'From Mistake to Mistake':
A leading Shiite cleric discusses Iraq, suicide bombers, U.S.
electionsand why he thinks George W. Bush should see a psychiatrist
Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah believes that George W.
Bush and Donald Rumsfeld should resign over the abuses of Iraqi
By Arlene Getz
May 12, 2004
May 12 - Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah is one of the
most senior religious authorities among Shiite Muslims. Based in
Beirut, he won a wide public following for his role as the spiritual
leader of Hizbullah, the militant group best known for its resistance
to Israel's occupation of southern Lebanon. Fadlallah is no longer so
closely associated with Hizbullah, but, in the hierarchical Shia
world, his teachings still carry enormous weight.
That status could have a significant impact in Iraq, where young
Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr is spearheading some of the violent
resistance to the American occupation. Fadlallah, 69, was born and
educated in the Iraqi city of Najaf, and his opinions could influence
the direction of the country's majority-Shiite populationa group
viciously oppressed by Saddam Hussein. "Fadlallah, for his followers,
has a divine touch," says Nizar Hamzeh, a political science professor
at the American University of Beirut.
Fadlallah met with a delegation of American editors in Beirut this
week to discuss Iraq, suicide bombers and why he thinks President
George W. Bush should see a psychiatrist. NEWSWEEK's Arlene Getz was
part of the group. Excerpts:
NEWSWEEK: What is the role of Islam in politics?
Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah: What is politics? Politics is based on
the idea of giving a human being the opportunity the opportunity to
live among others. Religion tells us that if you believe in God, you
should love human beings. Therefore we believe that politics is part
of religion. Religion wasn't made for heaven, it is part of the
earth. Religion [is] for us to serve people, not the other way round.
Do you feel that Moqtada al-Sadr is justified in his use of armed
resistance [against Americans in Iraq], or do you prefer the more
dialogue-oriented line of [Iraq's Shiite leader] Grand Ayatollah Ali
We believe in the freedom of human beings, and we reject the
occupation. I don't believe Moqtada al-Sadr's plan is to initiate
violence, but I believe the methods of [U.S. administrator Paul]
Bremer are what prompted [al-Sadr] to do it. Therefore we see
violence as the reaction, not the initial action. We see America as a
country that can occupy, but does not know how to administer. The
United States keeps going from mistake to mistake. The issue of
prison torture [at Abu Ghraib] is not the last mistake we are going
Is there anything the United States can do to recover from the
mistake at Abu Ghraib?
We consider occupation to be one of the highest forms of torture. The
torture that we are seeing the pictures of in the media is the
torture of individuals, but occupation is the torture of an entire
The majority of Arab and Islamic people do not believe the
United States is serious about the freedom of [their] peoples. They
believe it to be one of the slogans used for dominating the region.
When we listen to President Bush we don't find any convincing logic
in what he's saying. [But] we should be clear that we distinguish
between the U.S. administration and the American people. We would
like to be friends with the American people. Our problem is with the
What is your reaction to Bush's argument that not all Americans
should be blamed for the abuses at Abu Ghraib prison?
I believe it was an inaccurate apology because the people who carried
out these acts were carrying out orders
Bremer knew about it, but
didn't do anything about it until the photos showed up. These acts
showed the American administration does not believe in human rights.
I believe these practices encourage terrorism and don't do away with
it. The American people have good values; however the administration
is not honoring it. The Americans should elect a person who
represents these values.
Would you like Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld to resign?
I believe that Rumsfeld should have resigned. He offered an apology
and an apology means [he should take] responsibility.
Should Bush also resign?
As the commander in chief of the armed forces, yes.
What are your views on the U.S. presidential race? And will you feel
less well-disposed toward the American people if they re-elect George
W. Bush in November?
The general impression in the Arab world about the American
electorate is that it is the neoconservatives, the Christian
[evangelicals], the Jewish lobby, the cartels that are using this
administration to enrich themselvesthese all are playing a role in
[supporting Bush]. Do you believe that if someone is re-elected it
gives him legitimacy? After all, the Palestinians elected [Yasir]
Arafat, and there are certain sections in the United States that
won't deal with him
[Bush] regards himself as the second coming of
Christ. I don't believe he deals with things in an objective and
rational fashion. I think we should send him to a psychiatrist before
the election. With all due respect, of coursewe respect ill people.
Are suicide bombers considered religious martyrs [who are guaranteed
a place in heaven] when they attack civilians in Israel?
We don't believe in killing civilians for political reasons if it's
not a state of war. I was the first Islamic figure to issue a fatwa
[religious decree] after the September 11 attacks to say our minds
and religion cannot accept this, that it was suicide, not martyrdom.
Just an hour after the Madrid bombings, I issued a fatwa condemning
this act and said it was not religiously sanctioned
However, the problem is that Bush considers, with [Israeli Prime
Minister Ariel] Sharon's agreement, that the Palestinian struggle for
independence constitutes terrorism. Even though the Palestinians told
Israel that if you withdraw from our land and live with us in peace,
there will not be any shots fired. [The Palestinians] are saying that
they are defending their homeland. As for the martyrdom operations
[in Israel], they require an interpretation. Israel possesses the
strongest weapons in the region. Israel uses F-16s against civilians
in Gaza. When it wants to assassinate someone, it will fire a rocket
into a crowded civilian place. It destroys the homes of Palestinians.
It employs collective punishment [against the families of attackers.]
The Israelis have carried out every type of act against the
Palestinians. The Palestinians only have light weapons. The
Palestinians therefore have reached a point of desperation. They
believe that they have to challenge the Israelis by using this method
of turning a person into a human bomb. This is in order to get the
Israelis to stop what they're doing. You can't look at this in an
abstract fashion. If the killing of Israeli civilians is a crime,
what about the killing of Palestinian civilians? The issue is that
Palestine and Israel are at war, and the Israelis are using every
method they can, and the Palestinians aren't getting weapons from the
What is your opinion of Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry?
I have observed that Kerry is trying to address Jewish feelings by
talking about his own Jewish heritage. I don't believe politics
should be conducted this way. [But] we have no problems with the
Jewish religion. If you look at Islamic history for the last 14
centuries, Muslims have embraced Jews, given them scientific and
economic freedom. Muslims didn't oppress Jews the way the West
did ... The problem with Israel is political, not religious. America
doesn't accept a religion-based state [in the United States], but it
insists that there be a Jewish state in Palestine. Why is there a
double standard on this matter?
Lebanon has its own experience of occupation. Do religious leaders
here have anything to teach Iraqis about resisting occupation?
There are no plans for Lebanese resistance fighters to move to Iraq.
Any who might have done such a thing went there on an individual
Do you see any alternative to armed resistance to the U.S. occupation
We believe that the United Nations is by and large acceptable. If the
Americans would hand over its authority to the U.N., there is no need
for an armed struggle.
Why is Islam now the world's fastest-growing religion?
It is a religion that believes in intellect and all types of science.
Intellect and science are the source of civilization. It doesn't
impose itself by force on other people
it doesn't believe in
violence unless violence is imposed on it from outside.
What's the most important message you'd like to send Americans?
We do not believe in violence unless it becomes absolutely necessary.
What we'd like to see is dialogue bringing us together. We should
have peace through dialogue.
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