun point to drink cyanide. Soufi faked swallowing the
      poison. The others were not so lucky, they died in half an hour.

      Lieutenant Petite, a French UN observer, reported that looting was
      being conducted in a systematic manner by the army, carrying off
      furniture, clothes and anything useful for the new Jewish immigrants
      and also part of "a Jewish plan to prevent the return of the
      refugees." Lieutenant Petite also reported that the Jews had murdered
      100 Arab civilians in Acre, particularly those who refused to leave.

      More horrors have been reported by de Meuron. He spoke of "a reign
      of terror" and the case of the rape of a girl by several soldiers and
      killing her father. He also wrote that all male civilians were taken
      to concentration camps and considered "prisoners of war" although
      they were not soldiers. This left many women and children homeless,
      without protection, subject to many acts of violence. He also notes
      the absence of water and electricity. He demanded from the Zionists a
      list of civilians detained as "prisoners of war", demanded to know
      their whereabouts and permission to visit them. More importantly he
      asked that Acre be placed under ICRC protection and care. Anyone who
      reads the familiar dry and matter-of-fact language of ICRC would not
      fail to notice the tone of abhorrence of Zionist actions in de Meuron
      reports from Acre.

      This episode, which started with poisoning Acre water supply and
      ended with the collapse of the city, the depopulation of its
      inhabitants, and its occupation by the Jews, whetted their appetite
      to try this crime again.

      GAZA POISONING: Two weeks later, after their "success" in Acre, the
      Zionists struck again. This time in Gaza, where hundreds of thousands
      of refugees had gathered after their villages in southern Palestine
      were occupied. The end however was different.

      The following cable was sent from the commander of the Egyptian
      Forces in Palestine to General Headquarters in Cairo:

      "15.20 hrs, 24 May [1948] Our Intelligence forces captured two
      Jews, David Horeen and David Mizrahi, loitering around army
      positions. They were interrogated and confessed they had been sent by
      Officer Moshe to poison the army [and the peoples'] water supply.
      They carried with them water bottles divided in the middle. The top
      part has potable water and the bottom part has a liquid contaminated
      with typhoid and dysentery, equipped with a rear opening from which
      the liquid can be released. They confessed they were members of a
      20-strong team sent from Rehovot for the same purpose. Both have
      written their confession in Hebrew and signed it. We have taken the
      necessary medical precautions."

      In Ben Gurion's War Diary, the following entry is found on 27 May

      "[Chief of Staff Yigel Yadin] picked up a cable from Gaza saying
      they captured Jews carrying malaria germs and gave instructions not
      to drink water". This is typical of Ben Gurion's oblique writing of
      history. He was fully aware of the weight of history when such crimes
      are discovered. Nuremberg trials were held only three years before.
      More on the background of this cable was given in Yeruham Cohen's
      book, In Daylight and Night Darkness, Tel Aviv, 1969, pp66-68 (in

      The criminals were executed three months later. On 22 July 1948,
      the [Palestinian] Higher Arab Committee (AHC) submitted a 13-page
      report to the United Nations accusing the Jews of using "inhuman"
      weapons and waging a genocide war against the Arabs through the use
      of bacteria and germs, developed in specially-built laboratories. The
      report also accuses the Jews (the word Israel was not used) of
      spreading cholera in Egypt and Syria in 1947/48. The story was picked
      up by the award-winning journalist, Thomas J Hamilton of the New York
      Times and published on 24 July 1948. The story now has a new twist-
      adding Egypt and Syria to the Jewish field of operations.

      CHOLERA IN EGYPT AND SYRIA: The summer of 1947 was hot with
      diplomatic activity. The United Nations Special Committee on
      Palestine (UNSCOP) was busy touring Palestine and Arab countries in
      order to propose the partition of Palestine such that the new Jewish
      immigrants to Palestine, who controlled only six per cent of
      Palestine under the British Mandate, be given a big chunk of
      Palestine (turned out to be 54 per cent) in order to establish a
      foreign state in the midst of Arab land.

      The Arabs, still under the tutelage of Britain, were debating how
      to resist the Western-supported scheme to take away their land. The
      forces to reckon with were neighbouring countries with common borders
      with Palestine. Lebanon was weak. Trans-Jordan was still controlled
      directly by the British and King Abdullah was conciliatory to the
      Jews. This left Egypt, the stronger Arab country and Syria, recently
      freed from the clutches of the French Mandate. Syria was the centre
      of Arab resistance to the foreign occupation of Palestine. Training
      centres were established in Qatana to prepare Arab volunteers to
      enter Palestine under the banner of "The Arab Rescue Army". Egypt and
      Palestine were thus the most important targets.

      In his 220-page continually updated report, entitled: Bioterrorism
      and Biocrimes: The Illicit Use of Biological Agents since 1900, dated
      February 2001, Dr W Seth Carus of the Center for Counterproliferation
      Research, National Defence University, Washington, DC, lists the
      following subtitle, p.87: Case 1947-01: "Zionist" Terrorists 1947-

      Under this section, he mentions that the cholera outbreaks in Syria
      and Egypt received extensive attention in the international press.
      The first report about the cholera in Egypt was published in the
      Times of London on 26 September, 1947, p4. By the time the final
      cases appeared in January 1948, 10,262 people died.

      He also states that the outbreak in Syria is much smaller. It was
      limited to two towns, about 60 kilometres south of Damascus, i.e.
      close to Palestine border. The first report appeared in the New York
      Times on 22 December, 1947, p5.

      The Syrian army formed a cordon sanitaire and the casualties were
      limited to 44, including 18 deaths. Soon after, the Beirut French-
      language newspaper, Orient, reported that several Zionist agents, who
      employed cholera to disrupt the mobilisation of the volunteers' army,
      were arrested. Their destiny is unknown.

      These incidents, together with Gaza poisoning, Carus states, were
      described in the AHC complaint to the UN and quotes the report in
      saying that:

      "The Jews plan to use this inhuman weapon against the Arabs in the
      Middle East in their war of extermination."

      Carus adds information from other sources about the Gaza poisoning.
      Rachel Katzman, Horeen's sister, Carus stated, said: "I met one of
      [my brother's] commanders in a lecture in Jerusalem. I asked him
      whether my brother had really attempted to poison wells. 'These were
      the weapons we had', he said, 'and that's that.'"

      Carus also adds another source about Acre poisoning: This source
      sates, "This account also claims that the Israelis poisoned the water
      supply of the Arab town of Acre, causing a major outbreak, and other
      Arab villages to prevent the villagers from returning, citing
      military historian Uri Milstein as a source" [Wendy Barnaby, The
      Plague Makers: The Secret World of Biological Warfare, London, Vision
      Paperbacks, 1997, pp114-116].

      The writer has obtained a copy of an e-mail in which an Israeli
      peace activist asked Uri Milstein about Acre poisoning story.
      Milstein, the military historian, is described in the e-mail as "very
      knowledgeable, intelligent, courageous, original, honest" -- although
      his views belong to the Israeli far-right (!). Milstein replied:

      "I am sorry to say it, but the story is true and the name of the
      operation was "Shlach Lachmecha" -- that is "donate your bread",
      which is a part of Hebrew saying: donate your bread because sooner or
      later you will get it back, meaning you have to be generous and one
      day, you will profit from it yourself. Is this not a cute name for an
      operation to use biological weapons?"

      HOW DID BEN GURION START ALL THIS? On the fourth of March 1948, Ben
      Gurion wrote a letter to Ehud Avriel, one of the Jewish Agency
      operatives in Europe, ordering him to recruit East European Jewish
      scientists who could "either increase [our] capacity to kill masses
      or to cure masses; both are important". This truncated quotation is
      given by Avner Cohen who cited an author in Ben Gurion Research
      Centre at Sdeh Boker.

      To understand the meaning of this quotation we must recall Ben
      Gurion's doctrine: the destruction of the Palestinian Society in
      Palestine is a necessary condition for the establishment of the state
      of Israel on its ruins. As a corollary to this doctrine, ethnic
      cleansing became an integral part of Zionism. If Palestinians cannot
      be removed by massacres and expulsion, they shall be removed
      by "extermination". Such words were specifically used in AHC letter
      mentioned above. The significance of this word is that it was rarely
      used by Arabs regarding their fate. Europe's horrors were either
      remote or not widely known then.

      The caveat by Ben Gurion as "to cure the masses" is yet another
      twist by Ben Gurion with an eye on history. For it is inconceivable
      that the Arabs have the ability or the will in 1948 to cause "mass
      killing" of the Jews using biological weapons. As it happened, Ben
      Gurion was the first to use such weapons. His legacy, much more
      refined and expanded, remains true till today.

      Avner Cohen, a senior fellow at the Center for International and
      Security Studies, and the Program on Security and Disarmaments at the
      University of Maryland, wrote a comprehensive paper on Israel's
      chemical and biological weapons, which was published in the Non-
      Proliferation Review, Autumn 2001. Notwithstanding his background,
      which furnishes a sympathetic understanding of Israel's motives, his
      paper traces in 50 pages of detail, from open sources and few
      interviews, the establishment and development of Israel's centre for
      biological terrorism.

      Thrusting Israel in the heart of the Arab world, Ben Gurion was
      determined to achieve this extraordinary objective against all
      odds. "We are inferior to other peoples in our number, but no other
      people is superior to us in intellectual prowess," Ben Gurion

      In the 1940s, he gathered around him Ernst David Bergmann, Avraham
      Marcus (Marek) Klingberg (from the Red Army) and the brothers Aharon
      and Ephraim Katachalsky (Katzir) -- all experts in microbiology. They
      formed the nucleus of the Science Corps in the Haganah during the
      British Mandate. Ephraim Katachalsky was named commander of this new
      unit, renamed HEMED, in May 1948. A dispute arose between Chaim
      Weizmann who wished to establish a scientific institute for "clean"
      science, while Ben Gurion insisted on building a "dirty" centre for
      biological weapons. Both got their wishes realised. Weizmann
      Institute for scientific research was built in Rehovot. A new unit
      within HEMED, devoted to biological weapons and named HEMED BEIT, was
      formed as a branch of the Israeli Army. Its head was Alexander
      Keynan, a microbiologist from the medical school at the Hebrew
      University in Jerusalem.

      With the depopulation of 530 Palestinian towns and villages in Al-
      Nakba of 1948, many buildings and homes became vacant and over half
      of the Jewish immigrants in the 1950s were housed in them. The Chief
      of Staff Yigal Yadin selected a home for the new biological weapons
      development unit in a mansion located within a large orange grove
      west of Nes Ziona. This unit, publicly known as Israel Institute for
      Biological Research (IIBR), is still there today. The building was
      expanded, surrounded by a three metre wall, movement sensors and
      watch towers.

      While IIBR represents the front of a scientific institution,
      producing a "clean" papers and receiving invitations to scientific
      conferences, the real biological weapons developed is carried within
      IIBR in a highly classified centre (Machon 2, one of four) funded and
      controlled directly by the Ministry of Defence.

      IIBR Web site states that the institute's staff comprises 300
      employees, 120 of them PhD holders, in addition to 100 certified
      technicians. But these figures are misleading because there are many
      other scientists who hold positions in microbiology departments in
      faculties of medicine in Tel Aviv University and the Hebrew
      University in Jerusalem.

      Ephraim Katzir was rewarded for his service to the state by being
      elected as president of Israel in 1973. Aharon Katzir was killed in
      the Japanese attack on Lydda airport on 30 May, 1972.

      Soon after the poisoning of Acre and Gaza, Ben Gurion launched a
      crash project to develop "a cheap non-conventional capability" in
      1955. Why the rush? As Cohen reports, Munya Mardor, the founder of
      Israel's Weapons Development Authority (RAFAEL), says that Ben Gurion
      was "evidently concerned that we would not meet the deadline he had
      set, worrying that the enemy would have such capability and we would
      have nothing to deter or retaliate". It turned out that the rush was
      to meet the deadline for the Suez Tripartite Aggression of 1956. Ben
      Gurion was prepared to bomb Egypt with biological weapons if his
      campaign failed. As if that was not enough, Israel signed an
      agreement with France to build a nuclear programme in the same year.
      Ben Gurion's emissary to France was none other than the peace-loving
      diplomat Shimon Pensky (Perez).

      Anver Cohen says that the location of IIBR is classified and not
      shown on maps or aerial photographs. It is still possible, however,
      to determine its location with accuracy.

      WHERE IS IIBR? In the 1930s, the road from Ramleh to Nabi Rubin, a
      popular religious site visited annually, passes through Wadi Hunein,
      a good sandy soil with spots of marshes. The wealthy Al-Taji Al-
      Farouki family from Ramleh purchased large tracts of this land and
      developed it into successful citrus groves which exported hundreds of
      thousands of Jaffa orange boxes to Europe. Shukri Al-Taji built for
      himself a beautiful mansion (photo) -- a two-storey rectangular
      building on top of a hill, on a plot of land, 134,029 m2 in area.
      The plot number is 549/32 and the property deed is entered in the
      Land Registry under E42/260 on 16 March 1932. He also built a mosque
      on the asphalt road from Jaffa to Qubeiba. On another hill, one
      kilometre to the west, his cousin Abdel-Rahman Hamed Al-Taji built a
      house which consists of several buildings. The mansions in the midst
      of vast orange groves depicted an idyllic scene in quiet

      This is the location chosen by Yigal Yadin for his biological
      weapons research. Shukri Al Taji mansion became the home of IIBR. The
      IIBR Web site (www.iibr.gov.il) proudly shows on the opening page its
      building entrance, which is nothing but Shukri's mansion with its
      arched façade and tall lush trees (compare with photo). Shukri died
      broken hearted in Cairo some ten years later.

      If you drive from Nes Ziona going west on road 4303, then turn left
      at road 42 heading south, you will find IIBR at your right at a
      distance of 500 metres. (see photo of the location). The coordinates
      of IIBR are:

      According to Palestine/ Israel grid : 128.263 E, 147.022 N

      New Israel grid : 178.263 E, 647.022 N

      Geographical coordinates : E 34D 46' 27 N 31D 55' 7

      The area is called "Ayalon" in Hebrew. Directly to the west on the
      sea coast is the missile launching pad of Palmahim.

      Other Al-Taji buildings were expropriated and used. The mosque is
      transformed into a synagogue, named "gulat Israel". Abdel-Rahman's
      house became a mental hospital.

      CHASING THE CULPRITS: Sara Leibovitz-Dar is a persistent
      investigative journalist. The trauma experienced by her parents in
      their native Lithuania left an indelible mark on her. She abhorred
      injustice and, particularly, the meek acceptance of it. She
      investigated the Gaza and Acre poisoning and shooting down of the
      civilian Libyan aircraft. The Israeli military historian, Ari
      Milstein, identified for her the names of the officers responsible
      for biological crimes.

      In 1993, Sara tried to interview the commander who was responsible
      for Acre poisoning. He refused to talk. "Why do you look for troubles
      that took place 45 years ago?" he asked. "I know nothing about this.
      What would you gain by publishing?"

      Again, Sara interviewed the officer responsible for Gaza poisoning.
      He refused to respond, "You will not get answers on these questions.
      Not from me and not from anyone." Sara was persistent. She asked
      Colonel Shlomo Gur, former HEMED chief, whether he was aware of the
      secret operations in 1948. "We heard about the typhoid epidemics in
      Acre and about the Gaza operations. There were many rumours but I did
      not know whether they were true or not," he responded.

      Sara published her findings in Hadashot under the title "Microbes
      in State Service", on 13 August, 1993, pp6-10. Sara, who now moved to
      Ha'aretz, concluded with the following comment,

      "What was done then with deep conviction and zealotry is now
      concealed with shame." True to the Israeli tradition, Sara declined
      twice to respond by e-mail to an enquiry from the writer.

      Not all are afraid to talk. Naeim Giladi is an Iraqi Jew who was
      lured to Israel by Mossad agents in the early 1950s. Working with the
      zealotry and dedication of a new Zionist, he soon found out that
      within the Ashkenazi establishment "there was not much opportunity
      for those of us who were second class citizens", he told the editor
      of The Link in New York where he immigrated after leaving Israel. "I
      began to find out about the barbaric methods to rid the fledgling
      state of as many Palestinians as possible. The world recoils today at
      the thought of bacteriological warfare, but Israel was probably the
      first to actually use it in the Middle East. Jewish forces would
      empty Arab villages of their population often by threats, sometimes
      by gunning down a half-dozen young men so that the Arabs could not
      return. The Israelis put typhus and dysentery bacteria in the water
      wells to prevent the refugees from returning". [The Link, Vol. 31
      Issue 2, April-May 1998].

      Another witness who spoke, former Mossad agent, Victor Ostrovsky,
      claims that lethal tests have been performed on Arab prisoners inside
      the IIBR compound.

      THE DUTCH INVESTIGATION: On 4 October, 1992 at 6.21pm, El Al Flight
      1862 left Amsterdam's Schiphol airport on route to Tel Aviv, carrying
      three crewmen, one passenger and 114 tons of freight. Seven minutes
      later, it crashed in a high-rise apartment complex in Bijlmer. El Al
      Flight 1862 became the worst air disaster in Dutch history, killing
      at least 47 (the actual number is unknown because many victims were
      immigrants) and destroyed the health of 3000 Dutch residents. Cases
      of mysterious illnesses, rashes, difficulty in breathing, nervous
      disorders and cancer began to sprout in that neighbourhood and

      The Dutch government, in collusion with Israel, lied to its
      citizens saying the plane was carrying perfumes and flowers. Some
      flowers! It took the energetic and persistent science editor in the
      Dutch daily NRC Handelsblad, Karel Knip, several years to discover
      the facts. Knip published on 27 November 1999 the most detailed and
      factual published investigation about the workings of iological
      terrorism housed in IIBR.

      First he found out that the plane was carrying 50 gallons, among
      other things, of DMMP a substance used to make a quarter ton of the
      deadly nerve gas Sarin, 20 times as lethal as cyanide. It was
      carrying a shipment from Solkatronic Chemicals of Morrisville,
      Pennsylvania to IIBR in Israel, under a US Department of Commerce
      licence. This is contrary to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
      to which the US, but not Israel, is party.

      With dogged determination, Knip reviewed the scientific literature
      produced by IIBR and the microbiology departments of the Faculty of
      Medicine in the University of Tel Aviv and the Hebrew University
      since 1950. He was able to identify 140 scientists involved in
      biological weapons (BW) research. The number could be more as
      scientists have dual positions or they move around. Many take their
      sabbaticals invariably in the United States. There are strong links
      with Walter Reed Army Institute, the Uniformed Services University,
      the American Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Center in Edgewood
      and the University of Utah.

      Remarkably, Knip was able to identify three categories of IIBR
      production: diseases, toxins and convulsants, and their development
      in each decade of the five past decades. (See table)

      The research moved from virus and bacteria to toxins because they
      are many times more poisonous. Nerve gases known as Tabun, Soman,
      Sarin, VX, Cyclo-Sarin, RVX and Amiton are all deadly gases and
      function in the same way.

      Knip went further. He sought the assistance of experts in this
      field such as Professor Julian Perry Robinson, University of Sussex,
      Brighton, Dr Jean Pascal Zanders of SIPRI, Stockholm and Professor
      Malcolm Dando, University of Bradford. They guided his research and
      explained his findings.

      Knip also discovered close cooperation between IIBR and the British-
      American BW programme. This programme deals with viruses and bacteria
      spread by rodents and insects and covers smallpox, fungal diseases
      and Legionnaires disease. It is to be noted that there was a breakout
      of this disease in Philadelphia some years ago, and, surprisingly, in
      an Eilat hotel in mid- January this year.

      The interest in the plant poison Elate-Ricin is confined to very few
      institutions beside IIBR. It will be recalled that amateur biologists
      were arrested in UK in January attempting to prepare Ricin.

      The novel and dangerous trend in BW research in IIBR is the
      development of incapacitants which paralyse, disorient, cause
      uncontrollable movements and severe pain in the stomach. Most of
      these incapacitants have antidotes to repair the damage done. These
      incapacitants have been and are used against the Palestinians in the

      There is also extensive collaboration on BW research with Germany
      and Holland. That is probably the reason for the Dutch official
      silence over the deadly crash over Amsterdam.

      The cooperation with the US is quite open. The Congress "Joint
      Medical, Biological and Nuclear Defence Research Programs" openly
      lists cooperation with Israel on nerve agents and convulsants under
      the guise of finding antidotes. It is plainly simple to realise that
      in order to develop the antidote it is necessary to identify the
      poison itself. Dr Avigdor Shafferman, IIBR director, is a frequent
      contributor to this programme. (see
      www.acq.osd.mil/cp/nbc98/annexd.pdf)- Annex D.

      The Preparatory Commission for the Organisation for the Prohibition
      of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague turns a blind eye to the
      Israeli criminal activities. Ironically, Israeli researchers guide
      OPCW on methods to detect Chemical Weapons. Israeli researchers R
      Barak, A Lorber and Z Boger of IIBR, CHEMO Solutions and Rotem
      Industries respectively propose methods to detect chemical warfare
      agents. No international body seems to be willing to apply these
      methods on Israel.

      The mechanism to do this monitoring is available. The American
      Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center has the wherewithal to
      inspect suspect laboratories. But it is unlikely to see a team of
      inspectors headed by an American Blix searching the secret chambers
      of IIBR.

      Yamamoto, of the University of California and Dr Jonathan King of
      MIT criticised the American BW research and showed that attempting to
      modify toxins (as IIBR does) can hardly be considered "defensive"
      research. But Israel's turn in such criticism seems far-off at

      THE PALESTINIAN VICTIMS: The biological crimes perpetrated against
      the Palestinians in Acre and Gaza in 1948 are still being enacted

      In 1997, Mossad agents tried to assassinate Khaled Mish'al, Hamas
      Political Bureau's director in Amman. King Hussein was furious at
      the blatant violation of Jordan's sovereignty and of the Peace Treaty
      with Israel. As the attempt failed, thanks to Mish'al's bodyguard,
      Israel sent a lady doctor with the antidote. The toxin used is
      likely to be SEB applied through a special gun which has a range of
      50 metres. and could inject the toxin in the neck.

      The stories about nerve gas applied against school children abound.
      So are the cases in which CBW are used. Neil Sammonds lists these

      ï Chemical defoliants against Palestinian crops in Ain Al- Beida in
      1968, Aqraba in 1972, Mejdel Beni Fadil in 1978 and Negev in 2002.

      ï Chemical Weapons, including hydrogen cyanide, nerve gas and
      phosphorous shells in the 1982 war on Lebanon.

      ï Lethal gas against Palestinian and Lebanese prisoners.

      But the case which was widely publicised all over the world and
      fully documented by several international NGOs is the application of
      incapacitants, particularly in Khan Younis, in February 2001. The
      pictures of victims twisting with severe pain and uncontrollable
      convulsions were splashed on TV screens everywhere.

      James Brooks of "Just Peace in Palestine/Israel" gave a detailed
      account of this BW attack on civilians day by day as it happened.
      First, the victims thought it was tear gas. It had a faint odour like
      mint. It smelled "like sugar", one victim reported. It changed
      colour "like a rainbow". Fifteen minutes later, the victim felt that
      his "stomach was torn apart, with burning sensation in [his] chest,
      could not breathe". Soon convulsions started. The victim would jump
      up and down, left and right, thrashing limbs around, with a kind of
      hysteria. Some victims were unconscious. The victim would vomit
      incessantly and then pain would return. This would go on for days or,
      for some, weeks.

      In addition to the numerous press and human rights reports,
      convulsing poison gas victims in Khan Younis were filmed by the
      American filmmaker James Longley, in a documentary that "pushes the
      viewer headlong into the tumult of the Israeli- occupied Gaza".
      Longley compiled a 43-page document of interviews with 19 gas
      victims, their relatives, nurses and doctors.

      These devilish incapacitants drew the protest of some NGOs but
      little else. No international investigation or censureship of any
      kind, even though this was repeatedly used in March in Al- Birch,
      Nablus and West Bank and yet again in Gaza later that month.

      Just the contrary. There was a wide-spread Zionist- orchestrated
      condemnation and disapproval when, in November 1999, Suha Arafat,
      the president's wife, charged the Israelis with the use of "poison
      gas" in the presence of the aspiring politician Hillary Clinton. The
      height of hypocrisy and cynicism was attained when the incensed
      Israeli authorities declared that Suha's factual statement is "a
      violation of the peace process"!

      There are as yet unseen and long-term effects of toxins and
      incapacitants. On 3 February, 2003, Dr Khamis Al-Najjar, director of
      Cancer Research Centre of the Ministry of Health in Ramallah reported
      an alarming increase in cancer cases, especially among women and
      children. The report covers the period 1995-2000 and shows 3646
      cases, with more than half among females. The cases in Gaza are more
      than the West Bank. The report, citing the rate of increase, predicts
      that cases will triple in the near future. Taking note of the
      Israelis' paranoia about Palestinian demography and judging by their
      previous record, it is possible that the accumulative effect of the
      Israeli application of toxins and incapacitants has produced the
      increased incidence of cancer cases. A similar study is yet to be
      made on fetus and newborn babies.

      WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? Israel has signed but not ratified the
      Chemical Weapons Convention and is not a party to the Biological
      Weapons Convention. Israel does not recognise the application of the
      Fourth Geneva Convention on the Occupied Palestinian Territories of
      the West Bank and Gaza, as the rest of the world does. This is not
      surprising. Israel violates every rule in the book.

      Article 147 of the Geneva Convention stipulates that to "willingly
      cause [civilians] great suffering or serious injury to body or
      health" is a "grave breach", which, according to Article 146,
      requires all High Contracting Parties to "search for persons alleged
      to have committed or to have ordered to commit such grave breaches"
      and must "bring such person regardless of their nationality before
      their own courts". If this is applied, Sharon and his officers will
      stand behind bars in a Belgian court for a long time.

      There is a plethora of conventions which Israel constantly
      violated, starting with Geneva Protocol of 1925 on Poisonous Gas to
      the 1993 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development,
      Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons.

      With this background, it seems a mockery of justice to despatch
      hundreds of inspectors to destroyed workshops and private homes in
      Iraq, while huge tons of weapons of mass destruction are staring them
      in the eye in Israel. Perhaps the 10 million people in 600 cities
      around the world who demonstrated against the war on Iraq on 15 and
      16 February were trying to point out this irony in refusing this
      war. Some placards said so in clear terms.

      Perhaps the domestic voice in Israel may be listened to more
      attentively. The Mayor of Nes Ziona, located a mere 10 kilometres
      away from Tel Aviv centre, complained that the proximity of IIBR to
      his city poses a great danger to the population, in case of accident.
      He is right. The Science Committee in the Knesset reported 22
      casualties including three fatal cases in the last 15 years. But
      these were mild cases.

      What would be the situation if a big accident happens on a windy
      day, causing explosion of tons of toxics and its evaporation in the
      sky, in a congested neighbourhood, where three million people live
      in an area of barely 1000sqkms, that is 35X35 km? Ben Gurion, while
      cooking his evil plans to "exterminate" the Arabs, did not envisage
      this scenario in his wildest dreams.

      The writer is president of Palestine Land Society, London.



      Yersinia pestis (plague)
      Rickettsia species (typhus)


      West Nile virus
      Leptospira species (e.g. Weil's disease)
      Cryptococcus neoformans (a yeast)
      Sindbis virus
      Newcastle disease (birds)


      African Swine fever
      Coxiella burnetti (Q fever)
      Western Equine encephalomyelitis
      Semliki Forest virus
      Brucella abortus (brucellosis)
      Pasteurella multocida (fowl cholera)


      Lassa virus
      EMC (encephalomyocarditis)
      Rift Valley fever
      Marek's disease (poultry)
      Coccidioides immitis (fungus)





      Wasp venom
      SEB (Staphylococcus enterotoxin B)
      Scorpion venom
      1. Cobra venom
      SEA (Staph.enterotoxin A)
      Cholera toxin
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A Shiga Toxin
      1. Conotoxin
      Diphteria toxin


      1. Bradykinin
      Psychotropic substances
      Cannabis (hashish)
      Phencyclidine (hallucinogen)
      1. Chlorpromazin (anti-psychoticum)
      Cannabis-derivatives (tetrahydrocannabinol)
      Fentanyl (narcoticum)
      QNB-derivatives (hallucinogen)
      1. Etonitazen
      Phencyclidine derivatives
      Benzodiazepin derivatives (convulsants)
      Cannabis derivatives (amino-cannabinoida)

      Islamic Association for Palestine (IAP)
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