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"Mother culture" remains found near Mexico City

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  • ghwelker3@comcast.net
    http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-01/26/content_5658341.htm www.chinaview.cn 2007-01-26 18:03:13 BEIJING, Jan. 26 (Xinhuanet) -- The Olmecs, often
    Message 1 of 26 , Jun 23, 2010
      http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-01/26/content_5658341.htm
      www.chinaview.cn 2007-01-26 18:03:13

          BEIJING, Jan. 26 (Xinhuanet) -- The Olmecs, often referred to as the "mother culture" of Mesoamerica, inhabited Mexico's Gulf coast area, but now a 2,500-year-old Olmec city has been uncovered 25 miles south of Mexico City, archaeologists reported.


      http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-01/26/xinsrc_2220104261827843292085.jpg



      A worker takes a break at the recently discovered Zazacatla archeological site near the town of Xochitepec, Mexico Jan. 25, 2007. (AP Photo)
      Photo Gallery>>>


          The remains of Zazacatla are shedding light on the early arrival of advanced civilizations in central Mexico, while also providing lessons about the risks to ruins posed by modern development that now cover much of the ancient city.


          Archaeologist Giselle Canto said Wednesday two statues and architectural details at the site indicate the inhabitants of Zazacatla adopted Olmec styles when they changed from a simple, egalitarian society to a more complex, hierarchical one.


          "When their society became stratified, the new rulers needed emblems ... to justify their rule over people who used to be their equals," Canto said of the inhabitants, who may not have been ethnically Olmec, but apparently revered the culture as the most prestigious.


          Zazacatla covered less than one square mile between 800 B.C. and 500 B.C. But much of it has been covered by housing and commercial development extending from Cuernavaca, a city popular with tourists just seven miles north.


          "There are 10 housing developments, a gas station, a highway and a commercial building on the site now," Canto said.


          Authorities hope to excavate and preserve other pre-Hispanic sites before they are forgotten or covered over.


          Since excavation of Zazacatla began last year, archaeologists have unearthed six buildings, and two sculptures of what appear to be Olmec-style priests. The sculptures appear to have headdresses portraying the jaguar, which the Olmecs revered, and other symbols of status and authority.


          The Olmecs dominated areas around the Gulf coast states of Veracruz and Tabasco from 1,200 B.C. to about 400 B.C.


          Some had speculated the signs of Olmec influence found at Zazacatla and other areas far from the Gulf coast might suggest Olmec settlements, conquests or missionary sites.


          But Canto said the Olmecs' most famous ceremonial center, about 250 miles east, was too far for direct contact, though trade links may have existed.

    • ghwelker3@comcast.net
      Mother culture remains found near Mexico City www.chinaview.cn http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-01/26/content_5658341.htm BEIJING, Jan. 26 (Xinhuanet)
      Message 2 of 26 , Aug 20, 2010
        "Mother culture" remains found near Mexico City


        www.chinaview.cn

        http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-01/26/content_5658341.htm

            BEIJING, Jan. 26 (Xinhuanet) -- The Olmecs, often referred to as the "mother culture" of Mesoamerica, inhabited Mexico's Gulf coast area, but now a 2,500-year-old Olmec city has been uncovered 25 miles south of Mexico City, archaeologists reported.


        A worker takes a break at the recently discovered Zazacatla archeological site near the town of Xochitepec, Mexico Jan. 25, 2007.

        A worker takes a break at the recently discovered Zazacatla archeological site near the town of Xochitepec, Mexico Jan. 25, 2007. (AP Photo)
        Photo Gallery>>>

            The remains of Zazacatla are shedding light on the early arrival of advanced civilizations in central Mexico, while also providing lessons about the risks to ruins posed by modern development that now cover much of the ancient city.


            Archaeologist Giselle Canto said Wednesday two statues and architectural details at the site indicate the inhabitants of Zazacatla adopted Olmec styles when they changed from a simple, egalitarian society to a more complex, hierarchical one.


            "When their society became stratified, the new rulers needed emblems ... to justify their rule over people who used to be their equals," Canto said of the inhabitants, who may not have been ethnically Olmec, but apparently revered the culture as the most prestigious.


            Zazacatla covered less than one square mile between 800 B.C. and 500 B.C. But much of it has been covered by housing and commercial development extending from Cuernavaca, a city popular with tourists just seven miles north.


            "There are 10 housing developments, a gas station, a highway and a commercial building on the site now," Canto said.


            Authorities hope to excavate and preserve other pre-Hispanic sites before they are forgotten or covered over.


            Since excavation of Zazacatla began last year, archaeologists have unearthed six buildings, and two sculptures of what appear to be Olmec-style priests. The sculptures appear to have headdresses portraying the jaguar, which the Olmecs revered, and other symbols of status and authority.


            The Olmecs dominated areas around the Gulf coast states of Veracruz and Tabasco from 1,200 B.C. to about 400 B.C.


            Some had speculated the signs of Olmec influence found at Zazacatla and other areas far from the Gulf coast might suggest Olmec settlements, conquests or missionary sites.


            But Canto said the Olmecs' most famous ceremonial center, about 250 miles east, was too far for direct contact, though trade links may have existed.

      • ghwelker3@comcast.net
        Spirited Thoughts
        Message 3 of 26 , Aug 20, 2010

          Spirited Thoughts

          http://spiritedthoughts.wordpress.com/2010/08/19/bakun-benguet-indigenous-peoples-history-knowledge-systems-culture-problems-ancestral-domain-sustainable-development-and-protection-plan/

          Bakun, Benguet Indigenous People’s History, Knowledge Systems, Culture, Problems, Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan

          In Cordillera, indigenous people, resource management on August 19, 2010 at 10:51 am

          

          EDITOR’S NOTE

          Working with the people of Bakun to come up with a document such as this has been a rewarding experience, though at times one would feel insignificant amid the magnitude of what should be included in an ADSDPP.


          The end-product leaves much to be desired, that’s for sure, but to keep adding to it and refining it is much like going to the end of the horizon.  No matter how far you go, the end just recedes to the distance.


          This ADSDPP is a continuation of what was begun, and just a transition as the people of Bakun, and those that assist them, explore their horizon.


          The material written was mostly taken from numerous workshops with community people.  Their sharing was the basis of most statements in this ADSDPP, though there were some we lifted from documents (and footnoted as such).  The wealth of information that the participants in the workshop have shared have not all been included, and we apologize for that.


          We also note that while the material is from workshop participants, it is entirely possible that they have gathered their knowledge from other sources that might be missed in the footnotes.  Should this have happened, we hope to convey that it was not the intention at all.  Certainly, future editions of this document must acknowledge sources that we have missed in this one.


          Nevertheless, we hope that the material as written is appreciated as the Bakun people’s output, and the editor hopes that the way it is written is coherent, relevant and informative.

          Gary A. Pekas

          ***********

          The link to the file:

          Bakun, Benguet Indigenous People’s History, Knowledge Systems, Culture, Problems, Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan


          Table of contents may be seen below.


          TABLE OF CONTENTS

          I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1
          A. Early Settlers 1
          1. The Myth of the Tellay 2
          2. Succeeding Settlers 3
          B. Origins of Names of Places 4
          C. Our Early History 5
          D. 1930s 5
          E. World War II 10
          F. 1940s and 1950s 11
          G. 1960s 14
          H. 1970s 18
          I. 1980s 20
          J. 1990s to 2003 22
          II. INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES (IKSP) 24
          A. RESIDENCES AND OTHER STRUCTURES 25
          1. Types of Traditional Houses of the Kankanaey-Bago People 25
          a. Kinaong 26
          b. Inalteb or kinlingan 26
          c. Allaw 26
          d. Apa 27
          e. Binangian 27
          f. Agamang 27
          2. Traditional Rituals Associated with Building Construction 27
          a. Boton 28
          b. Petad 28
          c. Saad 28
          d. Leting 28
          e. Padang 29
          f. Seg – ak 29
          g. Segep 29
          h. Lawit 29
          i. Allad 30
          3. Current Practices 30
          B. FOREST AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT 31
          1. Belief Systems Associated With Forests 31
          2. Management Systems 32
          a. Communal Ownership of the Forests 33
          b. The Muyong and its Uses 33
          i. Watershed 34
          ii. Fuel Source 34
          iii. Source of Timber and Other Building Materials 36
          iv. Medicine 36
          v. Nutrition 36
          vi. Grazing Areas 37
          vii. Animal and Bird Sanctuary 37
          c. Bebe-an 37
          d. Watershed or Tong-og 37
          e. Swidden Farming 38
          f. Bine – as 40
          g. Hunting Ground or Paganupan. 40
          h. Practices of Catching Game. 40
          3. Other Protection Mechanisms of Forests and Watersheds 41
          C. LAND use, OWNERSHIP and management 42
          1. Concept of Common Property and Worldviews on Land 42
          2. Rice Farming 43
          3. Soil Conservation and Erosion Control 44
          D. WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 45
          1. Belief Systems Associated with Water Systems 45
          2. Irrigation systems as Communal Property 45
          3. Rituals to Ward off pests and destruction 46
          E. MINERAL RESOURCE USE, MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 46
          1. Belief Systems Associated with Minerals 46
          2. Mining Practices 47
          3. Ownership and Sharing of Benefits 48
          4. Taboos 49
          5. Mine Management 49
          6. Hand tools Used in Placer Mining 49
          F. THE TONGTONG SYSTEM OF JUSTICE 50
          III. ANCESTRAL DOMAIN PROFILE 53
          A. The People 53
          1. Clothing 54
          2. Social Organization 55
          a. Dispersed Settlements, the pulok 55
          3. Religion 56
          4. Gender Roles, the youth. 60
          5. Bakun Organizations and Institutions 61
          B. Decision Making and Justice System 65
          1. Demography 67
          2. Education 72
          3. Health 75
          C. THE ECONOMY 78
          1. Traditional Agriculture 78
          2. Commercial Farming 82
          3. Market Information 90
          4. Small-scale mining 91
          5. Other Sources of Livelihood 91
          6. Income 92
          7. Credit Facilities 92
          8. Employment and Unemployment 93
          D. THE DOMAIN 94
          1. Location 94
          2. Access 94
          3. Topography 95
          4. Resources within the Domain 104
          a. Forests and Watersheds 104
          b. Timber Species 105
          c. Floral Undergrowth 107
          d. Medicinal Plants in the Domain 108
          e. Animal Species 110
          f. Avian Species 111
          5. Actual Land Use 112
          6. Water Resources 115
          a. River Systems 115
          b. Aquatic Species in the Domain 116
          IV. Development Needs 117
          A. Environmental Problems 117
          1. Forest Denudation 117
          a. Indiscriminate Cutting of Trees 117
          i. Lumber for Sale 118
          ii. Need to Strengthen Traditional Values 118
          iii. Need to Provide Sources of Livelihood 119
          b. Expansion of Vegetable Farms 119
          i. Limited Agricultural Lands 119
          ii. Need to Provide Sources of Livelihood 120
          c. Forest Fires 120
          d. Effects of Forest Denudation 120
          i. Soil Erosion 121
          ii. Lack of Water 121
          iii. Diminishing Habitat 121
          2. Unsafe Fishing Practices 121
          3. Improper Disposal of Mine Waste 122
          4. Lack of Waste Disposal System 122
          5. Lack of Policies on Environmental Protection 123
          6. Lack of Participation in Development Planning 124
          7. Lack of Land Use Plan 124
          B. Problems Affecting Self-Reliance and sustainability 125
          1. Lack of Employment and Livelihood Opportunities 126
          2. Dependence on Cash Crops 126
          3. Erosion of Positive Traditional Values and Community Mutual Help Systems 127
          4. Misinterpretation of Christian Values 127
          5. The Bias of the Educational System 128
          6. Economic Individualism 129
          C. Problems Affecting Economic Development 130
          1. Lack of Employment and Livelihood Opportunities 130
          2. Other Problems 131
          a. Incidence of Social Ills 131
          V. THE ANCESTRAL DOMAIN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND PROTECTION PLAN 132
          A. Vision 133
          B. Mission 133
          C. Goals and Objectives 133
          1. On the Environment 133
          2. On Self-Reliance and Sustainability 134
          3. On the Economy 134
          4. On Social Ills 135
          D. Strategies 135
          1. Information and Education Campaigns 135
          2. Empowerment 135
          3. Fund Sourcing 136
          4. ADSDPP, Program and Project Time Frames 136
          5. Organization 136
          6. Revisions of the ADSDPP 136
          7. Policy Statements 137
          a. Sharing of Responsibilities and Benefits 137
          b. Resource Management Principles 138
          c. Ancestral Domain Management Concept 142
          d. Communal Forests and Watersheds as Protected Zones 142
          e. Policies On Cultural Landmarks, Scenic Places And Special Use Areas 143
          f. Mineral Resource Development Policies 144
          g. Policies on Water Resources 145
          h. Policies on Research and Documentation in the Domain 146
          i. Intellectual Property Rights 147
          j. Institutional Development 149
          E. PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS 151
          1. Environment and Natural Resources Program 151
          a. Statement of the Problem 151
          b. Reforestation Project 151
          i. Objective. 151
          ii. Project  Activities 151
          c. Bantay Saguday Project 153
          i. Objective 153
          ii. Project Activities 154
          d. Natural Forests Management Project 154
          i. Project Description 154
          ii. Objective 155
          iii. Activities 155
          e. Muyong Forest Management Project 156
          i. Project Description 156
          ii. Objective 157
          iii. Activities 157
          f. Habitat Management Project 158
          i. Project Description 158
          ii. Objective 159
          iii. Activities 159
          2. Land Tenure Program 159
          a. Project Description 159
          b. Objectives 160
          c. Activities 160
          3. Economic Development Program 160
          a. Program Description 160
          b. Statement of the Problem 161
          c. Program Objectives 161
          d. Program Strategies 162
          i. Facilitation of Information, Education and Training Activities 162
          ii. Encouragement of Entrepreneurship and Local Investment 163
          e. Skills and Operations Training Project 164
          i. Project Description 164
          ii. Activities 164
          f. Commercial Crop Diversification and Technology Enhancement Project 167
          i. Project Description 167
          ii. Objectives 168
          iii. Activities 169
          g. Nem-a Enhancement Project 172
          i. Project Description 172
          ii. Objectives 172
          iii. Activities 173
          h. Coffee Marketing Project 173
          i. Project Description 173
          ii. Objectives 174
          iii. Activities 174
          4. Socio-Cultural Program 175
          a. Program Description and Statement of the Problem 175
          b. Program Objectives 176
          c. Program Activities 176
          d. Functional Literacy Project 176
          i. Project Description and Statement of the Problem 176
          ii. Objective 176
          iii. Activities 177
          e. Promotion of Culture Project 178
          i. Project Description and Statement of the Problem 178
          ii. Objective 178
          iii. Activities. 178
          f. Reduction of Social Ills Project 180
          i. Project Description and Statement of the Problem 180
          ii. Objective 180
          iii. Activities. 180
          5. Research and Documentation Program 181
          a. Project Description and Statement of the Problem 181
          i. Objective 181
          ii. Activities. 181
          6. Advocacy Program 182
          a. Program Description and Statement of the Problem 182
          b. Objectives 183
          c. Activities 183
        • ghwelker3@comcast.net
          The song describes the present day exploitation of tribal land and forests in the name of development. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8M5aeMpzOLU&feature=email
          Message 4 of 26 , Aug 21, 2010

            The song describes the present day exploitation of tribal land and forests in the name of development.


            http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8M5aeMpzOLU&feature=email


            This video accurately represents the conditions of tribal and call for more inclusive development policy. 


            wonderful..the video truly depicts what all are being done in the name of development. snatching people's land for personal benefits in the name of economic development is really one of disastrous policy of our great govt.

          • ghwelker3@comcast.net
            http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JeZ5oeAEyU&feature=related
            Message 5 of 26 , Aug 21, 2010
              http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JeZ5oeAEyU&feature=related
            • ghwelker3@comcast.net
              http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=504101109#!/video/video.php?v=184029738603&subj=827984907
              Message 6 of 26 , Aug 23, 2010
                http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=504101109#!/video/video.php?v=184029738603&subj=827984907
              • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                (26 photos) By Carol Martin SooToday.com Friday, August 20, 2010 http://www.sootoday.com/content/news/full_story.asp?StoryNumber=47970 Six eagles were among
                Message 7 of 26 , Aug 23, 2010
                  (26 photos)

                  By Carol Martin
                  SooToday.com
                  Friday, August 20, 2010

                   

                  http://www.sootoday.com/content/news/full_story.asp?StoryNumber=47970

                   

                  Six eagles were among the dignitaries attending yesterday's historic repatriation of the remains of six Batchewana First Nation ancestors.

                  Chief Dean Sayers blew smoke from his sacred pipe through holes at the end of each of the six cedar-plank boxes containing the remains, finally returned by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. after more than a century and a half of wanderings.

                  As the big drum echoed the heartbeat of the earth, the six eagles circled in from the east.

                  They swooped toward the south several times, close and low around the traditional burial ground at Goulais Bay on Lake Superior.

                  The scent of burning sage and tobacco lay heavy around the grounds.

                  More than 150 onlookers lifted their eyes to the sunlit sky to watch as the eagles arrived.

                  Their wings almost seemed to beat the air in time with the heavy beat of the big drum.

                  Then, with a flick of their wings, three of the sacred birds banked off and soared skyward.

                  First one.

                  Then two more flew close and banked off.

                  Then the other three eagles circled slowly skyward after them.

                  Two stayed circling slow and high above as the boxes were lowered into the ground, beginning with the long-deceased chief, followed by the two other men and finally the three women.

                  Batchewana citizens and their guests then filed past all six graves, sprinkling a pinch of tobacco and a small handful of earth on each of the cedar boxes.

                  As men began to cover the boxes with earth, the people walked back down the hill, for a feast in the community centre in the Goulais Bay Reserve 15A of Batchewana First Nation of Ojibways.

                  Chief Sayers said the event was probably one of the most significant in the band's history.

                  Five of the six individuals returned to Batchewana were collected by U.S. Army Assistant Surgeon Dr. Joseph H. King during May, June and August of 1875, said Dr. Eric Hollinger, an archaeologist with the Smithsonians's repatriation office.

                  The remains were collected, along with associated artifacts, from unknown cemetary sites at and near the Ontario Sault, then transferred to the American Army Medical Museum, Hollinger said.

                  From there, they were removed to the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in 1898.

                  In documenting that transfer, Dr. King identified the remains as Chippewas who had been buried between 50 and 100 years before he collected their remains.

                  The sixth individual was reported by King to have been a Chippewa man killed in a fit of jealous rage some 10 years before his remains were collected in 1875.

                  Identifying the remains as coming from the Batchewana First Nation of Ojibways was actually not very difficult, said Hollinger.

                  Getting them home, however, was much more complicated.

                  "The United States does not recognize tribes in Canada, only those in the United States. So we could not deal directly with the Batchewana First Nation," he said.

                  The Sault Ste. Marie Band of Chippewa Indians and the Bay Mills Indian Community came forward to act as liaisons when Batchewana indicated it was ready to receive the remains of its ancestors.

                  The Smithsonian Institution then transferred them to the Sault Tribe and Bay Mills.

                  As far as the Smithsonian was officially concerned, the repatriation was complete.

                  It was up to the people of Bay Mills and the Michigan Soo to turn them over to Chief Sayers and his contingent of paddlers, to ferry them across the St. Marys River yesterday morning.

                  They travelled in a traditional birch bark canoe built by hand by the people of Batchewana First Nation of Ojibways.

                  The people of Bay Mills taught them how to make it, but Batchewana citizens built it for this very significant occasion, said Chief Sayers.

                  The canoe landed at Bellevue Park shortly after 11 a.m.

                  When it did, Chief Sayers said he was nearly overcome by pride and happiness that there were so many waiting on shore and that they were finally bringing home their ancestors.

                  "It helps us to heal," he said. "It is returning another missing piece of who we are and helping to complete us."

                  There were more than 200 people on shore waiting to greet the ancestors as they began the final leg of their long journey back home.

                  Dr. Hollinger was among them.

                  He travelled with the remains all the way to Goulais Bay to see them safely home.

                  To read the continuation of this SooToday.com article:
                   

                  View Photo Gallery for this Story

                   

                  http://www.sootoday.com/content/news/full_story.asp?StoryNumber=47970

                • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                  http://www.flickr.com/groups/nmai/ http://si.edu/flickr/
                  Message 8 of 26 , Aug 23, 2010
                  • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                    August 9, 2010 is The WORLD INTERNATIONAL DAY and as a first – The UN Headquarters will be home to an INDIGENOUS PEOPLES film-making festival as in “We the
                    Message 9 of 26 , Aug 23, 2010

                      A UNITED NATIONS MEDIA ADVISORY:

                       

                      Indigenous film-making to be celebrated around the world on International Day
                       

                      The International Day of the World’s Indigenous People will be observed at United Nations Headquarters and around the world on Monday, 9 August 2010. This year’s observance will highlight indigenous filmmaking, celebrating the contributions of indigenous filmmakers to promoting greater understanding of their communities, cultures and history and the challenges they face today.

                       

                      The work of indigenous filmmakers “connects us to belief systems and philosophies; it captures both the daily life and the spirit of indigenous communities,” states Secretary General Ban Ki-moon in his message for the Day.

                      At the UN Headquarters event in New York, remarks by the Secretary-General and other UN and indigenous representatives will precede the screening of four short movies by indigenous filmmakers. After the film screenings, a discussion with three indigenous filmmakers will be moderated by Reaghan Tarbell, from the National Museum of the American Indian (see full programme below).

                       

                      In his message to mark the Day, the Secretary-General emphasized the major contribution of indigenous peoples to global cultural diversity.

                      “The world’s indigenous peoples have preserved a vast amount of humanity’s cultural history. Indigenous peoples speak a majority of the world’s languages, and have inherited and passed on a wealth of knowledge, artistic forms and religious and cultural traditions,” he stated.

                       

                      The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2007, underscores indigenous peoples’ right to maintain, protect and develop the past, present and future manifestations of their culture in various forms including the technological, visual and performing arts.

                       

                      For more information on the Day, visit: www.un.org/indigenous

                       

                      MEDIA ARRANGEMENTS: Journalists without UN accreditation who wish to attend the event should follow the instructions for obtaining accreditation at www.un.org/media/accreditation For media enquiries or interviews, please contact: Renata Sivacolundhu, Department of Public Information, tel: 212-963-2932, e-mail: sivacolundhu@....  For Secretariat of the Permanent Forum, please contact: Broddi Sigurdarson, tel: 917 367 2106, e-mail: IndigenousPermanentForum@... .

                       

                      PROGRAMME


                      Monday, 9 August, 2:00 – 5:00 p.m.
                      ECOSOC, North Lawn Building

                       

                      2:00 – 2:45 p.m. Welcome Ceremony

                       

                      Welcome by Master of Ceremonies Roberto Múcaro Borrero (Taíno, Puerto Rico), Chairperson, NGO Committee on the International Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples

                      Traditional welcome by Mr. Kevin Tarrent (Ho Chunk)

                      Remarks by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon

                      Message by Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs Sha Zukang

                      Message from the Chairperson of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, Mr. Carlos Mamani (by representative of DESA)

                       

                      2:45 – 3:45 p.m. Screening of four short movies by indigenous filmmakers

                       

                      Moderator: Ms. Reaghan Tarbell, from the National Museum of the American Indian

                      Brazil: Marangmotxingo Mïrang/From the Ikpeng Children to the World Directed by Kumaré Txicão (Ikpeng), Karané Txicão (Ikpeng) and Natuyu Yuwipo Txicão (Ikpeng)

                      Sweden: Curte-Nillas:(short) movie) Directed  by Mr. Per-Josef Idivuoma (Sámi)

                      Puerto Rico: Taino Indians counted out of existence Directed by Mr. Alex Zacarias (Taíno)

                      Alaska:  Sukumi – On the ice Directed by Mr.
                      Andrew Okpeaha MacLean (Inupiaq)

                       

                      3:45 – 5:00 p.m. Question and answer session with indigenous filmmakers

                      Moderator: Ms. Reaghan Tarbell, from the National Museum of the American Indian

                      Film Directors:
                      Mr. Per-Josef Idivuoma, Mr. Alex Zacarias and Mr. Andrew Okpeaha Maclean

                       

                      This event is organized by the Secretariat of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues DSPD/DESA, and the NGO Committee on the International Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples.

                      The International Day of the World’s Indigenous People is officially commemorated annually on 9 August in recognition of the first meeting of the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations in Geneva in 1982.

                      General public wishing to attend the observance should register by Thursday 6 August, by sending an email with full name at: indigenous_un@....

                       

                      Please note that those who have not registered will not get a day pass, and will thus not be able to attend. Holders of valid UN grounds passes do not need to register.

                       

                      The event will begin at 2 pm. Participants must enter the UN grounds through the Visitor’s Entrance on 1st. Avenue facing 45th Street. After going through the entrance, participants should go directly to the table where SPFII staff will hand out day passes to those who have registered. Day passes will be available at the table from 1 pm until 2:15 pm. It is essential that participants bring photo ID when picking up their day passes.

                    • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                      The groups said Bloomberg used insensitive language about Native Americans. By Jill Colvin DNAinfo Reporter/Producer CITY HALL — Native American leaders
                      Message 10 of 26 , Aug 24, 2010

                        The groups said Bloomberg used insensitive language about Native Americans.


                        By Jill Colvin


                        DNAinfo Reporter/Producer


                        CITY HALL — Native American leaders rallied at City Hall Monday to demand that Mayor Michael Bloomberg apologize for “racist” comments they described as "a promotion of violence" against their tribes.


                        On an August 13 radio show, the mayor joked that Gov. David Paterson should get himself “a cowboy hat and a shotgun” to prevent Native Americans from selling untaxed cigarettes from their reservations.


                        Bloomberg’s word choice has drawn outrage from Native American groups who said the comments were deeply insensitive, especially at a time when the mayor has become a national symbol for tolerance for his stalwart defense of the controversial mosque and community center near Ground Zero.


                        "I think it's appalling. I think it's downright racist what this mayor has said," said Lance Gumbs, vice chairman of the Shinnecock Indian Nation and a vice president of the National Congress of American Indians.


                        "In one breath you're talking about social tolerance and the Muslims being able to do this at Ground Zero, and in the next he's attacking the native people," he added.


                        George Stonefish, 52, a Delaware Chippewa who grew up on the Upper East Side and now lives in Brooklyn, said that Bloomberg should follow Paterson's lead and sit down with the group to discuss their concerns.


                        "Mayor Bloomberg, you must smother the embers of violence and ignorance," he said.


                        The mayor's office declined to comment on the racism charges or offer an apology.


                        Instead, spokeswoman Jessica Scaperotti said in a statement that “[t]he Supreme Court has ruled several times that Tribes simply have no right to hurt competing small businesses and taxpayers by ignoring taxes owed on cigarettes sold to others."


                        Hours before the rally, Bloomberg announced that a federal appeals court had denied a series of requests by the Long Island's Poospatuck Indian reservation to resume its cigarette sales.


                        While Native Americans are permitted to purchase and sell tax-free cigarettes for their own use on reservations, they are not permitted to sell them outside.


                        But Kandice Watson, 44, from Oneida, N.Y., said the rally had nothing to do with cigarettes or taxes.


                        "This is about our future," she said, as fellow protesters waved red and white signs reading “Respect Our People.”


                        "It is about sovereignty, and we will stand to defend that."


                        Read more: 


                        http://dnainfo.com/20100823/downtown/native-american-groups-demand-apology-from-mayor-michael-bloomberg-for-racist-remarks#ixzz0xXd7vWV4

                      • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                        Trahant: ‘Government-run’ no longer defines the Indian health system By Mark Trahant
                        Message 11 of 26 , Aug 25, 2010

                          Trahant: ‘Government-run’ no longer defines the Indian health system

                          By Mark Trahant

                          A single phrase is often used to define the Indian health system: “Government-run.” Add those two words to any discussion about health care or reform and most people reach an immediate conclusion about the merits of the agency.

                          Now it is time for the phrase to disappear because it no longer accurately describes the Indian health system. After all, tribes or tribally authorized nonprofit agencies administer more than half of the
                          Indian Health Service budget, through the Self-Determination Act or self-governance compacts.

                          Certainly the federal government plays a huge role in this health care delivery system – across the country. “As in all industrial nations, the U.S. government plays a large role in financing, organizing, overseeing and, in some instances, even delivering health care,” said a report last August by the
                          Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. How big are the numbers? Federal direct spending – Medicaid, Medicare and such – accounted for 33.7 percent of all health care spending. If you add in tribal, local, state and other government funding to the mix that figure reached $1.108 trillion – or about 46 percent of all health care dollars. The report said, “If tax subsidies that encourage provision of health coverage and health care are added in, the total public share comes close to three-fifths of all U.S. health spending.”

                          And all of these numbers are before the
                          Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was enacted into law and before any implementation.

                          But in the Indian Health system something else is occurring: The growing role of private networks. This is not new. Dr. Everett R. Rhodes, a former IHS director, wrote in a 2002
                          article for the Western Journal of Medicine: “A shift of Indian health services to the private sector is now occurring, however, especially in western states where the majority of American Indian people live.”

                          Dr. Rhodes cited a variety of factors, including, “as the Indian population ages, however, the proportion of the IHS service population requiring care in the private sector will likely increase.”

                          The fact is individual American Indians and Alaska Natives with private insurance, Medicare, and even Medicaid, have a marketplace of medical choices. The Indian health system is just one option.

                          Last week, for example, the largest hospital system in the Dakotas announced a new initiative. Sanford Health hired
                          Dr. Donald Warne, a member of the Oglala Lakota Tribe from Pine Ridge and former executive director of the Aberdeen Area Tribal Chairmen’s Health Board, to coordinate activities among the hospital system, the federal IHS and the 28 tribes within Sanford’s coverage region.

                          There will be more private interest in the Indian health system between now and 2014. One reason for that is even though Native Americans are not required to purchase health insurance; there are incentives under health care reform for individuals to do so.

                          The most important reason is that patients with private insurance don’t have to worry about contract health care running out of money. (This is also true for Medicaid, Medicare and other third-party insurance plans.) Another benefit: American Indians and Alaska Natives who purchase health insurance through the exchange
                          do not have to pay co-pays or other cost-sharing if their income is under 300 percent of the federal poverty level (some $66,000 for a family of four, or nearly $83,000 in Alaska).

                          I think there is an opportunity here. I’d like to see a Native American enterprise selling such an insurance policy through the exchange that focuses on this unique segment of the population. It would be win-win-win. The individual would benefit with better coverage, the company could sell a policy at a profit, and the Indian health system could benefit from more third-party support.

                          When IHS was created in 1955 its mission and operation was a government-run medical service. That simplicity is no more.

                          Mark Trahant is a Kaiser Media Fellow examining the Indian Health Service and its relevance to the national health care reform debate. He is a member of Idaho’s Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and writes from Fort Hall, Idaho. Comment at www.marktrahant.com His new book is “The Last Great Battle of the Indian Wars,” the story of Sen. Henry Jackson and Forrest Gerard.

                          Additional resources:
                          A
                          letter from IHS director Dr. Yvette Roubideaux to tribal leaders about activities that the Indian Health Service is undertaking to deliver the benefits made possible by the Indian Health Care Improvement Act.

                          A Kaiser Family Foundation
                          brief that explains the concept of the health care insurance exchanges.

                        • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                          Ancient ET-UFO and Modern Ancient Astronauts Of Eras In Time - Global Brain Train
                          Message 12 of 26 , Aug 25, 2010

                            Ancient ET-UFO and Modern Ancient Astronauts Of Eras In Time - Global Brain Train

                             

                            ET/UFO NEW AGE MAJOR BLUEPRINT OF OUR GLOBAL MIND IN TIME 

                            There are various levels of beings that exist on the earth. This is apparent. There are some of the main four root races which some can see divided by continent demographics. Some are created by cultures of the ancestors of a certain location on the planet. Some are still divided by DNA. Some still see themselves as brown, black, white, yellow skins.
                             
                            UNKNOWN INTELLIGENCE: We wear a form of magnetized shoes on board the ships in space among those who are not born on earth. We shall share more of reality in space through time as we share the basic structure of how to train the mind to accept that which was formerly unknown. Brain Train with us who are friends of the occult in the ACE Metaphysical Institute. TJ
                             
                             We are a part of something much greater than we have been told to believe. Our minds could and should be far more advanced in intelligence as the global brain assignment goes. 
                             
                            Now, we shall learn about those who are deserving of the intelligence and those who have to learn through the Ascension Center Enlightenment process. In this time of change, we are about to engage a new era for which there will be a thread of history that can be traced through time on earth.
                             
                            Current literature and even interest on the Internet is thriving and a New Age modern movement could savor that which is a combination of eclectic interest in that which is a criss-cross patchwork quilt of a “Pagan-Reverie”. Philosophical, religious Pythagoreanism revived. This all has to do with our coming of age with the Ancients and their Mystery Schools.
                             
                            There is some basic history earth that we accept among our more general populace as the normal way to think. The Global Brain Train is now about speeding up that which in the past was only known among those who were the students of the fringe movements in the occult metaphysical worlds of words as knowledge. 
                             
                            There was not a lot that was shared unless one was in a secret club or allowed into a certain level or class in society. The future will be different and will be more about those on earth who are found deserving of more intelligence and knowledge.
                             
                            We have various beings on earth who have agreed to come back or return to earth to serve in various positions. These positions are labeled in the NEW AGE world of words and categorized as key words that make sense on the Internet to search engines such as Google. We are changing the way we all share information and we are becoming dependent on our computers. This was expected and planned in the larger Global Brain Train for all sentient intelligent beings on earth.
                             
                            We shall be sharing more in the future that deals with how the plan was carried out with those of the past as Masters who came to earth. Some were called the Sons and daughters of God who were seen only among the chosen mystics and world leaders at certain times in our ancient civilizations on earth.
                             
                            Thus the veil of secrecy came into existence and the chosen and the mystics and Shamans through time became the keepers of the stories and history. the veil that was created inside a tent and covered by cloud or fire so that those who were ignorant of those above could not be concerned and run in fear of the unknown. All was planned for the future in order to allow the human primitive mind to adjust over time and through generations to evolve in thought processing for the global mind.
                             
                            We shall share the future of the past Masters with those who care to train their brains. We shall observe certain beings as lights as they appear from afar off in space. This DNA enhancement has worked for us in the past. We have had certain of our kind that have come to earth and were allowed to live among those who were not aware of the changes in time and in the mind of the all that lived upon the earth. 
                             
                            We shall share more of those who are called the Time Lords who oversee that which occurs in what we call time and light on earth. We shall share that which appears as magnetism and in the future we shall allow those who are the deserving to know of the GOD Particle.
                             
                            There are various mystic sages who fathered in our secular inquiry on earth which will share our desire to complete a universal train track of threads to complete our quilt of information for us to cover ourselves with what we all can feel comfortable with on earth.
                             
                            There is much history that has been shared throughout time on this planet. The NEW AGE movement is thought to be “NEW”. Those of us who frequent book stores and who are into the occult and unknown wisdom of the universe all seem to gravitate towards the areas called NEW AGE. We enjoy the latest books in science and philosophy as well. We are all about ancient civilizations and most of us are not are we are adventurer’s of the archaeologists and researchers of Folklife.
                             
                            Since the making of the George Lucas film Star Wars who introduced all of us to a new level of learning outside of our own planet, we have enjoyed the movies of “Indiana Jones”. Many children who grew up in the 50’s and 60’s that were a part of the “Baby Boomer” generation became advocates of star travel and those who from the heavens or space came.
                             
                            We will be sharing much history through clues we shall share that will seem different or not normal as in paranormal. This is also a time to remind those of the story tellers who laid out a foundation for myths and legends that were sometimes used when it was too dangerous on earth to tell the truth.
                             
                            We are all about learning about critical thinking and how we use our brains to challenge that which we perceive as truth versus falsehoods. We will learn about the positive and the negative of energy.
                             
                            We shall share that which has been passed down from father to son and from mother to daughter. We shall learn how through time on earth the general populace has been. Kept from knowing more because of those who chose to control the information.
                             
                            Information and knowledge is control and power.
                             
                            We will share information for those who are our friends and feel they can handle the paranormal, supernatural, and what is called the weird and woo to some as in whacky weed smokers delusions. We want to encourage those who are willing to accommodate their comfort zone with a spin through the time zones or what to some in the realms of existence who explore the unknown zone also called the XENO or X-ZONE.
                             
                            Some of the past information that has begun blending together for some who thought all of the past was merely folktale will have to reconsider and revise some thought patterns.
                             
                            For starters, some of what is in the past legends and myths are truth. Take time to read some of the stories on the Internet of a past that is near and dear to those of us who are called the ascended masters of ascension. We are taught by some of the greatest minds and spirits that ever walked the earth. Some were called Gods and Goddesses while others were considered angels of light and were servants to the Time Lords and Demi Gods of space.  Here are some of the places that those of the ancients or those who lived on earth at a time when those of space came to earth and have never stopped visiting earth. We have always been visited and it is time we begin to reveal the truth to all that have only a small idea of what religion has controlled with Kings of empires of the past civilizations.
                             
                            We are now about globalization and the future that will begin anew on December 21, 2012 at 11:11 as this time passes around this planet we call earth. Enjoy the future that will be written and rewritten by those who are chosen to not only please the mind but the spirit with energy and rhythms for the entire Omniverse of enlightened beings and intelligent beings  We shall learn about the past stories and creating content on the Internet.
                             
                            Some of the information one might enjoy researching is dealing with the ancient civilizations and cities of the past on earth. Some are written about and the information is combined and a culmination of some our members. The below is a collection of information we thought one might enjoy when time allows. We hope that the length and size will be allowed for convenience and storage on UFO Digest. TJ (Below 20,165 words)ATLANTIS, LEMURIA, MU, SHAMBALLA, OLDEST CITIES ON EARTH OFFER NEW AGE ENLIGHTENMENT THROUGH THE EXTRATERRESTRIALS WHO FROM THE HEAVENS CAME
                             
                             
                            THIS IS OUR LEGACY TO BECOME AWARE OF WHAT OUR ANCESTOR’S
                            KNEW AND LEFT US CLUES TO FIND WHILE WE ARE SERVING OUR TIME ON EARTH!
                             
                            We are all to remember our beginning not of this planet but of the homeworld. Some of us were well defined and seeded here from Mars before it was hit by an asteroid and was knocked off course. This planet took it’s place in the solar system that we call home with a sun and moon.
                             
                            The first ancient cities were of a continent that was once all one and was split where a great lake became an ocean now called the Atlantic Ocean.
                             
                            Lemuria and Mu are sometimes distinct and sometimes interchangeable names for a legendary lost continent, which, according to its proponents, existed in the Caribbean Ocean and had many of the attributes associated with Atlantis.
                             
                             The mysterious lost lands of Lemuria and Mu were conceived of during the nineteenth century, when the theory of evolution was introduced and was among the advances in the sciences that challenged conventional ways of understanding life. Archaeological discoveries among the ruins of the Egyptians, Mayans, and other societies were forcing new interpretations of history, and radical forms of mysticism, such as Theosophy, were becoming popular.
                             
                            References to the lost continent of Mu can be traced back to 1864 and a French archaeologist named Charles-Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg. He had become fascinated by hieroglyphics found on Mayan ruins that dated back several centuries. By the time Spanish explorers had reached the New World areas of Mexico and Central America in the 1500s, the great centers of Mayan civilization had long been abandoned and were being reclaimed by the rainforest.
                             
                            Brasseur traveled to Spain to look at artifacts of Mayan civilization. In a library in Madrid he discovered a purported guide to Mayan hieroglyphics. Using the guide to decipher a rare Mayan manuscript, he learned about an ancient land that had sunk into the ocean after a volcanic eruption. Figures corresponding to letters "M" and "U" were connected with the lost land, and Brasseur determined that the lost continent was named Mu. Using that same guide, however, later scholars were unable to decipher such a story, or to even make sustained and meaningful text from the hieroglyphics. It was not until the mid-twentieth century that a thorough guide to interpreting Mayan hieroglyphics was established.
                             
                            Nevertheless, Brasseur's version of a lost continent won some favorable attention. An archaeologist named Augustus Plongeon (1825–1908) used a similar key to decipher hieroglyphics at one of the first excavations of Mayan sites. He allegedly uncovered a story about two brothers who vied for a queen named Moo (which he connected with Mu). One of the brothers was killed, and the other took power just before a catastrophe struck Mu. Queen Moo fled before the catastrophe. Speculations quickly added that she had reached Egypt, became revered as the goddess Isis, founded Egyptian civilization, and directed the building of the Sphinx.
                             
                            In the mid-nineteenth century, Charles Darwin's (1809–1882) theory of evolution, Origin of the Species, was published. Although the theory became widely accepted among scientists, it was also extremely controversial. One point of contention concerned an animal and layers of sediment found in South Africa, the island of Madagascar, and India—all of which are in the same region but separated by expanses of water. The lemur, a predecessor of monkeys, had the same traits in each locale. According to Darwin's theory, the animal should have developed some unique traits respective to the different environments. Similarities in sediments in each of the areas also raised questions. Scientists began to speculate that a land bridge once existed in the Indian Ocean that connected the three areas.
                             
                            English zoologist Phillip L. Schlater proposed the name Lemuria after the lemur for this former land now sunk in the Indian Ocean. The land bridge idea was supported by noted scientists, including German naturalist Heinrich Haeckel (1834–1919) and Alfred Russell Wallace (1823–1913), who had developed a theory of evolution similar to Darwin's. Seas and continents were thought to be immobile in those days before the theory of continental drift, and no fossils of early humans had yet been found. Haeckel used Lemuria, which had sunk into the sea, to explain the absence of early human fossils. Lemuria became a respected term among educated people in Europe and America.
                             
                            Thus, the lost continent of Lemuria began with science, but its renown spread and has been sustained through mysticism. Science has since discounted the land bridge and lost continent theories, and evidence of early humans was found during the twentieth century in Africa.
                             
                            James Churchward (1832–1936) was among the first mystics to promote Lemuria as the lost continent of an advanced human race. Beginning in the 1870s, Churchward said Lemuria was a paradise of 64 million people, and that it was destroyed around 10,000 B.C.E. According to Churchward, Lemurians developed homes with transparent roofs, lived to be hundreds of years old, and were capable of telepathy, astral travel, and teleportation. Lemuria, according to Churchward, was about 5,000 miles long and 3,000 miles wide and stretched to the Pacific Ocean, where islands of the present day are former mountain peaks of the lost continent.
                             
                            In the 1880s, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831–1891) formed the Theosophical Society with psychic investigator Henry Steel Olcott. In her book The Secret Doctrine (1888), she claimed to have learned of Lemuria in The Book of Dzyan, which she said was composed in Atlantis and shown to her by survivors of that lost continent. Her source may have been Sanskrit legends that tell of the former continent of Rutas that sank beneath the sea.
                             
                            Lemurians, according to Blavatsky, were the third of seven root races of humankind. They were hermaphrodites with psychic abilities and a third eye. Atlanteans, she stated, were the fourth root race. They evolved from Lemurians after much of Lemuria sank, and they lived on the edge of the continent in the northern Atlantic. Atlantis sank around 8,000 B.C.E., according to Blavatsky, and its inhabitants fled to central Asia.
                             
                            Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925), who founded Anthroposophy, was another proponent of Lemuria. Other mystics have envisioned the Elders of Lemuria, known as the Thirteenth School, who moved to an uninhabited plateau of Central Asia now called Tibet before the catastrophe that wiped out their land. They established a library and a school of spiritual adepts known as the Great White Brotherhood.
                             
                            Certain land masses on the planet are supposedly the last remains of Lemuria, from Pacific islands (Fiji, Hawaii, and Easter Island) to the west coast of the United States. According to some Lemurian enthusiasts, in 1972 the ruins of a submerged Lemurian city was found between Maui and Oahu in the Hawaiian island chain and was covered up in a top-secret project by U.S. Naval Intelligence.
                             
                            One of the greatest discoveries in the history of archaeology was made last summer, off Japan There, spread over an amazing 311 miles on the ocean floor, are the well-preserved remains of an ancient city. Or at the very least, a number of closely related sites.
                             
                            In the waters around Okinawa and beyond to the small island of Yonaguni, divers located eight separate locations beginning in March 1995. That first sighting was equivocal - a provocative, squared structure, so encrusted with coral that its manmade identity was uncertain. Then, as recently as the summer of 1996, a sports diver accidentally discovered a huge, angular platform about 40 feet below the surface, off the southwestern shore of Okinawa. The feature’s artificial provenance was beyond question. Widening their search, teams of more divers found another, different monument nearby. Then another, and another. They beheld long streets, grand boulevards, majestic staircases, magnificent archways, enormous blocks of perfectly cut and fitted stone - all harmoniously welded together in a linear architecture unlike anything they had ever seen before.
                             
                            In the following weeks and months, Japan’s archaeological community joined the feeding-frenzy of discovery. Trained professionals formed a healthy alliance with the enthusiasts who first made the find. In a progressive spirit of mutual respect an working alliance, academics and amateurs joined forces to set an example of   cooperation for the rest of the world. Their common cause soon bore rich fruit. In september, not far from the shore of the island of Yonaguni, more then 300 airline miles south from Okinawa, they found a gigantic, pyramidal structure in 100 feet of water. In what appeared to be a ceremonial center of broad promenades and flanking pylons, the gargantuan building measures 240 feet long.
                             
                            Exceptionally clear sub-surface clarity, with 100 foot visibility a common factor, allowed for thorough photographic documentation, both still photography and video. These images provided the basis of japan’s leading headlines for more than a year. Yet, not a word about the Okinawa discovery reached the US public, until the magazine, “Ancient American” broke the news last spring. Since that scoop, only the CNN network televised a report about Japan’s underwater city. Nothing about it has been mentioned in any of the nation’s other archaeology publications, not even in any of our daily newspapers. One would imagine that such a mind-boggling find would be the most exciting piece of news an archaeologist could possibly hope to learn. 
                             
                            Even so, outside of the “Ancient American” and CNN’s single report, the pall of silence covering all the facts about Okinawa’s structures screens them from view more effectively then their location at the bottom of the sea. Why? How can this appalling neglect persist in the face of a discovery of such unparalleled magnitude? At the risk  of accusations of paranoia, one might conclude that a real conspiracy of managed information dominates America’s well-springs of public knowledge.
                            Frank Joseph - “Ancient American”
                            .
                            Divers Find World's Oldest Building
                            by Trushar Barot
                            A STRUCTURE thought to be the world's oldest building, nearly twice the age of the great pyramids of Egypt, has been discovered. The rectangular stone ziggurat under the sea off the coast of Japan could be the first evidence of a previously unknown Stone Age civilisation, say archeologists.
                            The monument is 600ft wide and 90ft high and has been dated to at least 8000BC. The oldest pyramid in Egypt, the Step Pyramid at Saqqara, was constructed more than 5,000 years later.
                             
                            The structure off Yonaguni, a small island southwest of Okinawa, was first discovered 75ft underwater by scuba divers 10 years ago and locals believed it was a natural phenomenon.
                             
                            Professor Masaki Kimura, a geologist at Ryukyu University in Okinawa, was the first scientist to investigate the site and has concluded that the mysterious five-layer structure was man-made. "The object has not been manufactured by nature. If that had been the case, one would expect debris from erosion to have collected around the site, but there are no rock fragments there," he said.
                             
                            The discovery of what appears to be a road surrounding the building was further evidence that the structure was made by humans, he added.
                             
                            Robert Schoch, professor of geology at Boston University, dived at the site last month. "It basically looks like a series of huge steps, each about a metre high. Essentially, it's a cliff face like the side of a stepped pyramid. It's a very interesting structure," he said. "It's possible that natural water erosion combined with the process of cracked rocks splitting created such a structure, but I haven't come across such processes creating a structure as sharp as this."
                             
                            Further evidence that the structure is the work of humans came with the discovery of smaller underwater stone mounds nearby. Like the main building, these mini-ziggurats are made of stepped slabs and are about 10m wide and 2m high.
                            Kimura said it was too early to know who built the monument or its purpose. "The structure could be an ancient religious shrine, possibly celebrating an ancient deity resembling the god Nirai-Kanai, whom locals say gave happiness to the people of Okinawa from beyond the sea. This could be evidence of a new culture as there are no records of a people intelligent enough to have built such a monument 10,000 years ago," he said.
                            "This could only have been done by a people with a high degree of technology, probably coming from the Asian continent, where the oldest civilisations originate. There would have to have been some sort of machinery involved to have created such a huge structure."
                             
                            Teruaki Ishii, professor of geology at Tokyo University, said the structure dated back to at least 8000BC when the land on which it was constructed was submerged at the end of the last ice age. "I hope this site is artificial as it would be very exciting. But at this time I feel it is too early to say. I think the structure could be natural, but part of it may have been made," he said.
                            The first signs of civilisation in Japan are traced to the Neolithic period around 9000BC. The people at this time lived as hunters and food- gatherers. There is nothing in the archeological record to suggest the presence of a culture advanced enough to have built a structure like the ziggurat.
                             
                            British archeologists are, however, cautiously enthusiastic about the discovery which will be featured this summer in a Channel 4 documentary.
                             
                            Jim Mower, an archeologist at University College London, said: "If it is confirmed that the site is as old as 10,000 years and is man-made, then this is going to change an awful lot of the previous thinking on southeast Asian history. It would put the people who made the monument on a par with the ancient civilisation of Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley."
                             
                             
                            HAVE THESE ARTIFACTS BEEN DESTROYED?
                             
                            Magnitude 7.7 quake hits Okinawa, causes minor tsunamis
                            Yonaguni Island nearest to underwater pyramids at: 123 E 24.30 N
                            Quake: 125 E 22.40N
                            Kyodo News Service
                            TOKYO, May 4 (Kyodo) - An earthquake of an estimated magnitude 7.7 on the open-ended Richter scale jolted Okinawa Prefecture, southwestern Japan, on Monday morning, causing some tsunamis along the coasts of the island prefecture, the Meteorological Agency said.
                            A number of tourists were visiting the subtropical islands for the Golden Week holidays, but police and coast guard have not received reports of casualties or damage from the temblor or tidal waves.
                            The agency lifted a tsunami or tidal wave warning at 11:15 a.m., two and a half hours after it was issued along the coasts of the islands affected by the quake, as well as along the coasts of Osaka and Wakayama prefectures in western Japan and those of Kyushu and Shikoku -- two of Japan's four main islands.
                            The quake occurred around 8:30 a.m. and registered 3 on the Japanese intensity scale of 7 on Iriomotejima, Ishigakijima, Taramajima, Yonagunijima and Miyakojima islands, according to the agency.
                            Its focus was in the Pacific, about 20 kilometers below the seabed about 260 km southeast of Ishigakijima, the agency said.
                            ''I initially thought it was a fire'' because the alarm system was activated after the quake jolted the region, said Takaharu Shimoji, a hotel employee in Miyakojima Island said.
                            Kenyu Kawamitsu, a local fishery cooperative employee, said the quake lasted about two minutes.
                            After 9 a.m., a tidal wave less than 10 centimeters high reached Ishigakijima and tsunamis of several cm arrived in Yonagunijima and Miyakojima and the Okinawa prefectural capital of Naha, the agency said.
                            One plate in the earth's crust has been subducting another at this location, causing major quakes, said Megumi Mizoue, professor emeritus of seismology at the University of Tokyo.
                            Separately, a series of moderate quakes hit the Izu Peninsula, southwest of Tokyo, in the morning.
                            Ten quakes that could be felt, measuring an estimated 2.7 to 4.0 on the Richter scale, occurred between 6:39 a.m. and 8:16 a.m. Their focuses were some 10 km or less below the seabed off the east coast of the peninsula, the agency said.
                            The largest of the quakes took place around 6:44 a.m., measuring 3 on the Japanese scale in Ito, Shizuoka Prefecture, the agency said.
                            Many more temblors that could not be felt occurred on the peninsula -- more than 120 between 7 a.m. and 8 a.m. and 13 between 8 a.m. and 2 p.m.
                            The peninsula, dotted with hot spring resorts, has been hit by a new series of earthquakes since April 20. It experienced a number of fairly strong quakes in March last year.
                            AP-NY-05-04-98 0044EDT
                            A Short History of Lemuria
                             
                             
                             
                            After all, isn't Mu just a shortened form of Lemuria?    For more information read:
                            Mysterious Places by Daniel Dodd, Mead & Company, New York
                            Lost Continents by L. Sprague de Camp, Random House, New York
                            The Secret Doctrine by Elena Petrovna Blavatsky,
                             Theosophical Pub. House, 1888 - 1938, 6 vols.
                            Le-mur-i-a   n. [ Mod. L. so called from Haeckel's idea that it was the original home of lemuroid primates ], a hypothetical continent thought by some to have existed long ago, now supposedly covered by the Indian Ocean.
                            From Webster's New World Dictionary,
                            The World Publishing Company, Cleveland and New York.
                             
                            Man’s earliest surviving written records date from around 3500 B.C.
                            By scientifically testing objects found on the site of ruins, historians have found that the oldest city on earth is probably Jericho, which is near the Dead Sea in present-day Israel.
                            As many as 3,000 people may have lived there around the year 7800 B.C., thousands of years before man even learned how to write!
                            But another, smaller village in Mesopotamia may be even older than Jericho. The city, called Zawi Chemi Shanidar, was probably founded around the year 9000 B.C.!
                            orld
                            The 10 Oldest Cities on Earth
                            posted in World . posted by Dave Emery on September 07, 2008 . 161 Comments
                            82
                            There’s something fascinating about ancient cities that makes you want to explore everything they have to offer. If you, too, love to explore ancient civilizations or what remains of them, we have put together a list of the 10 oldest cities in the world that are still standing, reminiscent of how people lived millenniums ago.
                            10. Lisbon, Portugal (2000 B.C.?)
                             
                            Set on seven low hills, on the north banks of the River Tagus, Lisbon’s charm is strongly linked to the past. Lisbon was first inhabited by Iberian people, responsible for building the megaliths. After centuries of growing, Lisbon is now one of the liveliest cities in Europe. The renovated palaces, magnificent churches and Art Nouveau buildings are just a few of the things that make up the city’s cultural heritage. There’s an impressive collection of ancient and modern art in many of the city’s museums such as the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, the National Coach Museum, and the Carmo Archaeological Museum. When you’ve seen all the cultural attractions, be sure to head down to Bairro Alto, the center of nightlife, packed with restaurants, bars and clubs. There are also plenty of shopping opportunities either for local merchandise at the Campo de Santa Clara or famous brands in the Centro Commercial Colombo.
                            9. Luxor, Egypt (before 2160 B.C.)
                             
                            Luxor, previously known as the ancient city of Thebes, the glorious city of the God Amon Ra, has been a hot tourist destination since tourism began. The area started attracting tourists ever since the Greek and Roman periods. Luxor is one of the most popular cities in Egypt, its stars being the monuments of Luxor, Karnak, Hatshepsut and Ramses III. There’s no wonder the city is often referred to as the world’s greatest open air museum, having a great number of well-preserved monuments. The city in itself actually consists of three distinct areas: the City of Luxor on the East side of the Nile, the town of Karnak and Thebes on the west side of the Nile, across from Luxor. You can bargain your way for anything in the city’s bazaar or enjoy the vegetarian paradise Luxor’s restaurants offer its tourists.
                            8. Asyut, Egypt (before 2160 B.C.)
                             
                            Located 375km south of Cairo, Asyut is the largest town in Upper Egypt and the first settled in Pharaonic times. Today, Asyut is the region’s most important agricultural center and home of the third largest university in Egypt. The city has almost 400,000 inhabitants, having the highest concentration of Coptic Christians. It is said that Virgin Mary appeared in Asyut, an apparition even attested by the church. Apart from the religious value, Banana Island is a great place to relax, while the 19th century barrage on the North Edge of the city is a popular destination among tourists.
                            7. Xi’an, China (2205 B.C.?)
                             
                            With a history of over 3,000 years, the city is one of the most important in Chinese history, being one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. Xi’an, the eternal city, enjoys fame equal to that of other famous cities such as Athens, Cairo, or Rome. The abundance of relics and sites of important cultural significance gained the city the title of a Natural History Museum. Furthermore, the Museum of Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses is often referred to as “the eighth major miracle of the world”. The City Wall of the Ming Dynasty is the most well-preserved towns in the world of that period while the Famen Temple holds the finger bones of Sakyamuni — the founder of Buddhism. All in all, Xi’an is one of the most valuable places to get a taste of ancient China and their traditions.
                            6. Giza, Egypt (before 2568 B.C.)
                             
                            “From atop these pyramids, forty centuries look down upon you.” — Napoleon Bonaparte to his soldiers before the Battle of Giza, 1798. Contrary to popular belief, Giza is a city in itself, but which got absorbed by the rapidly developing metropolis of Cairo. It holds one of the most important attractions in Egypt – the Pyramids of Giza, coupled with the Sphinx at the base of the Giza plateau. Giza’s desert plateau will be part of the Grand Museum of Egypt, a project to be completed in 2012 that will replace the Egyptian Museum in Midan Tahrir.
                            5. Konya, Turkey (2600 B.C.?)
                             
                            Located 250 km from the Mediterranean Sea and 500 km from the Black Sea, at an altitude of over 1000 meters in the Anatolian steppe, Konya is one of Turkey’s most fascinating cities, full of mosques and museums. One of the most popular museums is the Green Mausoleum of Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi, a great Turkish poet. Konya has a vast array of historical finds, kept in several museums, such as the Archaeological Museum, the Koyunoglu Museum or the Ethnographical Museum.
                            4. Zurich, Switzerland (3000 B.C.?)
                             
                            Switzerland’s biggest city and one of the oldest cities in Europe, Zurich was established in Roman times under the name Turicum. Traces of these times can be found throughout the Old Town – narrow streets filed with antique shops, boutiques and cafes. Shopping is concentrated around the famous Bahnhofstrasse, one of the most beautiful shopping streets in Europe. Besides shopping, you can explore the city’s culture by visiting Grossmünster or Fraumünster – two old churches with amazing interiors, the Swiss National Museum or Kunsthaus, another popular museum. Head down to Aussersihl – a newly developed area filled with bars, clubs, restaurants where you can get a taste of the real Swiss life. After seeing the city, you’ll surely find out why it was named the city with the best quality of life in the world.
                            3. Kirkuk, Iraq (3000 B.C.?)
                             
                            With archaeological remains that are over 5,000 years old, Kirkuk is an important city for the Kurdish identity and also the center of the Iraqi petroleum industry. While it may not be the most inviting tourist destination, Kirkuk stands on the site of the ancient Assyrian, once being the battlegrounds for three empires, Assyria, Babylonia, and Media that took turns controlling the city. Sights include the citadel, the tomb of Prophet Daniel, and Al Qaysareyah Market. If you want to go back in time and see the remains of the ancient city, visit archaeological sites of Qal’at Jarmo and Yorgan Tepe, located at the outskirts of the city.
                            2. Jerusalem, Israel (3000 B.C.?)
                            A holy city for three different religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, Jerusalem is the place where ancient values combine with modern culture to bring a fascinating metropolis. Jerusalem is divided into three parts – West Jerusalem, the rapidly developing commercial part of the city, East Jerusalem – home for the majority of the Arab population, and the Old City – a truly breathtaking location, declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. Once you get tired of sightseeing, you can check out the marketplace, a place teeming with tourist shops.
                            1. Gaziantep, Turkey (3650 B.C.?)
                             
                            The capital city of Gaziantep Province informally known as Antep is the oldest city that’s still standing, with a history dating back to the Hittites period. It was continually inhabited ever since the Paleolithic age, experiencing serious growth along with the Ottoman Empire. Today, Gaziantep is a friendly, upbeat city with numerous mosques, medresse, inns and baths from centuries ago. The stone houses and vibrant bazaars are bordered by beautiful gardens and vineyards, combining in a spectacular sight anywhere you turn. With several museums and holy places, you’ll surely need more than one day to experience everything Gaziantep has to offer.
                             
                             
                            LOST CITY OF ATLANTIS FOUND?
                             
                            t’s an old story, and an older quest. More than 2,000 books have been written about the lost island civilisation described by Plato. Scientists and cranks, mystics and opportunists and many others in between have been seeking and speculating about Atlantis. The island has been located in places as far apart and improbable as the Antarctic and the South China Sea, Scandinavia and the Azores.
                             
                            The floor of the ocean in the rough area where Plato apparently located it, in the Atlantic west of the Straits of Gibraltar, known to the ancient world as the Pillars of Hercules, has been well scoured, without success. What’s different about the latest attempt is that the man behind it, a 39-year-old Iranian-American called Robert Sarmast, displays no doubts: he is convinced that he has discovered Atlantis. 
                            This month on his website, discoveryofatlantis.com, he published three dimensional images which he claims prove the existence of the acropolis of Atlantis, seven kilometres off the Cyprus coast and 1,000 metres below the surface.
                             
                            He has persuaded a mainstream American documentary maker, TMC Entertainment, based in Los Angeles, to climb on board, and sink tens of thousands of dollars into making a two-hour live special on Sarmast’s final expedition and the “filming of the structures” next year. 
                            “This TV special,” says the company, “will enable viewers worldwide to participate in the thrill of discovery as they watch, live on their own TV screens, as manned submarines film underwater ROV submersibles blasting sediment off the buried structures — revealing the full detail of what has lain hidden for probably more than 12,000 years.”
                             
                            TMC producer Drew S Levin said: “We are thrilled to be associated with what may in fact be the greatest archaeological discovery of modern times. All the indications are that Robert and his team of highly credentialed researchers have indeed found the acropolis of the lost Atlantis ....” 
                            Sarmast has described what he is going to reveal to the world so vividly it is as if we are already standing and blinking before it. He believes that Cyprus was merely the highest mountain range at the north-western tip of Atlantis. The ancient land itself spread eastwards towards what is now Syria. He says: “Right below Larnaca was a fresh-water lake; from Ayia Napa” — today a resort in the far south-east of Cyprus famous for its raves — “begins the western edge of the Atlantis plain, which goes all the way to the coast of Syria. The acropolis of the lost city is exactly seven miles off Cyprus.”
                             
                            And the buildings that still stand on it, Sarmast assures us, will be the oldest buildings the eye of modern man has ever fallen on, and will make “the pyramids of ancient Egypt look like modern buildings” in contrast. 
                            Unlike the Parthenon in Athens, which succumbed slowly to dust, pollution and the attrition of centuries, Atlantis was drowned in a stroke by a mighty, god-sent tidal wave with the extraordinary result, Mr Sarmast is sure, (and he has his bathymetric maps to back him up) that Atlantis is still there. 
                            If Plato is to be believed, the buildings of Atlantis were dazzling in their splendour: the innermost temple (where the god Poseidon, incidentally, fathered Atlas on the mortal female Cleito) was vast, its walls covered with silver, the interior clad with ivory, decorated with gold, silver and orichalcum. 
                            It was filled with golden statues, the most magnificent being of Poseidon in a chariot drawn by winged horses, surrounded by 100 Nereids riding on dolphins. 
                            Sarmast claims all these marvels are still in place. “The city of Atlantis is submerged under thousands of feet of water,” says Sarmast, “a situation that has fortunately insured the preservation of the colossal ruins. The ultimate aim is to locate and film its many stone temples, palaces, roads, bridges and artefacts. The whole world is going to shift to this island,” he predicts.
                             
                            “It will be the greatest archaeological discovery in history. It will change religion, it will change politics and science. The ramifications are almost endless. Cyprus will be the talk of the world for the next 500 years.” 
                            Why should Sarmast, 39 years old and with no qualifications in archaeology or ancient history, persuade a major television company that he is right when so many other seekers have been wrong? He’s got several things on his side. He is staking his claim in the age of the internet, a medium which incubates New Age fantasies the way mould grows on a compost heap.
                             
                            He is at work in an age with a vast appetite for vivid, speculative documentaries, an age also when scientists are so desperate for a crust that they think nothing of lending their names to a cause as laughable as Intelligent Design (though to be fair, the involvement in Sarmast’s project to date of specialists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has been limited to providing 2,500 pages of seafloor maps). 
                            But the main thing that marks him out is certainty. He does not have a theory; he has made “an unprecedented series of findings”. He is not hopeful of success: he is already triumphant. Of the latest ocean floor images “published today to the world Press and scientific community on the official Cyprus Atlantis Expedition website”,his spokesperson declared earlier this month, “triumphant expedition leader American Robert Sarmast is confident [the images], which include a three-kilometre straight wall intersected at right angles by another wall, will finally silence any remaining scepticism about his long-standing claims that modern Cyprus is what remains of a much larger and now partly sunken landmass — a landmass which fits Plato’s description of the ancient land of Atlantis perfectly.”
                             
                            “Robert Sarmast gave up a promising career in architecture to pursue his lifelong passion for ancient history, world mythology and the search for lost civilizations,” according to his website. The first fruits of that passion, his “breakout book”, was Discovery of Atlantis: the Startling Case for the Island of Cyprus, published in 2003. Last year he arrived on the island and launched his first expedition, and he has been coming back regularly since. 
                            Inevitably there are people who would deny him glory, who point out, in contrast to the island described by Plato, Cyprus is neither beyond the Pillars of Hercules, nor in an ocean, nor bigger than Libya and Asia combined. And there are others with even keener objections.
                             
                            Last October a French geologist called Dr Michel Morisseau, who lives in Cyprus, challenged Mr Sarmast to a public debate. “I was shocked by the news [of his claim to have identified the acropolis],” he said. 
                            “Because it has nothing to do with the geological facts ... How can you prove that a mythical city, supposedly built above sea level, is now sitting 1,800 metres below sea level without any damage? What was the process of the subsidence? If there was a rapid subsidence it should be upside down and you would not be able to recognise anything. You would not be able to recognise a wall ... Everything would have been destroyed.” 
                            few days later a German physical geographer and marine geologist, Ulf Erlingsson, logged his own criticisms from his home in Florida. Sarmast’s Atlantis, he pointed out, “is not positioned outside the Pillars of Hercules, nor in an ocean.” Sarmast has not stumbled on the walls of the temples on Atlantis’s acropolis, he said, but an underwater volcano. By chance Dr Erlingsson and two other scientists surveyed the area in 2003. “The real killer of the hypothesis,” he went on, “is that 100,000-year-old mud volcanoes exist on the spot. How then could it have been dry land only 12,000 years ago?” Mr Sarmast has yet to rebut these objections in detail. But maybe it doesn’t matter. He has yet to break his stride. People love a good yarn, particularly with the lure of solid gold, dolphin-riding Nereids gleaming at the far end.
                             
                            And even if there is no gold off the Cyprus coast, there seems to be plenty of money in the venture — earlier this year the Cyprus Tourist Organisation announced it was renewing its funding, to thwart a feared counter-bid from the Turkish Cypriot authorities.
                             
                            There is no good reason to believe that Atlantis really existed, any more than Plato’s famous cave existed: like the cave, it was probably just the philosopher’s vivid way of getting across a moral message. 
                            The first person to pour scorn on the Atlantis story was Aristotle. “The man who dreamed it up,” he said, speaking of Plato, “made it vanish”. Yet no matter how many wise people say it’s all tosh, many will watch Sarmast’s progress agog, eager to believe there is something real down there, not just a muddy old volcano. The capital of Atlantis as described by Plato.  photo is a (Copyright Lee Krystek 2006)
                            The idea of a lost, but highly advanced civilization has captured the interest of people for centuries. Perhaps the most compelling of these tales is the story of Atlantis. The story appears again and again in books, television shows and movies. Where did the story originate and is any of it true?
                            Plato's Atlantis
                            The story of the lost continent of Atlantis starts in 355 B.C. with the Greek philosopher Plato. Plato had planned to write a trilogy of books discussing the nature of man, the creation of the world, and the story of Atlantis, as well as other subjects. Only the first book was ever completed. The second book was abandoned part way through, and the final book was never even started.
                             
                            The idea of a lost, but highly advanced civilization has captured the interest of people for centuries. Perhaps the most compelling of these tales is the story of Atlantis. The story appears again and again in books, television shows and movies. Where did the story originate and is any of it true?
                            Plato's Atlantis
                            The story of the lost continent of Atlantis starts in 355 B.C. with the Greek philosopher Plato. Plato had planned to write a trilogy of books discussing the nature of man, the creation of the world, and the story of Atlantis, as well as other subjects. Only the first book was ever completed. The second book was abandoned part way through, and the final book was never even started.
                             
                            Plato used dialogues to express his ideas. In this type of writing, the author's thoughts are explored in a series of arguments and debates between various characters in the story. Plato often used real people in his dialogues, such as his teacher, Socrates, but the words he gave them were his own.
                             
                            In Plato's book, Timaeus, a character named Kritias tells an account of Atlantis that has been in his family for generations. According to the character, the story was originally told to his ancestor, Solon, by a priest during Solon's visit to Egypt.
                            There had been a powerful empire located to the west of the "Pillars of Hercules" (what we now call the Straight of Gibraltar) on an island in the Atlantic Ocean. The nation there had been established by Poseidon, the God of the Sea. Poseidon fathered five sets of twins on the island. The firstborn, Atlas, had the continent and the surrounding ocean named for him. Poseidon divided the land into ten sections, each to be ruled by a son, or his heirs.
                             
                            The capital city of Atlantis was a marvel of architecture and engineering. The city was composed of a series of concentric walls and canals. At the very center was a hill, and on top of the hill a temple to Poseidon. Inside was a gold statue of the God of the Sea showing him driving six winged horses.
                             
                            About 9000 years before the time of Plato, after the people of Atlantis became corrupt and greedy, the gods decided to destroy them. A violent earthquake shook the land, giant waves rolled over the shores, and the island sank into the sea, never to be seen again.
                             
                            So, is the story of Atlantis just a fable used by Plato to make a point? Or is there some reason to think he was referring to a real place? Well, at numerous points in the dialogues, Plato's characters refer to the story of Atlantis as "genuine history" and it being within "the realm of fact." Plato also seems to put into the story a lot of detail about Atlantis that would be unnecessary if he had intended to use it only as a literary device.
                             
                            On the other hand according to the writings of the historian Strabo, Plato's student Aristotle remarked that Atlantis was simply created by Plato to illustrate a point. Unfortunately, Aristotle's writings on this subject, which might have cleared the mystery up, have been lost eons ago.
                             
                            Location, Location, Location
                            If we make the assumption that Atlantis was a real place, it seems logical that it could be found west of the Straight of Gibraltar near the Azores Islands. In 1882 a man named Ignatius Donnelly published a book titledAtlantis, the Antediluvian World. Donnelly, an American politician, had come to the belief that Plato's story represented actual historical fact. He located Atlantis in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, suggesting the Azores Islands represented what remained of the highest mountain peaks. Donnelly said he had studied zoology and geology and had come to the conclusion that civilization itself had begun with the Atlantians and had spread out throughout the world as the Atlantians established colonies in places like ancient Egypt and Peru. Donnelly's book became a world-wide best seller, but researchers could not take Donnelly's theories seriously as he offered no proof for his ideas.
                            As time when on it became obvious that Donnelly's theories were faulty. Modern scientific surveys of the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean shows it is covered with a blanket of sediment that must have taken millions of years to accumulate. There is no sign of a sunken island continent.
                            Are there any other candidates for the location of Atlantis? People have made cases for places as diverse as Switzerland, in the middle of Europe, and New Zealand, in the Pacific Ocean. The explorer, Percy Fawcett, thought that it might be located in Brazil. One of the most convincing arguments, though, came from K.T. Frost, a professor of history at the Queen's University in Belfast. Later, Spyridon Marinatos, an archaeologist, and A.G. Galanopoulos, a seismologist, added evidence to Frost's ideas.
                            The Minoan Connection
                            Frost suggested that instead of being west of the Pillars of Hercules, Atlantis was east. He also thought that the catastrophic end of the island had come not 9000 years before Plato's time, but only 900. If this was true, the land of Atlantis might already be a well-known place even in Plato's time: the island of Crete.
                             
                            Crete is now a part of modern Greece and lies just south of Athens across part of the Mediterranean Sea. Before 1500 B.C. it was the seat of the Minoan Empire. The Minoans dominated the eastern Mediterranean with a powerful navy and probably extracted tribute from other surrounding nations. Archaeological excavations have shown that Minoan Crete was probably one of the most sophisticated cultures of its time. It had splendid architecture and art. A code of laws gave women equal legal status to men. Agriculture was highly developed and an extensive irrigation system existed.
                            Then, seemingly in a blink of an eye, the Minoan Civilization disappeared. Geological studies have shown that on an island we now know as Santorinas, located just ten miles to the north of Crete, a disaster occurred that was very capable of toppling the Minoan state.
                            Santorinas today is a lush Mediterranean paradise consisting of several islands in a ring shape. Twenty-five hundred years ago, though, it was a single large island with a volcano in the center. The volcano blew itself apart in a massive explosion around 1500 B.C.
                            To understand the effect of such an explosion, scientists have compared it with the most powerful volcanic explosion in historic times. This occurred on the Island of Krakatoa in 1883. There a giant wave, or tsunami, 120 feet high raced across the sea and hit neighboring islands, killing 36,000 people. Ash thrown up into the air blackened the skies for three days. The sound of the explosion was heard as far away as 3,000 miles.
                            The explosion at Santorinas was four times as powerful as Krakatoa.
                            The tsunami that hit Crete must have traveled inland for over half a mile, destroying any coastal towns or cities. The great Minoan fleet of ships were all sunk in a few seconds. Overnight the powerful Minoan Empire was crushed and Crete changed to a political backwater. One can hardly imagine a catastrophe more like Plato's description of Atlantis' fate than the destruction of Crete.
                            Many of the details of the Atlantis story fit with what is now known about Crete. Women had a relatively high political status, both cultures were peaceful, and both enjoyed the unusual sport of ritualistic bullfighting (where an unarmed man wrestled and jumped over a bull).
                            If the fall of the Minoans is the story of Atlantis, how did Plato get the location and time wrong? Galanopoulos suggested there was a mistake during translation of some of the figures from Egyptian to Greek and an extra zero added. This would mean 900 years ago became 9000, and the distance from Egypt to "Atlantis" went from 250 miles to 2,500. If this is true, Plato (knowing the layout of the Mediterranean Sea) would have been forced to assume the location of the island continent to be squarely in the Atlantic Ocean.
                            Not everyone accepts the Minoan Crete theory of the story of Atlantis, but until a convincing case can be made for some other place, it, perhaps, remains science's best guess.
                            According to Plato the temple in the center of Atlantis was dominated by a statue of Poseidon driving six winged horses
                            The name Lemuria resulted from a Nineteenth Century controversy over Darwin's Origin of the Species.  Defenders of Darwin had trouble explaining how certain species became distributed over large areas.  Zoologists had a particularly difficult time explaining the distribution of the lemurs.  The lemur is a small primitive form of primate found in Africa, Madagascar, India, and the East Indian archipelago.  Some zoologists suggested a land mass in the Indian Ocean, between Madagascar and India, millions of years ago.  An English zoologist, Phillip L. Schlater, proposed the name Lemuria (LEMURia) for this former land of the LEMURS in the Indian Ocean.
                            Earnst Heinrich Haeckel (1834-1919), a German naturalist and champion of Darwin, used Lemuria to explain the absence of fossil remains of early man: If man originated on a sunken continent in the Indian Ocean, all the fossils of the missing link are now under the sea.  To quote Haeckel: "Schlater has given this continent the name of Lemuria, from the semi-apes which were characteristic of it."
                            Zoologists have now explained the distribution of lemurs without resorting to the use of a land bridge.  And anthropologists have discovered many bones of ancient man in Africa.  However in the nineteenth century, Haeckel's theories were widely read and respected.  As a result, the name Lemuria was well known among educated people in Europe and America.
                            Madame Elena Petrovna Blavatsky (born Helena Hahn 1831-1891), the founder of Theosophy, in her book The Secret Doctrine (1888), claimed to have learned of Lemuria in The Book of Dzyan, which she said was composed in Atlantis and shown to her by the Mahatmas.  However, in her writings she did give Philip Schlater the honor of inventing the name, Lemuria.
                            Mme Blasvatsky located her Lemuria in the Indian Ocean about 150 million years ago.  She may have obtained her ideas of a sunken land in the Indian Ocean from Sanskrit legends of the former continent of Rutas that sank beneath the sea.  But the name Rutas sounds too spiritless and uninspiring to have held such a prominent place in cosmic history.
                            She described the Lemurians as the third root race to inhabit the earth.   They were egg-laying beings with a third eye that gave them psychic powers and allowed them to function without a brain.  Originally bisexual, their downfall came about after they discovered sex.
                            The English Theosophist W. Scott-Elliot, who said he received his knowledge from the Theosophical Masters by "astral clairvoyance", writes in The Story of Atlantis & The Lost Lemuria (1896), that the sexual exploits of the Lemurians so revolted the spiritual beings, the Lhas, that they refused to follow the cosmic plan of becoming the first to incarnate into the bodies of the Lemurians.  
                            Scott-Elliot located his Lemuria not only in the Indian Ocean: He described it as stretching from the east coast of Africa across the Indian AND the Pacific Oceans.
                            In this century, writers have increasingly placed Lemuria in the Pacific Ocean.   Even psychics and modern prophets channel beings who were citizens of Lemuria. Today just about everyone who has heard of Lemuria assumes that the legends of Mu are identical with the English zoologist's land of the
                             
                            The legend of Mu is found on islands all over the Pacific Ocean.  For thousands of years the Polynesians have handed down the story of a civilization in the Pacific that was motherland of mankind.
                            The name of Mu somehow sounds like an uninteresting contraction of a more exotic name.  In contrast, the word Lemuria invokes a picture of a land at the dawn of time, a land forgotten in our histories but not in our dreams.
                            The name Lemuria resulted from a Nineteenth Century controversy over Darwin's Origin of the Species.  Defenders of Darwin had trouble explaining how certain species became distributed over large areas.  Zoologists had a particularly difficult time explaining the distribution of the lemurs.  The lemur is a small primitive form of primate found in Africa, Madagascar, India, and the East Indian archipelago.  Some zoologists suggested a land mass in the Indian Ocean, between Madagascar and India, millions of years ago.  An English zoologist, Phillip L. Schlater, proposed the name Lemuria (LEMURia) for this former land of the LEMURS in the Indian Ocean.
                            Earnst Heinrich Haeckel (1834-1919), a German naturalist and champion of Darwin, used Lemuria to explain the absence of fossil remains of early man: If man originated on a sunken continent in the Indian Ocean, all the fossils of the missing link are now under the sea.  To quote Haeckel: "Schlater has given this continent the name of Lemuria, from the semi-apes which were characteristic of it."
                            Zoologists have now explained the distribution of lemurs without resorting to the use of a land bridge.  And anthropologists have discovered many bones of ancient man in Africa.  However in the nineteenth century, Haeckel's theories were widely read and respected.  As a result, the name Lemuria was well known among educated people in Europe and America.
                            Madame Elena Petrovna Blavatsky (born Helena Hahn 1831-1891), the founder of Theosophy, in her book The Secret Doctrine (1888), claimed to have learned of Lemuria in The Book of Dzyan, which she said was composed in Atlantis and shown to her by the Mahatmas.  However, in her writings she did give Philip Schlater the honor of inventing the name, Lemuria.
                            Mme Blasvatsky located her Lemuria in the Indian Ocean about 150 million years ago.  She may have obtained her ideas of a sunken land in the Indian Ocean from Sanskrit legends of the former continent of Rutas that sank beneath the sea.  But the name Rutas sounds too spiritless and uninspiring to have held such a prominent place in cosmic history.
                            She described the Lemurians as the third root race to inhabit the earth.   They were egg-laying beings with a third eye that gave them psychic powers and allowed them to function without a brain.  Originally bisexual, their downfall came about after they discovered sex.
                            The English Theosophist W. Scott-Elliot, who said he received his knowledge from the Theosophical Masters by "astral clairvoyance", writes in The Story of Atlantis & The Lost Lemuria (1896), that the sexual exploits of the Lemurians so revolted the spiritual beings, the Lhas, that they refused to follow the cosmic plan of becoming the first to incarnate into the bodies of the Lemurians.  
                            Scott-Elliot located his Lemuria not only in the Indian Ocean: He described it as stretching from the east coast of Africa across the Indian AND the Pacific Oceans.
                            In this century, writers have increasingly placed Lemuria in the Pacific Ocean.   Even psychics and modern prophets channel beings who were citizens of Lemuria. Today just about everyone who has heard of Lemuria assumes that the legends of Mu are identical with the English zoologist's land of the lemurs
                             
                             
                            Japan's Underwater Pyramid, Atlantis, Lemuria
                            We are in a time of rapid changing frequencies. It is enough to keep the most stable person off balance.
                            Some people feel it more strongly than others.
                            They may feel themselves walking between two realities at the same time.
                            There is the feeling of not being here and missing time.
                            When the magnetics that hold our reality together are shaken loose we do feel a sense of disconnection from the collective.
                            With the grids merging and the energies changing so rapidly - I decided to merge with the collective flow of all things and search for underwater pyramids! After all - I have to prepare my 'sea legs' for a day on the Atlantic tomorrow! (Uh oh! I just realized something - what if I get sea sick - like I did on the QEII?! If the boat is not listing and bobbing - I'll be fine! Dramamine anyone? Hey that word looks like 'Drama'!
                             
                            Maybe remote viewing is my 'traveling style of choice' in the future . . .
                            Back in the waters of the collective . . . I did a brief remote view and discovered lots of interesting pyramids in the physical. Much has been lost to 'the flood' and other earth catasophies in the history of our little planet.
                            Did someone ask if I ever found a UFO down there? Many times. There are all sorts of interesting things under the water. Much of it is buried of sediment. UFO's are part of our storyline - but not actively.
                            After a quick 'journey' I found myself back in the waters off Yonaguni, Japan where excavation began in 1985 for this pyramid . . .
                            I remembered when I read the articles about it - as well as the updated information about the 1998 expedition. This group included Boris Siad - who I know through Chelsea.
                            This is how the synchronicities played out yesterday . . . I read about Boris and thought of Chelsea. She connected and called me. We mentioned Boris.

                            (Message over 64 KB, truncated)
                          • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                            http://www.hamline.edu/mayasociety/PROGRAM%20YEAR%202010%208-3-10%20V-2..htm Friday, September 17, 7:00 pm Divination, Venus Warriors and Feathered Serpents:
                            Message 13 of 26 , Aug 26, 2010

                              http://www.hamline.edu/mayasociety/PROGRAM%20YEAR%202010%208-3-10%20V-2..htm


                              Friday, September 17, 7:00 pm

                              "Divination, Venus Warriors and Feathered Serpents: The Celestial World of the Prehispanic Maya"

                              Gabrielle Vail


                              Maya astronomers of the Late Classic period (c. 600-900 A.D.) were among the most adept celestial observers in the world at that time. Calculations, accurate to within a day, were made of the cycles of the sun, moon, and various stars and planets. Conceptualized as deities, these celestial wanderers were believed to have a significant impact on events affecting the lives of the Maya. The most dangerous of these were eclipses and the pre-dawn rise of Venus, which emerged as a warrior after its eight-day sojourn in the Underworld. Maya texts, in combination with iconography featured in painted sources, also focus on the time before humans existed, when the gods roamed the earth prior to being reborn as the sun, moon, and planets.


                              University of St. Thomas in the OEC auditorium (O'Shaughnessy Education Center) located at the corner of Cleveland and Portland, a half block or so down from Summit Avenue

                              St. Paul, Minnesota


                              Saturday, September 18, 9:00 AM-12:00 PM

                              Workshop: "Understanding the Maya Codices: Deities, Rituals, and Sacred Time" 


                              Maya astronomers of the Late Classic period (c. 600-900 A.D.) were among the most adept celestial observers in the world at that time. Calculations, accurate to within a day, were made of the cycles of the sun, moon, and various stars and planets. Conceptualized as deities, these celestial wanderers were believed to have a significant impact on events affecting the lives of the Maya. The most dangerous of these were eclipses and the pre-dawn rise of Venus, which emerged as a warrior after its eight-day sojourn in the Underworld. Maya texts, in combination with iconography featured in painted sources, also focus on the time before humans existed, when the gods roamed the earth prior to being reborn as the sun, moon, and planets


                              Center 6S (Anthropology Lab),

                              Hamline University,

                              St. Paul, Minnesota


                              Friday, October 29, 7:30 pm

                              Disaster and Apogee:  The Dramatic and Complex Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization?


                              Arthur Demarest, Professor of Anthropology, Vanderbilt University

                              Giddens Learning Center 100E,

                              Hamline University

                              St. Paul, Minnesota


                              Saturday, October 30, 9:00 AM-12:00 PM

                              Workshop: "Disintegration in the Petexbatun: A Regional View of the Terminal Collapse."


                              Giddens Learning Center 6S (Anthropology Lab),

                              Hamline University

                              St. Paul, Minnesota


                              Friday, November 5, 7:30 PM

                              "Kiuic: The Rise and Fall of a Maya Kingdom in the southern Puuc region.


                              George J. Bey III, Chisholm Chair in Arts and Sciences, Millsaps College

                              "Kiuic: The Rise and Fall of a Maya Kingdom in the southern Puuc region.

                              Giddens Learning Center 100E,

                              Hamline University

                              St. Paul, Minnesota


                              Saturday, November 6

                              Workshop: "Three topics in Northern Maya Archaeology: Revisiting, Revision and Rethinking.? Giddens Learning Center 6S (Anthropology Lab),

                              Hamline University

                              St. Paul, Minnesota


                              Friday, January 28

                              A Pre-Columbian Landscape Worthy of a European Ruler: Imagined Territorial Boundaries in the Relacion de Michoaon.

                              Angelica J. Afanador-Pujol, Assistant Professor of Art History, University of Minnesota


                              Giddens Learning Center 100E,

                              Hamline University

                              St. Paul, Minnesota


                              Friday, March 4, 7:30 PM

                              "Current Issues in Maya Hieroglyphics."

                              Nick Hopkins, Jaguar Tours, Tallahassee, Florida, Epigrapher and Instructor (retired), Florida State University.


                              Giddens Learning Center 100E,

                              Hamline University

                              St. Paul, Minnesota


                              Saturday, March 5, 9:00 AM-4:30 PM

                              Hieroglyphic Workshop "Inscriptions at Piedras Negras."


                              Drew Science 118,

                              Hamline University

                              St. Paul, Minnesota


                              Sunday March 6, 9:00 AM-12:00 PM

                              Hieroglyphic Workshop;  "Inscriptions at Piedras Negras."


                              Giddens Learning Center 100E,

                              Hamline University

                              St. Paul, Minnesota


                              Friday, April 15, 7:30 PM

                              The Power of Painting: Politics and Art in the Northern Maya Lowlands.


                              Victoria I. Lyall, Assistant Curator, Latin American Department, Los Angeles County Museum of Art

                              Giddens Learning Center 100E,

                              Hamline University

                              St. Paul, Minnesota


                              Saturday, April 16, 9:00 AM-12:00 PM   

                              Workshop; Three Decades of Exhibiting the Maya: The Role of Museums in Pre-Columbian Studies.


                              Giddens Learning Center 6S (Anthro Lab),

                              Hamline University

                              St. Paul, Minnesota

                            • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                              He sat easily on the ground and leaned his back against the rough bark of an oak and spoke solemnly of a problem relatively new to Cherokees. Time was when
                              Message 14 of 26 , Aug 27, 2010
                                He sat easily on the ground and leaned his back against the rough bark of an oak and spoke solemnly of a problem relatively new to Cherokees. "Time was when 'ka ni gv na w' that doctors call depression was not in our camp. We had our lands and families, but it has changed. Old ones cry to leave land and trees, children wave little hands. Hardship not new, reason new. A scar is depression in skin. A hurt is depression in soul. Medicine cure cuts, but only Spirit sure hurt. Speak to it in your prayer and tell it go. Refuse it a place and always say thank you. Sing some, too. Deep in soul, sing, and it iron out depression."

                                ~ I am afraid that the white men are not speaking straight.... ~

                                CHIEF WENINOCK - YAKIMA, CIRCA 1915

                                *<<<=-=>>>*<<<=-=>>>*<<<=-=>>>*<<<=-=>>>*

                                Elder's Meditation of the Day - August 26

                                "Those who live for one another learn that love is the bond of perfect unity."

                                --Fools Crow, LAKOTA

                                To serve each other, to respect each other, to trust each other, to honor each other, to love each other, to cooperate with each other, to care for each other, to forgive one another, to focus on peoples' good, to laugh with one another, to learn from one another; to pray for each other - these are all acts of love. These values and actions will connect us to one another in the Unseen World. Nature is a good example of how we should get along with one another. Watch nature. She is our teacher. Nature lives to give to one another. The insects give to the birds who give to the four legged who give to the two legged. The Creator made all things perfect.

                                Oh Great Spirit, let me serve the people today. Let me see that it is better to give than it is to receive. Be with me today.

                                *<<<=-=>>>*<<<=-=>>>*<<<=-=>>>*<<<=-=>>>*

                                "THINK on THESE THINGS"

                                By Joyce Sequichie Hifler

                                We want much. It seems sometimes that wanting is all we ever get done. And yet if it were not for the desires of our hearts, there would be little incentive to work and plan and expect.

                                Some would have us believe it is wrong to desire more than absolute necessities. But good desires channeled in the right direction can do nothing but better the one who seeks.

                                Sometimes getting is only a substitute for the true desire. Humans have a way of looking outside themselves for things to satisfy their. It may be prestige. Or it may be anything that will inflate their egos and give them feelings of security.

                                Emerson wrote, "The implanting of a desire indicates that its gratification is in the constitution of the creature that feels it." We have the ability to rise far above what we think we can. We have within us the answers if we but have the wisdom to seek those answers.

                                And perhaps we should consider, even before we begin to seek, the wisest of all instructions, "With all your getting, get understanding."
                                *<<<=-=>>>*<<<=-=>>>*<<<=-=>>>*<<<=-=>>>*

                                Available online! 'Cherokee Feast of Days'
                                By Joyce Sequichie Hifler.

                                http://www.hifler.com

                                Elder's Meditation of the Day

                                By White Bison, Inc., an American Indian-owned nonprofit organization.

                                http://www.whitebison.org
                              • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                                http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100000881855068&v=photos#!/photo.php?pid=91443&fbid=113708625346876&op=1&o=global&view=global&subj=100000881855068&id=10
                                Message 15 of 26 , Aug 27, 2010
















                                  http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100000881855068&v=photos#!/photo.php?pid=91443&fbid=113708625346876&op=1&o=global&view=global&subj=100000881855068&id=100001232182092





                                • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                                  National Museum of the American Indian Glenn Welker
                                  Message 16 of 26 , Aug 27, 2010
                                    National Museum of the American Indian
                                    Glenn Welker

                                    The NMAI and Mitsitam Cafe will be featured in an upcoming episode of the Food Network’s show, Chef vs. City on Friday, Aug. 27 at 10 p.m.

                                    The challenge took place in the outdoor amphitheater and you should see several staffers in the audience cheering the contestants on while they made cedar-planked kited salmon!

                                    Li...nk to the DC episode:

                                    http://www.foodnetwork.com/chefs-vs-city/washington-dc/index.html

                                    Link to the show’s website:

                                    http://www.foodnetwork.com/chefs-vs-city/index.html

                                    See More
                                    Food Network chefs Chris Cosentino and Aaron Sanchez are touching down in Washington D.C., where Chris began his cooking career.
                                  • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                                    Protest Columbus day Protesta conta el Dia de Colon Mission SJC http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=142909659080135
                                    Message 17 of 26 , Aug 28, 2010


                                      Protest" Columbus day" Protesta conta el "Dia de Colon" Mission SJC

                                      http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=142909659080135

                                      http://www.mexica-movement.org/timexihcah/CRIMESOFEUROPEANS.htm

                                      CRIMES OF THE EUROPEANS


                                      Europeans first assaulted our Cemanahuac lands ("The Western Hemisphere") with their terrorist attacks of 1492 (Columbus the pirate, enslaver, and genocidal murderer). In 1519 Europeans (Cortez, the twin beast of Columbus) invaded our Anahuac lands (Mexico, "Central America", "The Western and Southern United States") with more terrorism, massacres and enslavement.


                                      The Europeans (Spaniards, French, and English) and their Criollo descendants broke up our Anahuac-culture lands into what they called: "The Louisiana Purchase" (1803); Mexico (1821); "Central America" (1823); and the "U.S. Southwest" (Texas in 1836 and the rest in 1848). This was a way of making us foreigners on our own lands. We have been made slaves to the interests of the invaders and squatters (people who come to our land to claim it as theirs) who have stolen our rights to the resources and wealth of our land.

                                      The other lands that are not part of the cultural unity of Anahuac belong to our other Nican Tlaca brothers and sisters of this hemisphere, not to the Europeans.

                                      95% OF OUR POPULATION
                                      WAS KILLED BY EUROPEANS

                                       

                                      Throughout this campaign of terror, theft, and Genocide, that Europeans have euphemistically called "discovery and exploration", they behaved exactly like murderous terrorists, pirates, barbaric vandals, graverobbers, enslavers, thieves, liars, rapists, and a culture of uncivilized people. They used deceit, dishonesty, and their general dishonorable behavior, as tools against us.


                                      They also used biological weapons as their cowardly weapon of choice against us?in the form of smallpox and other diseases to which they knew we had no immune defenses. This monstrous biological warfare and their uncivilized behavior are what truly destroyed the military defenses of our people. It was not horses or canons, or "military genius" that defeated us and killed millions of our people.

                                      For those who say that Spain and the rest of Europe did not know that they were spreading biological weapons on our people, we respond:


                                      Compare the present-day situation with AIDS and the colonialist-period diseases (primarily smallpox) that the Europeans used as a biological weapon against us.


                                      We'll use an example of a person who has AIDS. This person (he or she) is a carrier of the disease (meaning that they themselves don't die or show symptoms from AIDS). That AIDS infected carrier then has sex with several people. These people later die from that sexual contact. At first that carrier may not have known that they had the disease or that they are carriers of the disease. But from the point that they do know that they are killing people by having sex with them, from point, that infected person has the moral duty to stop spreading their disease.


                                      But when that person continues to have unprotected sex knowing this, and more people die from that sexual contact, this person is now a murderer. That murderer can selfishly justify to himself or herself that they cannot help themselves from having sex because their sexual appetite is so strong. The reality is that they know they are killing people. They know that it is wrong but they are deriving personal pleasure from the act of sex and they feel that they cannot stop that pleasure even if it kills dozens or hundreds of humans.


                                      If that person was a moral person they would simply stop having sex or at least use condoms while engaging in sex to cut the percentage of those killed. But when this person doesn't care about human life and their monstrous greed for sex is unquenchable, and they knowingly continue to have unprotected sex, they have then become serial killers, mass murderers, monsters.


                                      We can compare this scenario with what the Europeans did when they invaded our lands. They immediately saw the deadly effects of contact with our people in the islands of the Caribbean. Within one generation they saw the death that they had impaled our people on. 90 to 100 percent of all of our people on those islands who they came in contact with were killed by European biological warfare.


                                      Columbus and his pirates spread this biological warfare (in the form of small pox) throughout the rest of the Caribbean (they killed 10 million human beings). Cortez used this same weapon in Anahuac (23 million killed). Pizarro used it in the Inca areas (20 million killed). Europeans continued to use this biological weapon all the way down to the establishment of the 18th century "missions" in California. Individual "Americans" and the "U.S." government used smallpox with blankets in the 19th century as a way to "clear Indians off the land" (this made an additional 10 million of our people that were killed in the rest of "North America" from the point that the English and French Europeans invaded our lands there).


                                      The Europeans' monstrous initial appetite for our gold and the enslavement of our labor quickly became a genocidal appetite for our land. Immediately after they saw that they were killing us with their diseases, they could have simply stopped contact with us (if they were a decent caring people) and taken their people back to Europe (which would have been the moral thing to do), but their greed had them coming to our land in boatloads (as pirates, invaders, terrorists, squatters and killing machines), killing us in every possible way that they could, whenever they made contact with us.


                                      They knew of their deadly effect on our people, but they (like the AIDS carrier in the earlier story) didn't stop.


                                      This uncivilized and criminal Genocidal behavior has become not just the crime of Columbus and Cortez, it has now become the collective and ongoing crime of the Europeans in Europe and their descendants on our land. Europe and the European squatters on our land continue to benefit from the crimes of their ancestors.


                                      From the first hour of October 12, 1492 when Europeans illegally first landed on our land, they changed their reality, their morality, and their truth forever:


                                      European Terrorism on Our Land, and Crimes Against Humanity became
                                      "discovery and conquest";


                                      Stealing All of Our Land and Wealth and Making Us Poor
                                      became "manifest destiny";


                                      Murdering Our Leaders, and Massacring Our Women and Children
                                      became "military operations";


                                      Enslavement of Our People and Land to the Interests of Europeans
                                      became "the birth of capitalism";


                                      European "accomplishments" based on Stealing Our Wealth became
                                      "Western Civilization";


                                      and the Monstrous Evils of Colonialism, Slavery,
                                      became "America".


                                      There has been nothing civilized, "Christian", moral, or ethical in the behavior of Europeans since the moment that they illegally set foot on our land. They killed unarmed men, women, and children in the tens of millions. They assaulted, mutilated and tortured our people in order to keep us terrorized, and in a state of constant submission to the process of genocide.


                                      In the last 500 years, in addition to the terrorizing of our Anahuac people, the theft of our lands and the theft of our wealth and natural resources, we have seen: the enslavement of our people; our life-or-death forced conversion to Christianity; the destruction of our Anahuac cities; the burning of our libraries; the execution of our leaders; the theft and/or destruction of our cultural wealth; the theft of our labor; and the theft of our true Anahuac identity, history, heritage, and theology.


                                      But the worst of all of their crimes was, and still remains being, the genocide of 23 million of our people (the 95 % of our population that was savagely killed from 1519 to 1580). Additionally, another 60 to 80 million (or more) Nican Tlaca were annihilated in Cemanahuac ("Western Hemisphere") in the last 500 years.


                                      This genocide is worse than the Jewish, Armenian, African, or any other holocaust or genocide in the history of humanity. We have only begun to seriously understand this in the last 50 years. We are only now beginning to see the monstrous effects that this has had on us as a people.


                                      In order to more properly understand the immensity of this, you have to know that in 1519, Anahuac had a population of about 25 million human beings. In 1519, China also had about 25 million human beings. Today China has over 1,300,000,000 (one billion, 300 million) people. This means that there are over one billion of our people who are not alive today. There are only a little over 150 million people of Anahuac heritage who are alive today. We are what is left of Anahuac's possible one billion people.


                                      The European Genocide of our people destroyed our Einsteins, Shakespeares, Newtons, and all of the other possibilities for greatness that our nation had in the last 500 years.


                                      We must learn all of this history of Genocide in order to properly honor our ancestors. We must remember all of the European crimes committed against us.


                                      We must today, honor and defend our ancestors, and our descendants, by teaching everyone all of the history of Anahuac, including the past and ongoing crimes of the Europeans.

                                       

                                      TWENTY WORST CRIMES OF THE EUROPEANS


                                      1) THEFT OF OUR LAND was the initial crime of the Europeans. We did not ever give up the ownership of our land, nor did we ever invite Europeans onto our lands.


                                      2) DECEIT AND DISHONOR by Europeans (along with the violation of our laws) and their unethical and immoral behavior, were what brought about their taking of our land, the genocide of our people, the enslavement of our remaining population, and all of their uncountable crimes against us.


                                      3) RACIST TERRORISM has been the European method that was used to shock us into submitting to their control of our land and our lives.


                                      4) PIRACY (looting, taking what is not yours to take) has been the European profession of choice by which they stole our people's wealth of precious jewels, gold, silver, and other valuables, along with the wealth of our land.


                                      5) VANDALISM has been another signature of European barbaric assaults on our civilization and culture. This defacement was done upon our physical landscape and upon the psychological well-being of our people.


                                      6) KIDNAPPING of our people (as a prelude to extortion and /or enslavement) has been a violation of all nations' sense of decency, law, and civilized behavior.


                                      7) EXTORTION (usually for gold) from our lands has been another favorite crime of the Europeans. They mostly killed their victims, even when ransom was paid.


                                      8) MURDER OF OUR LEADERS was a peculiarly vicious and dishonorable ongoing crime of Europeans. This crime exhibited the total failure of a sense of honor amongst the Europeans. Deceit was usually involved in the murder of our leaders.


                                      9) MASSACRES of unarmed civilian men, women, and children on our lands. This at first happened in the dozens, then hundreds, and eventually it led to routine slaughters in the thousands.


                                      10) GENOCIDE of our people became possible when they discovered that they had built-in biological weapons of mass destruction in their bodies' exposure to smallpox and other diseases---for which we had no immune defenses. They used this biological weapon which was 90 to 98% effective in killing us.


                                      11) TORTURE AND MUTILATION was initially used to get us to surrender all gold objects to Europe. This technique was later used by the church to force conversions and to get confessions out of our people.


                                      12) GRAVE ROBBERY has been an ongoing habit of Europeans from the beginning. This was a way of quickly stealing wealth that was not guarded.


                                      13) ENSLAVEMENT OF OUR PEOPLE to do the work that they were too lazy to do themselves, has been another nasty European habit.


                                      14) DESTRUCTION OF CITIES to take away our pride in our heritage, has been an almost totally successful European crime.


                                      15) BURNING LIBRARY BOOKS in the tens of thousands by Europeans, has been one of the most devastating crimes that can never be mended or reconstructed.


                                      16) UNIVERSITIES & SCHOOLS DESTROYED as a means of enslaving us to ignorance and to serving the interests of Europeans.


                                      17) RACIAL RAPE of our people defiled us as a nation and tainted our people with the filth of their racism that says: More European blood is better.


                                      18) CULTURAL CASTRATION in which laws were decreed that prohibited our people from learning our own culture, our languages, or even the simplicity of having our true names and identity.


                                      19) PROHIBITION OF OUR THEOLOGY which forced the hypocritical version of Christianity on our people.


                                      20) CONTINUATIONS OF THESE CRIMES up to the present day without guilt, reparations, or the "reality thought" that Europeans were in any way evil or monstrous in their actions.





                                    • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                                      Tribunal de los Pueblos Abya Yala September 11-12, 2010 A Tribunal of Rectification and Act of Self Determination Addressing the Violations of Civil Rights –
                                      Message 18 of 26 , Aug 29, 2010

                                        Tribunal de los Pueblos
                                        Abya Yala

                                        September 11-12, 2010

                                        A Tribunal of Rectification

                                        and

                                        Act of Self Determination

                                         

                                        Addressing the

                                        Violations of Civil Rights – Human Rights – Indigenous Rights

                                        RIGHTS OF MOTHER EARTH

                                         in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Territories (US-Mexico 1848)

                                         

                                        Protocols:

                                        Treaty of Teotihuacan

                                        Cochabamba Protocols

                                         

                                        NAHUACALLI

                                        Embassy of Indigenous Peoples

                                        WWW.NAHUACALLI.ORG

                                        Phoenix, AZ

                                        IZKALOTLAN

                                        Contact:

                                        Tupac Enrique Acosta, Yaotachcauh

                                        Tlahtokan Nahuacalli

                                        chantlaca@...

                                         

                                        TONATIERRA

                                        www.tonatierra.org

                                        Links:


                                        Opening Testimony by Tlacatenco Julio Atenco Vidal,
                                        Signatory of Calpoltin Mexica, Anahuac under the
                                        Treaty of Teotihuacan



                                        The Beginning of the End Game

                                         

                                         

                                        WHAT INDEPENDENCE SHALL THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES CELEBRATE IN MEXICO?

                                         

                                        The commemoration of the bicentennial of the Independence of Mexico is an excellent new opportunity for the Indigenous Peoples, millennial inhabitants of the territory that is now called Mexico, to review our place in terms of our social and political conditions in relation to the country as a whole.  It is an opportunity for all Mexicans and the national Mexican State to conscientiously revise before the entire nation the character of the social and political relationships that have been imposed upon the Tribes and Original Nations of Mexico.  It is a new opportunity to act accordingly.

                                         

                                        Are the Indigenous Peoples an organic part of the Mexican nation?

                                         

                                        In 1993 I did an analysis on the Human Rights and the living conditions of our Indigenous Peoples in the Sierra de Zongolica, Veracruz.  My interlocutor was from a foreign Nongovernmental Organization. She told me that at first she believed me, but deep down she really questioned whether my reporting was objective or was it exaggeration.  To my dismay she explained that at the time an international event was occurring in Belgium where the government of Mexico had mounted a booth with presentations of cultural elements from different regions of the country. Highlighting the presentations was the presence of human subjects in the traditional dress of indigenous Mexicans and that the question of living conditions in their villages and the relationship with the national government drew a response which painted a benevolent national government and Indigenous Peoples as satisfied and happy.  Mexico and "their indigenous people" were well on the way into the first world.

                                         

                                        There have been numerous and enormous efforts by the National Indigenous Movement to make known to all Mexicans and the world at large the truths of reality: the conditions of oppression, domination, segregation and poverty endured by our Indigenous Peoples of Mexico and our struggle for a just change, yet these have been insufficient to overcome the state media propaganda.

                                         

                                        The EZLN armed uprising in January 1994 tore a gash into the monopoly over the truth by the State exposing its corrupt government. The intelligent media management by the armed struggle in Chiapas tore off the gag order imposed by the Government on the mass media, and the presence of international media finally confirmed that the Mexican Government was a liar and a cheat.  Such events, by extension vindicated the denunciations by indigenous representatives both inside and outside of the country, as we condemned historical injustices and engaged in democratic struggle for our liberation.  The EZLN, constituted by an indigenous majority, was not an ethnic movement but their uprising eventually linked the principal elements of the national indigenous movement.  For this reason, we happily accepted to serve as advisers during the Dialogues of St. Andres in October 1995.

                                         

                                        Paradoxically, it must be acknowledged that it was President Carlos Salinas de Gortari who initiated the process of recognition of the existence of Indigenous Peoples in Mexico. In 1991 he agreed to sign Convention 169 of the International Labor Organization on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples (1989).  This Convention was the first international instrument in history that established certain rights of the Indigenous Peoples within the Nation State of Mexico, and was binding - that is to say: it was Law.

                                         

                                        Without dwelling on the conceptual and legal limitations of the Convention, many of us saw the hope of ILO Convention 169 like a solitary piece of wood floating on the ocean. The content of 169 included the concept of fundamental indigenous rights, such as the right to Consultation which has served much to the good for our people.

                                         

                                        But when Salinas sent the Convention to the Senate for ratification, it was revealed that Convention 169 was inconsistent with our national Constitution by being an instrument to protect certain rights of Indigenous Peoples, whose legal existence as Indigenous Peoples was entirely absent in the Mexican Federal Constitution.  Was this simply  "historical neglect”?  No, it instead reflected the institution of conscious political decisions instituted historically by the Mexican political establishment.

                                         

                                        In the early nineteenth century 8 out of 10 Mexicans were speakers of an indigenous language. Nevertheless, throughout the preparations for the insurrection in the late eighteenth century until the completion of the process of independence of Mexico from Spain, the insurgents had employed the “Indians” only as shock troops, or foot soldiers at most.  Influenced by French liberal ideology and even doctrines of Spanish monarchy, the rebels never thought of proposing a multi-ethnic nation.  To we “Indians” independence produced a change in masters, and the promise of the return of some land but never were we integrated as part of the new state.  We were never offered recognition as human beings.

                                         

                                        With the completion of the project of independence, the few surviving insurgents (a few acculturated, others isolated) and most being Hispanic Criollo and Spanish independents, both openly colonialists, consciously decided to exclude the Indigenous Peoples, Tribes and Original Nations from their national project.  The overwhelming majority of political leaders of the time shielded themselves within an idyllic liberal notion of a Unitary national project, under the liberal slogan that all would be equal before the law and so denominated all of the inhabitants of the territory as generic Mexican nationals. Thus, with the swoop of a pen, the new Mexicans banned politically the Indigenous Peoples of Mexico as collective constituents of Tribes and Original Nations of Indigenous Peoples.

                                         

                                        President Salinas wanted to be in tune with the developed world and was so loose with his supposed popularity that he pretended to respond to the demands of the national indigenous movement and simultaneously played as the role of statesman benefactor before the first world (promoting a seat for Mexico in the World Trade Organization and even leadership of the organization).  This then resulted in the conditions of that allowed promoting constitutional change that would be created in the adoption of Article 4.  This article of the amended Mexican Constitution would not confer any rights, but would for the first time recognize the existence in Mexico of the Indigenous Peoples as the original sustenance of the Mexican nation.  I emphasize once again the Mexican Republic was constituted originally with an 80% indigenous population and only 20% of the population that was not indigenous. Thus, since 1992, Convention 169 was already established as national law, its ranking being less than the Federal Constitution, at the same level of federal laws, but higher than local constitutions.

                                         

                                        After 182 years finally Indigenous Peoples were MENTIONED in the fundamental Law of Mexico, yet WITHOUT A SINGLE LEGAL RIGHT but simply recognition was given to the existence of these groups called Indigenous Peoples (Pueblos Indigenas) that IN THE PAST were the SUSTENANCE of the formation of the Mexican nation.

                                         

                                        This strategy of the state whose intent in 1992 sought to reduce us to entities of the past and merely folkloric elements that would serve to clothe our mysticism and values onto the Mexican nation vanished at the conjuncture in 1994 with the armed uprising of the “Indios” of Chiapas. The Republic of Mexican States did not carry the Indigenous Peoples in their soul; they had them under their feet, as oppressed subjects.

                                         

                                        Beginning in 1995 with the conjunction of the EZLN and the national indigenous movement that gave body to the Accords of San Andrés, the Indigenous Peoples of the Mexican nation continue to make evident that we remain strangers in our own land; we are excluded from the Mexican state; of its institutions and its public policy, that there is a historic policy of segregation and ethnocide via extreme impoverishment and acculturation that forces us to stop being indigenous in order to be Mexican. 

                                         

                                        We demand before the entire nation a new Federal Pact that establishes full recognition of our autonomous rights as Indigenous Peoples, original societies that continue to exist historically and culturally differentiated.  In short, the Indigenous Peoples provide the revelation of one of Mexico's great national problems that must be resolved so that we may truly be Mexicanos, living in peace - and with something to actually celebrate.

                                         


                                        Links:

                                        People v. de la Guerra 1850


                                        Rights of Inhabitantants in Ceded Teritories


                                        International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights


                                        International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights


                                        International Labor Organization Convention 169:


                                        The Rights of Indigenous Peoples as Transnational Migratory Workers


                                        Tlahtokan Aztlan


                                        ###


                                        NAHUACALLI

                                        Embassy of Indigenous Peoples

                                         

                                        WWW.NAHUACALLI.ORG

                                      • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                                        http://www.youtube.com/my_playlists?p=AC53DFD3AAF1FBA8 http://www.youtube.com/my_playlists?p=39EB873DA4D0C472
                                        Message 19 of 26 , Aug 30, 2010
                                          http://www.youtube.com/my_playlists?p=AC53DFD3AAF1FBA8

                                          http://www.youtube.com/my_playlists?p=39EB873DA4D0C472

                                          http://www.youtube.com/my_playlists?p=7EF9F3BD9A308496

                                          http://www.youtube.com/my_playlists?p=386CD3BB80D24A2C
                                        • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                                          http://www.tcdailyplanet.net/news/2010/08/24/native-youth-farmer-markets-sell-veggies-heirloom-seeds By Jon Lurie, The Circle August 24, 2010 Two new farmers
                                          Message 20 of 26 , Aug 30, 2010

                                            http://www.tcdailyplanet.net/news/2010/08/24/native-youth-farmer-markets-sell-veggies-heirloom-seeds


                                            By Jon Lurie, The Circle

                                            August 24, 2010


                                            Two new farmers markets serving the Twin Cities American Indian Community have sprung up in recent weeks. These unassuming produce stands, comprised of just one or two tables each, would be easy to miss. It would be a mistake, however, to equate the humility of these burgeoning enterprises with their potential impact. These markets are, in fact, the final link in a grand, multi-generational vision that has sought to restore the once prominent notion of food as spirit-nurturing medicine.  Much of the produce offered at the Unci Maka (Grandmother Earth) Indian Farmer's Markets has been grown by Native farmers from heirloom seeds preserved by Potawatomi elder Cora Baker. 


                                            Baker, who passed away in 2000, was born in Michigan, raised a family in Wisconsin, and lived her later years in Nebraska. She preserved Native seeds everywhere she went. Many people gifted their corn, bean, and squash seeds to the woman who became known as the Keeper of the Seeds. She eventually collected over 90 varieties of Native seed.


                                            Five months before her passing Baker wrote a letter to Dream of Wild Health, a ten-acre farm in Hugo, Minnesota dedicated to the revival of traditional farming.


                                            "I prayed and prayed that someone would take this gardening up again. I am very pleased to learn about your project. I feel that the Great Creator has answered my humble prayers. With the help of my great grand-daughter and grandson, we set out to help you. I wish that someday the children will come to realize the importance of the garden,"  Baker wrote.


                                            Today, Native American youth, known as "Garden Warriors" spend three days a week at Dream of Wild Health, performing all of the duties required in growing organic food - from planting, to harvesting, to bringing produce to market and selling it to the community at the Unci Maka Indian Farmer's Markets.


                                            On a recent Thursday morning along St. Paul's Payne Avenue (one of two places where the youth sell their vegetables) 18-year-old Tatiana Williams (Lakota) tends the Unci Maka stand.  In her third year as a Garden Warrior, Williams says selling vegetables to the public represents a completion of her education as a Native gardener.


                                            "I've learned how to produce healthy foods and how to make them taste great. I've learned about my culture, how to use tobacco, how to grow and dry it, and how to pray," Williams said.


                                            Tatiana and the 64 others that have participated as Garden Warriors since 2005 have also learned other practical life skills at Dream of Wild Health.


                                            "They receive a pay check for their participation. So we have a bank representative come to the farm and teach them about financial literacy. They open accounts so they have somewhere to cash their checks and manage their money," says Diane Wilson, the farm's operations director.


                                            Wilson says the Garden Warriors are chosen from throughout the Native community. "We get kids from Little Earth, throughout St. Paul, lower-income neighborhoods, foster homes - some have very hard stories. We help them prevent diabetes and obesity, by learning to change their relationship to food, by learning how to plant, harvest, cook, and sell food."


                                            At the second Unci Maka market sight in Minneapolis, the Garden Warriors are joined by student farmers from Nawayee Center School. The Native-focused public school at 2421 Bloomington Avenue South took a vacant lot a few years ago and converted it into a bountiful garden.


                                            Center School students have also published a cookbook with their favorite recipes which is sold for $2 at the market. Recipes include: "Chilled Wild Rice Cranberry Salad," and "Ta'Lana's Ultimate Banana Split," named for the student who invented the sweet concoction.


                                            Nawayee Center School's director Joe Rice says it took a leap of faith to invest precious educational resources in the garden project, but that the risk has definitely paid-off.


                                            "When I see these kids taking care of our garden, growing these wonderful foods, and out selling those foods, acting like adults in the way they interact with customers, it gives me a lot of hope for the future," said Rice.


                                            Garden Market Times and Locations

                                          • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                                            http://secretaryofinnovation.com/2010/08/27/web-of-life-a-history-of-chief-seattle/ By now, many of our readers are familiar with our Web of Life series. We
                                            Message 21 of 26 , Aug 31, 2010

                                              http://secretaryofinnovation.com/2010/08/27/web-of-life-a-history-of-chief-seattle/

                                               

                                              By now, many of our readers are familiar with our Web of Life series. We grabbed the phrase from a famous “speech” by Chief Seattle in December, 1854.

                                               

                                              If you never heard of Chief Seattle, you’ve probably heard of the city of Seattle in Washington state.

                                               

                                              He was a pioneer in many ways. He was from the Suquamish Tribe, who still live on the Port Madison Reservation on Puget Sound near Seattle.

                                              The Suquamish are expert fishermen, carvers, basketmakers, and canoe builders. In the 19th century, their leader was See-at-la for whom the city of Seattle was named.

                                               

                                               

                                              Chief Seattle earned his title because of his abilities as a peaceful leader. He was an outstanding communicator and practiced his skills serving as a diplomat between the Suquamish people and the European settlers.

                                               

                                              Chief Seattle was a child when the first whites came to Puget Sound and anchored their ships near Seattle in 1792. He remained curious about Europeans and their culture. He was a good friend to an entrepreneur named Doctor David S. Maynard. Doc Maynard is considered the founding father of the city of Seattle.

                                               

                                              Europeans were grateful to Chief Seattle for protecting a group of them from attacks by other American Indians. He also saved Maynard from an assassination attempt by another American Indian.

                                               

                                              As a reward, Maynard convinced settlers to name their city after Chief Seattle.

                                               

                                              The Web of Life speech

                                               

                                              The information on Chief Seattle’s website said that there was no evidence that he made the “web of life” speech. Seems that this is yet another romanticized myth about American Indians. The site said that the phrase “came from an imaginary speech written in 1972 by screenwriter Ted Perry for a documentary about the environment.”

                                               

                                              Nonetheless, the idea of a web of life makes a logical connection that places biodiversity, ecosystems, the earth, and humanity under one umbrella.

                                               

                                               

                                              Chief Seattle’s descendants

                                               

                                              Today, Chief Seattle’s descendants still live in the Northwest. The Suquamish people are independent and own the Suquamish Clearwater Casino Resort and the White Horse Golf Course in Suquamish, Washington. The casino also maintains a museum, naval museum, reserve, and landing nature preserve.

                                               

                                              Hope you enjoyed this little bit of history. :)

                                               

                                              Bessie DiDomenica, MBA
                                              Co-founder, Columnist and Editor


                                              Secretary of Innovation


                                              “In imagination & creativity we trust…”

                                               

                                              “One does not sell the land upon which people walk.”


                                              –Tashanka Witko “Chief Crazy Horse” Oglala

                                               

                                              “Where no one intrudes, many can live in harmony.”


                                              –”Chief Dan George”

                                               

                                            • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                                              [Article from the city newspaper where I was born. - Glenn] BY LEEANN MOORE COSHOCTON --Gucci sunglasses, purses, flip-flops and bottles of wine were the first
                                              Message 22 of 26 , Aug 31, 2010

                                                [Article from the city newspaper where I was born. - Glenn]

                                                BY LEEANN MOORE

                                                 

                                                COSHOCTON --Gucci sunglasses, purses, flip-flops and bottles of wine were the first thing women saw when they walked into the Johnson-Humrickhouse Museum on Saturday.


                                                The whole idea of the What Women Want fundraiser, museum director Patti Malenke said, is to give women exactly that, what they want.

                                                "It's great," Malenke said. "It's all a plus, plus, plus. We have cute waiters and lots and lots of packages for women."

                                                 

                                                As she spoke, women formed a line to get into the museum and check out what was available for bid and one of those "cute" waiters she mentioned held the door for guests as they got on the elevator to check out the available packages and more wine tastings on the second floor.

                                                 

                                                Businesses, organizations and individuals donated items to come up with 36 packages for women.

                                                 

                                                The night for women included a five-course gourmet dinner prepared by Chef Michael Cichon, which was served by black tie waiters. The menu included a roasted carrot soup, a mixed summer salad, shrimp and roasted pepper quiche, herb encrusted salmon or chicken with an herb crust and classic cream puffs.

                                                 

                                                Wine was served from Rainbow Hills, Raven's Glen and Heritage Wineries and a "Magic of Accessories" fashion review took place.

                                                 

                                                "It's a girls' night out and to help the museum," Jane Smythe, of Coshocton, said.

                                                 

                                                She and Coshocton resident Theresa Elder scanned the tables for items they liked one final time before being seated for dinner.

                                                "I like the variety of stuff. It's different," Elder said.

                                                 

                                                A $35 ticket price that benefited the museum included hors d'oeuvres and dinner with free wine. Malenke said she was pleased the maximum number of tickets for sale, 80, were sold.

                                                 

                                                "By just being here, they'll see the museum," Malenke said. "This is our main fundraiser. We have no secured support. We run through gifts and fundraisers."

                                                 

                                                The museum is a general interest museum that offers three permanent exhibit galleries --American Indian Historic Ohio, the Golden Gallery, East Asian and a changing exhibit gallery.

                                                 

                                                The museum also has a gift shop that offers exhibit-related books, decorative items and crafts, toys and jewelry.

                                                Tours for adults and children, lectures and workshops and community programs are available through the museum.

                                                 

                                                leemoore@...

                                                 

                                                (740) 450-6758

                                              • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                                                Michigan Asserts Sovereignty Rights in Canoe Crossing Article and photos by Brita Brookes© Censored News http://www.bsnorrell.blogspot.com/ August 27, 2010
                                                Message 23 of 26 , Aug 31, 2010

                                                  Michigan Asserts Sovereignty Rights in Canoe Crossing

                                                  Article and photos by Brita Brookes©
                                                  Censored News

                                                  http://www.bsnorrell.blogspot.com/
                                                  August 27, 2010

                                                  The local aboriginal community from both the United States metro Detroit area and local Windsor, Ontario area gathered at Detroit’s Belle Isle Park on Friday, August 27, 2010. With the sun shining and warm summer temperatures, the group gathered to launch the first ever USA-Canada Canoe Border Crossing as a peaceful demonstration of the rights stated and found in the Jay Treaty.

                                                  Local American Indian Movement of Michigan organizers Bryan Halfday and Helen Wolfe held the event as a way to increase public awareness about aboriginal treaty rights, create local community support and to educate people about inherent and ancestral rights. The event was planned as a part of a three day weekend of events all related to the Honoring Our Traditions Pow Wow which was held in Lincoln Park, Michigan’s Council Point Park also organized by the local Michigan American Indian Movement chapter.

                                                  Dennis Banks co-founder of the American Indian Movement participated in the canoe border crossing and stated that the ability and right to cross the river to Canada from the United States freely was “guaranteed in the Jay Treaty and it is our ancestral right to cross freely without harassment. This is our ancestral land of which we view per our history as one in the same with no borders. This is our home. We are sovereign.”

                                                  The canoe crossing started at the west end of Belle Isle Park whereupon the canoes paddled across the busy Detroit River to the Windsor, Ontario Peace Fountain. Once at the Windsor Peace Fountain, the canoe groups touched Canadian land and were greeted by a large group including singers from the Canadian American Friendship Center. A few onlookers with opposing views yelled at one canoe participant to “go home.” Andrea Pierce stated that she was surprised at seeing and hearing opposition to her implementing her aboriginal rights and responded to them respectfully that “she never crossed any borders, but that the borders had crossed her.”

                                                  Among the canoe participants were John Marcus, Andrea Pierce, Stephanie Bartley, Rob Henry, Tim Seneca, Dean Kicknosway, Julianne Horsfield, Robert Naimy and Chase Horsfield. When asked about the reason why he did the crossing, canoe participant Dean Kicknosway replied that I wanted the population to know that “we are a living people with a history, not a people from history.”

                                                  The canoes crossed just prior to having several large freighters pass through on the busy Detroit River. The Detroit River is home to one of the busiest International Ports, the Ambassador Bridge and a hub of US and Canadian Commerce.

                                                  When asked how the experience was Stephanie Bartley stated that “she will remember the day forever. It was beautiful and I am very emotional about doing this knowing my ancestors probably travelled this way a long time ago.”

                                                  The event ended at the East end of Belle Isle where people gathered to sing and celebrate a peaceful and safe crossing. It was discussed among the crowd and with Dennis Banks, Bryan Halfday and Helen Wolfe that the hope would be for this to become a yearly event. The hope is that more people may partake in the event next year. To commemorate the crossing Dennis Banks is having a custom embroidered patch made that says “Just the Beginning- Continuing Our Ancestral Past- Detroit to Windsor Jay Treaty Canoe Border Crossing.” If anybody would like to volunteer in coordinating and or promoting this event for next year please contact Bryan Halfday at Bryanhalf@...

                                                   





                                                • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                                                  by Mark Bellinger http://www.newschannel5.com/Global/story.asp?S=13045515 NASHVILLE, Tenn. - There has been unexpected consequences of the May flooding
                                                  Message 24 of 26 , Aug 31, 2010

                                                     

                                                    by Mark Bellinger

                                                     

                                                    http://www.newschannel5.com/Global/story.asp?S=13045515

                                                     

                                                    NASHVILLE, Tenn. - There has been unexpected consequences of the May flooding including an increase in looting of ancient Native American graves along the Cumberland River.

                                                     

                                                    It's easy to see the impact of the May floods walking along the Cumberland River; an eroded bank line where dozens of Native American grave sites are now exposed.

                                                     

                                                    Archaeologist Aaron Deter-Wolf with the state of Tennessee showed us where looters have dug hole after hole looking for artifacts they can sell for a profit.

                                                     

                                                    "Okay, so what we're looking at here you can see these individual pick marks where someone has came in and dug this out," said Deter-Wolf. There were some human bones sticking out of the bank line, so someone else came in and noticed this and decided to dig for the artifacts within that grave."

                                                    The flood waters also unearthed shells that have been buried here for thousands of years. People discarded them after eating fresh water snails and river mussels. They're all over the banks of the river.

                                                     

                                                    The looters are looking for artifacts like pottery, arrowheads, spear points, a hoe blade, and a grooved axe. Archaeologists said looters are selling them to make a quick buck.

                                                     

                                                    "A lot of them find homes in online auction houses. A lot of them make it into artifact or antique dealers in the broader southeast," Deter-Wolf said.

                                                    It's hard for native American Jimmy Reedy to understand how people can be so heartless.

                                                     

                                                    "It's something that really gets under our skin. You know, we're still around. We're not relics and for people to treat our graves that way is very disrespectful," said Reedy.

                                                     

                                                    It's also against the law to disturbing any grave site in Tennessee.

                                                     

                                                    "This is something that has been going on for hundreds of years. It has gotten remarkably worse since the flood and with the economy in the situation it is," said Deter-Wolf.

                                                     

                                                    State officials believe there are up to a dozen people who are looting grave sites full time on the Cumberland River. It's hard to catch them, because it's difficult to prove the artifacts were stolen unless you catch the thieves red handed.

                                                     

                                                    The National Science Foundation is funding a study of the Cumberland River and the affects of the flooding. The state's archaeology division and MTSU are evaluating the flood's affect on erosion and the burial sites.

                                                     

                                                    If you run across an old burial site you should call the medical examiner's office and the Tennessee Division of Archaeology.

                                                     

                                                    Email: mbellinger@...

                                                  • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                                                    Make sure to go all the way to the bottom and read “ Serving our Country”. NiLP Latino Census Network Census Bureau s Facts for Features Hispanic Heritage
                                                    Message 25 of 26 , Sep 1, 2010

                                                      Make sure to go all the way to the bottom and read “Serving our Country”.

                                                       

                                                      NiLP Latino Census Network

                                                       

                                                      Census Bureau's Facts for Features

                                                      Hispanic Heritage Month 2010:

                                                      Sept. 15 - Oct. 15

                                                      US Census Bureau (July 15, 2010)

                                                      Editor's note: The following statistics were collected from a variety of sources and may be subject to sampling variability and other sources of error. Questions or comments should be directed to the Census Bureau's Public Information Office: telephone: 301-763-3030; fax: 301-763-3762; or e-mail: PIO@....

                                                      In September 1968, Congress authorized President Lyndon B. Johnson to proclaim National Hispanic Heritage Week, which was observed during the week that included Sept. 15 and Sept. 16. The observance was expanded in 1988 by Congress to a month long celebration (Sept. 15 - Oct. 15), effective the following year. America celebrates the culture and traditions of those who trace their roots to Spain, Mexico and the Spanish-speaking nations of Central America, South America and the Caribbean.

                                                      Sept. 15 was chosen as the starting point for the celebration because it is the anniversary of independence of five Latin American countries: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. In addition, Mexico and Chile celebrate their independence days on Sept. 16 and Sept. 18, respectively.

                                                      Population

                                                       

                                                      48.4 million [NiLP note: 52.3 million incuding Puerto Rico]

                                                      The estimated Hispanic population of the United States as of July 1, 2009, making people of Hispanic origin the nation's largest ethnic or race minority. Hispanics constituted 16 percent of the nation's total population. In addition, there are approximately 4 million residents of Puerto Rico, a Caribbean U.S. territory.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/> and
                                                      <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb09-199.html>

                                                      More than 1

                                                      . . . of every two people added to the nation's population between July 1, 2008, and July 1, 2009, was Hispanic. There were 1.4 million Hispanics added to the population during the period.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/>

                                                      3.1%

                                                      Percentage increase in the Hispanic population between July 1, 2008, and July 1, 2009, making Hispanics the fastest-growing minority group.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/>

                                                      132.8 million

                                                      The projected Hispanic population of the United States on July 1, 2050. According to this projection, Hispanics will constitute 30 percent of the nation's population by that date.
                                                      Source: Population projections <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb08-123.html>

                                                      22.4 million

                                                      The nation's Hispanic population during the 1990 Census.
                                                      Source: The Hispanic Population: 2000 <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-3.pdf>

                                                      2nd

                                                      Ranking of the size of the U.S. Hispanic population worldwide, as of 2009. Only Mexico (111 million) had a larger Hispanic population than the United States (48.4 million).
                                                      Source: International Data Base <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbsum.html>
                                                      and population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/>

                                                      66%

                                                      The percentage of Hispanic-origin people in the United States who were of Mexican background in 2008. Another 9 percent were of Puerto Rican background, with 3.4 percent Cuban, 3.4 percent Salvadoran and 2.8 percent Dominican. The remainder was of some other Central American, South American or other Hispanic or Latino origin.
                                                      Source: 2008 American Community Survey <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/users_guide/index.htm>

                                                      About 44 percent of the nation's Dominicans lived in New York City in 2008 and about half of the nation's Cubans in Miami-Dade County, Fla.
                                                      Source: 2008 American Community Survey <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/users_guide/index.htm>

                                                      26%

                                                      Percentage of children younger than 5 who were Hispanic in 2009. All in all, Hispanics comprised 22 percent of children younger than 18.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/>

                                                      27.4 years

                                                      Median age of the Hispanic population in 2009. This compared with 36.8 years for the population as a whole.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/>

                                                      107

                                                      Number of Hispanic males in 2009 per every 100 Hispanic females. This was in sharp contrast to the overall population, which had 97 males per every 100 females.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/>

                                                      States and Counties

                                                       

                                                      47%

                                                      The percentage of the Hispanic-origin population that lived in California or Texas in 2009. California was home to 13.7 million Hispanics, and Texas was home to 9.1 million.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/states/asrh/>

                                                      16

                                                      The number of states with at least a half-million Hispanic residents -- Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia and Washington.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/states/asrh/>

                                                      46%

                                                      The percentage of New Mexico's population that was Hispanic in 2009, the highest of any state. Hispanics also made up at least one fifth of the population in California and Texas, at 37 percent each, followed by Arizona (31 percent), Nevada (26 percent), Florida (22 percent) and Colorado (20 percent). New Mexico had 916,000 Hispanics.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/states/asrh/>

                                                      6.6%

                                                      The percentage increase in the Hispanic population in Alabama between July 1, 2008, and July 1, 2009, which led all states.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/states/asrh/>

                                                       

                                                      4.7 million

                                                      The Hispanic population of Los Angeles County, Calif., in 2009 -- the largest of any county in the nation. Los Angeles County also had the biggest numerical increase in the Hispanic population (78,000) since July 2008.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/counties/asrh/>

                                                      97%

                                                      Proportion of the population of Starr County, Texas, that was Hispanic as of 2009, which led the nation. All of the top 10 counties in this category were in Texas.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/counties/asrh/>

                                                      50

                                                      Number of the nation's 3,143 counties that were majority-Hispanic.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/counties/asrh/>

                                                      312,000

                                                      The increase in California's Hispanic population between July 1, 2008, and July 1, 2009, which led all states. Texas (300,000) and Florida (105,000) also recorded large increases.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/states/asrh/>

                                                      21

                                                      Number of states in which Hispanics were the largest minority group. These states were Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington and Wyoming.
                                                      Source: Population estimates <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/popest/states/asrh/>

                                                      Businesses

                                                      Source for statements in this section: Preliminary Estimates of Business Ownership by Gender, Ethnicity, Race, and Veteran Status: 2007 <http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/economic_census/cb10-107.html>

                                                      2.3 million

                                                      The number of Hispanic-owned businesses in 2007, up 43.6 percent from 2002.

                                                      $345.2 billion

                                                      Receipts generated by Hispanic-owned businesses in 2007, up 55.5 percent from 2002.

                                                      23.6%

                                                      The percentage of businesses in New Mexico in 2007 that was Hispanic-owned, which led all states. Florida (22.4 percent) and Texas (20.7 percent) were runners-up.

                                                      30.0%

                                                      Percentage of Hispanic-owned businesses in the construction and the other services sectors; 50.7 percent of the receipts of these businesses were concentrated in wholesale trade, construction and retail trade.

                                                      Families and Children

                                                       

                                                      10.5 million

                                                      The number of Hispanic family households in the United States in 2009. Of these households, 61 percent included children younger than 18.
                                                      Source: Families and Living Arrangements <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/hh-fam/cps2009.html>

                                                      66%

                                                      The percentage of Hispanic family households consisting of a married couple.
                                                      Source: Families and Living Arrangements <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/hh-fam/cps2009.html>

                                                      41%

                                                      The percentage of Hispanic family households consisting of a married couple with children younger than 18.
                                                      Source: Families and Living Arrangements <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/hh-fam/cps2009.html>

                                                      69%

                                                      Percentage of Hispanic children living with two parents.
                                                      Source: Families and Living Arrangements <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/hh-fam/cps2009.html>

                                                      27%

                                                      Percentage of stay-at-home mothers who were Hispanic. In contrast, 16 percent of all other mothers were Hispanic.
                                                      Source: America's Families and Living Arrangements: 2007
                                                      <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/families_households/cb09-132.html>

                                                      43%

                                                      Percentage of Hispanic married couples with children under 18 where both spouses were employed in 2009, down from 50 percent in 2007, prior to the start of the recession.
                                                      Source: Families and Living Arrangements
                                                      <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/families_households/cb10-08.html>

                                                      Spanish Language

                                                       

                                                      35 million

                                                      The number of U.S. residents 5 and older who spoke Spanish at home in 2008. Those who hablan español constituted 12 percent of U.S. residents. More than half of these Spanish speakers spoke English "very well."
                                                      Source: 2008 American Community Survey <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/users_guide/index.htm>

                                                      17 million

                                                      The number of U.S. residents 5 and older who spoke Spanish at home in 1990.
                                                      Source: Language Use in the United States: 2007 <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/prod/2010pubs/acs-12.pdf>

                                                      76%

                                                      Percentage of Hispanics 5 and older who spoke Spanish at home in 2008.
                                                      Source: 2008 American Community Survey <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/users_guide/index.htm>

                                                      Income, Poverty and Health Insurance

                                                       

                                                      $37,913

                                                      The median income of Hispanic households in 2008, down 5.6 percent from the previous year after adjusting for inflation.
                                                      Source: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008
                                                      <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/income_wealth/cb09-141.html>

                                                      23.2%

                                                      The poverty rate among Hispanics in 2008, up from 21.5 percent in 2007.
                                                      Source: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008
                                                      <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/income_wealth/cb09-141.html>

                                                      30.7%

                                                      The percentage of Hispanics who lacked health insurance in 2008, down from 32.1 percent in 2007.
                                                      Source: Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008
                                                      <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/income_wealth/cb09-141.html>

                                                      Education

                                                       

                                                      62%

                                                      The percentage of Hispanics 25 and older that had at least a high school education in 2009.
                                                      Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009 <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/education/cps2009.html>

                                                      13%

                                                      The percentage of the Hispanic population 25 and older with a bachelor's degree or higher in 2009.
                                                      Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009 <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/education/cps2009.html>

                                                      3.7 million

                                                      The number of Hispanics 18 and older who had at least a bachelor's degree in 2009.
                                                      Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009 <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/education/cps2009.html>

                                                      935,000

                                                      Number of Hispanics 25 and older with advanced degrees in 2009 (e.g., master's, professional, doctorate).
                                                      Source: Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009 <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/education/cps2009.html>

                                                      12%

                                                      Percentage of college students (both undergraduate and graduate students) in October 2008 who were Hispanic.
                                                      Source: School Enrollment - Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2008
                                                      <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/school/cps2008.html>

                                                      20%

                                                      Percentage of elementary and high school students combined that was Hispanic.
                                                      Source: School Enrollment - Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2008
                                                      <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/school/cps2008.html>

                                                      Foreign-Born

                                                       

                                                      47%

                                                      Percent of the foreign-born population that was Hispanic.
                                                      Source: 2008 American Community Survey <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/users_guide/index.htm>

                                                      Names

                                                       

                                                      4

                                                      The number of Hispanic surnames ranked among the 15 most common in 2000. It was the first time that a Hispanic surname reached the top 15 during a census. Garcia was the most frequent Hispanic surname, occurring 858,289 times and placing eighth on the list -- up from 18th in 1990. Rodriguez (ninth), Martinez (11th) and Hernandez (15th) were the next most common Hispanic surnames.
                                                      Source: Census 2000 Genealogy <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/genealogy/www/freqnames2k.html>

                                                      Jobs

                                                       

                                                      69%

                                                      Percentage of Hispanics or Latinos 16 years and older who were in the civilian labor force in 2008.
                                                      Source: 2008 American Community Survey <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/users_guide/index.htm>

                                                      18%

                                                      The percentage of civilian employed Hispanics or Latinos 16 years and older who worked in management, professional and related occupations in 2008. The same percentage worked in production, transportation and material moving occupations. Another 15 percent worked in construction, extraction, maintenance and repair occupations. Approximately 24 percent of Hispanics 16 or older worked in service occupations; 22 percent in sales and office occupations; and 2 percent in farming, fishing and forestry occupations.
                                                      Source: 2008 American Community Survey <
                                                      http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/users_guide/index.htm>

                                                      79,440

                                                      Number of Hispanic chief executives. In addition, 50,866 physicians and surgeons; 48,720 postsecondary teachers; 38,532 lawyers; and 2,726 news analysts, reporters and correspondents were Hispanic.
                                                      Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2010, Table 603 <

                                                    • ghwelker3@comcast.net
                                                      Native Americans Top 10 List By Ryan McKee http://www.askmen.com/top_10/celebrity/top-10-legendary-native-americans_1p.html The American Thanksgiving
                                                      Message 26 of 26 , Sep 1, 2010

                                                        The American Thanksgiving celebrates a heavily fictionalized story of pilgrims and Native Americans sitting down to a bountiful, peaceful feast. However, the first Thanksgiving probably consisted a handful of starving settlers dumbfounded that they were still alive and eating food previously thought to be inedible, like eel and corn. Thankfully, they had Native Americans like Squanto to show them what to eat to survive. They repaid Squanto and his people by enslaving, massacring and destroying their entire way of life. However, many great Native Americans refused to take it lying down. They fought back, proving themselves smarter and better warriors until the sheer number of Europeans and their diseases overwhelmed them.

                                                        There's a lot more to Native American culture than their prowess on the battlefield. For this feature, however, that's all we're going to be looking at: the most kick-ass men this culture produced. Here are the most legendary of those men.

                                                        Native Americans
                                                        © iStockphoto.com
                                                        10

                                                        Cowkeeper

                                                        While not as well known as other names on this list, Cowkeeper (aka Ahaya) was truly hardcore and one of the earliest known leaders of the Seminole tribe. When early Spaniards began attacking Indian settlements, he began raiding right back at them. He loathed the Spanish so much, he believed the only way to the afterlife was to kill 100 of them. However, his bloodlust didn’t extend to the British, who respected his tribes rebellious spirit. In 1783, after falling ill, he confessed that he had only killed 86 Spaniards and asked his sons to kill 15 in his name.

                                                        Pub. 11/23/09
                                                        Native Americans
                                                        © iStockphoto.com
                                                        9

                                                        Tecumseh

                                                        Leader of the Shawnee and a large multi-tribal confederacy that opposed the U.S. in the War of 1812, the cause he propagated became known as Tecumseh’s War. He advocated a return to an ancestral lifestyle. They wanted the U.S. to give back their land and keep their white noses out of tribal business. William Henry Harrison thumbed his nose at this and a long series of battles around the Great Lakes followed. The man who killed Tecumseh, Richard Mentor Johnson, launched an entire political career off of that one deed and became Vice President of the U.S.

                                                        Pub. 11/23/09
                                                        Native Americans
                                                        © Wikimedia Commons
                                                        8

                                                        Red Cloud

                                                        Without a doubt, one of the best Native American war leaders the United States Army ever faced, Red Cloud organized 2,000 Arapaho, Sioux and Cheyenne in a successful bitch-slapping of U.S. forces out of the Lakota territory that is now Wyoming and southern Montana. Known as Red Cloud’s War, the two-year skirmish ended with the U.S. agreeing to completely withdraw from their area. Of course, they later broke that pact, so Red Cloud, head of the Oglala Lakota Sioux, put on his diplomat headdress and met with President Grant. He stood firm against the government, but ultimately had to lead his people to a reservation.

                                                        Pub. 11/23/09
                                                        7

                                                        Black Hawk

                                                        By his 15th birthday he had already killed a man. By his 18th birthday, he had led multiple war parties to victory. Although not a hereditary chief of the Sauk, Black Hawk became war chief for his bravery. Even though his people had a treaty for land in Illinois, white settlers continued to move there. When Black Hawk started killing them off, the Black Hawk War began. It ended with the chief in jail, and bolstered the early career of Abraham Lincoln, but it took the Illinois Militia, Michigan Territory Militia, the U.S. Army, heir Indian allies, and a U.S. gunboat to finally bring him down.

                                                        Pub. 11/23/09
                                                        Native Americans
                                                        © Wikimedia Commons
                                                        6

                                                        Captain Jack

                                                        A chief of the Modoc tribe in California and Oregon, he utilized guerrilla tactics that nearly a century later were heralded as revolutionary. The Modoc were forced from their ancestral home to the Klamath Reservation. However, Captain Jack said “F*ck that!” and led the Modoc back home. When the U.S. Army showed up in 1872, Jack led an attack from the wastelands of what is now Lava Beds National Monument. They killed 35 servicemen and suffered no casualties. At a supposed peace treaty, Captain Jack and several Modoc pulled pistols and killed negotiators, including General Canby, the only general killed in the Indian Wars.  

                                                        Pub. 11/23/09
                                                        5

                                                        Sequoyah

                                                        A silversmith, Sequoyah created Cherokee syllabary in 1821, which made reading and writing in their native language possible. This is one of the only times in recorded history that a member of an illiterate people independently created an effective writing system. The Cherokee quickly realized the worth of his system and officially adopted it in 1825. Their literacy rate soared and surpassed that of surrounding European-American settlers, who had written language for centuries. His notoriety rose and he became a negotiator for the Cherokee in Washington, D.C.

                                                        Pub. 11/23/09
                                                        Native Americans
                                                        © Wikimedia Commons
                                                        4

                                                        Thayendanegea

                                                        Also known by his European name, Joseph Brant, this Mohawk leader became the most famous Native American of his time. “Monster Brant” is still remembered for the massacres and atrocities against settlers in the Mohawk Valley and his efforts to regain land for his people in Canada. Beginning at age 15, he fought in the French and Indian War. After receiving a British silver medal for his service, he went to Dartmouth College and married a white lady. However, he refused to completely integrate and did more for his people than any other leader at the time. 

                                                        Pub. 11/23/09
                                                        Native Americans
                                                        © iStockphoto.com
                                                        3

                                                        Sitting Bull

                                                        A Sioux holy man, Sitting Bull also swung a mean tomahawk, leading his people as a war chief during years of resistance to the United States. His forces defeated Custer at Little Bighorn. After his warrior years, he joined Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show, and reportedly cursed at audiences in his native tongue during performances. He returned to his tribe after touring with a circus horse. Police arrived to arrest the chief for past deeds, and the Sioux began shooting. By the end, 13 men were dead including Sitting Bull. His horse responded to its show cue and offered a hoof to “shake hands.”

                                                        Pub. 11/23/09
                                                        Native Americans
                                                        © Wikimedia Commons
                                                        2

                                                        Geronimo

                                                        The Apache were known as the fiercest warriors in the Southwestern United States and Geronimo became their most famous leader. He fought against both U.S. and Mexican government expansion for nearly 30 years, eluding capture or serious injury although greatly outnumbered. When the Mexican government put a bounty on Apache scalps, Geronimo’s raid became so numerous and brutal that no area felt safe. Though captured in 1886, he lived to be 79 years old and told his story to a biographer who published the famous book about his life.  

                                                        Pub. 11/23/09
                                                        Native Americans
                                                        © iStockphoto.com
                                                        1

                                                        Crazy Horse

                                                        The most famous war leader of the Lakota, he became feared by other tribes in the early 1850s for his skill in battle and continued fighting against U.S. expansion until his death. From a young age, he reportedly had trance visions of himself as a great warrior. He became an expert at luring cocky U.S. battalions into ambushes by pretending to be an injured, vulnerable target. Most famously, he led his tribe into the Battle of Little Bighorn, which left 268 soldiers dead including George Custer and two of his brothers.

                                                        For more history lessons, check out Top 10: Military Catastrophes, Top 10: Hottest Historical Women and Top 10: American Military Missions.

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