Argentina, the indigenous foremothers
- Argentina, the indigenous foremothers
Posted on: August 25, 2009 12:08 AM, by Razib Khan
Dienekes points to a new paper, Amerindian mitochondrial DNA haplogroups predominate in the population of Argentina: towards a first nationwide forensic mitochondrial DNA sequence database:
The study presents South American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data from selected north (N = 98), central (N = 193) and south (N = 47) Argentinean populations. Sequence analysis of the complete mtDNA control region (CR, 16024-576) resulted in 288 unique haplotypes ignoring C-insertions around positions 16193, 309, and 573; the additional analysis of coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms enabled a fine classification of the described lineages. The Amerindian haplogroups were most frequent in the north and south representing more than 60% of the sequences. A slightly different situation was observed in central Argentina where the Amerindian haplogroups represented less than 50%, and the European contribution was more relevant. Particular clades of the Amerindian subhaplogroups turned out to be nearly region-specific. A minor contribution of African lineages was observed throughout the country. This comprehensive admixture of worldwide mtDNA lineages and the regional specificity of certain clades in the Argentinean population underscore the necessity of carefully selecting regional samples in order to develop a nationwide mtDNA database for forensic and anthropological purposes. The mtDNA sequencing and analysis were performed under EMPOP guidelines in order to attain high quality for the mtDNA database.
Unlike Mexico or Venezuela Argentina does not conceive of itself as a mestizo nation. In fact, it is not even primarily a Spanish-ancestry nation, because of the large contingent of Italians, as well as significant minorities of immigrants from Western and Northern Europe. And yet this is not an isolated finding, a large proportion of the mitochondrial lineages of Argentines seem to be of Amerindian origin. How can this be with the known waves of immigration and Europeanization of the country in the 19th and 20th centuries? I've discussed the likelihood of strongly male-biased immigration, replacing the indigenous autosomal and Y chromosomal genetic material, and leaving much of the direct-line female lineages intact.
Cite: International Journal of Legal Medicine, 2009 Aug 13, DIO:10.1007/s00414-009-0366-3
- 12th Annual Native American Indian Film And Video Festival: Call For Entries
CALL FOR ENTRIES
Deadline for submission is September 20, 2009
Eastern Cherokee, Southern Iroquois & United Tribes of South Carolina has officially opened its Call for Entries, accepting submissions of independently produced film and video, feature length and short length films, documentary, experimental, student, and all genre of music videos, for the 12th Annual Native American Indian Film & Video Festival.
The festival started in 1997, eleven years later, the festival is the longest-running of its type in the Southeast and has expanded in both scope and size. Films are welcomed that feature Native talent, stories and themes from Central America's indigenous people, South America, and indigenous films from throughout the world including Aboriginal films from Australia and New Zealand. This year the festival will be November 5-9th. This community-based event aims to present the richness and variety of Native American cinematic expressions, as independent filmmakers share their unique dreams and concerns, as well as those of their varied communities, through the art of the moving image. The organizers of the festival want to enhance awareness in Native American Indian talent and provide exposure of the arts, independent Native American Indian cinema, media, and the motion picture industry to the southeastern United States. Each year, during November, the finest films created by, or on the subject of Native American and other indigenous people are chosen for screening at this festival celebrating National Native American Indian Heritage Month.
This unique film festival, the only Native festival of it's kind in the southeastern section of the country that draws independent filmmakers. Primarily the festival is a time to educate folks about contemporary Native American talent and issues, Native theme documentaries and to discuss film and video Literacy and the power it has to tell Native Stories by Native people and to entertain. This festival presents a series of films that are American Indian produced, directed, and/or starring Native American Indian people. The major categories for this festival include: Documentary Feature, Documentary Short, Commercial Feature, Short Subject, Music Video, Animated Short Subject, Student Film, Public Service, and Industrial.
Formats excepted include: 35 mm, VHS, DVD, Digital, 16mm, and Beta SP. All entry applications must be accompanied by a DVD or VHS screener, promotional materials, including production credits, publicity stills, as well as a film synopsis, not to exceed 250 words. Entrants are responsible for all shipping costs. If your film is accepted, your film title and names of director, producer and writer will be included in our print program and theater signage and in all promotional information presented to press.
Deadline for submission is September 20, 2009.
Entry forms can also be obtained by writing or calling ECSIU.
* Submit press packets with submissions or provide a 1-page detailed description of your submission with vitae. Include a self-addressed and stamped return package (if return required). Films still in our receipt are still under consideration for programming.
* Film and video entries must be on DVD or VHS (if DVD avialable) ~ DVD Copies Must Be Available for Screenings, unless otherwise agreed.
* There is NO submission Fee!
Mail All Submissions to or FMI: ECSIUT, Film Festival of Southeastern USA P.O. Box 7062, Columbia South Carolina, 29202, (803) 699-0446, Attn: Dr. Will Moreau Goins, Film Festival Coordinator/ Presenter
To get Application Form for Submission with Film/Video (DVD or VHS) Preview