With regard to the query from Domingo A. Reyes in connection with the use of
certain prepositions, the position is as follows:-
TÖ is used as follows:-
1. to indicate a particular place:
a) Lödobs tö zif ela London = We live in the city of London;
b) Tö topäd at kanoy visitön bumis nitedik = In this region one
is able to visit interesting buildings.
2. to indicate the "point de départ" :
a) De leveg, zifil stanon tö fagot milmetas kil = The town is
three kilometres away from the major road.
PÖ is used as follows:-
1. to indicate "in the act of":
a) Binom suvo pö yag = He is often hunting;
b) Obinof oneito pö täv veütik = Tomorrow night she will be on
an important journey.
c) Pö midunotidun no sevoy utosi, kelosi dunoy = When
committing a criminal activity, one knows not
what one does.
2. to indicate "presence at":
a) Flen oba binom pö konsärt = My friend is at the concert;
b) Daut omik binof pö gümnad = His daughter is in the gym.
3. to indicate "as a consequence of":
a) Pö dredäl äglömob spikoti oba = Due to worry I forgot my
b) Äperobs moni mödik pö ted somik = We used to lose a lot of
money because of such trade;
c) Sevobs omi te pö nem = We know him only by name.
4. to indicate "at the time of" :
a) Pö fided äspikobs dö bolit = At dinner we used to talk about
b) Ämemosevob ofi pö loged balid = I remembered her at first
c) Pö nolüdavien stom binon koldikum = When the north wind
blows, the weather is colder;
d) Mens binons mu koteniks pö saun gudik = People are really
happy when they are in good health;
e) No äbinob lomo pö nun lügik at = I wasn't at home at the
time of this sad news.
5. to indicate "despite":
a) Pö prüd valik oka ga päcütom = Despite all his care, he used
to be really taken in.
6. to indicate "by the power of":
a) Pö God valikos mögon = With God all things are possible.
LÄ is used as follows:-
1. to indicate proximity:
a) Mot obik äseadof lä fön = My mother was seated by the stove;
b) Blibof ai lä ob = She always stays by my side.
2. to indicate: "together with":
a) Seitolöd moni at lä ret = Put this cash with the rest.
3. to indicate comparison:
a) Pluof lä sör oka demü jön logotik = She excels her sister
in outward beauty.
4. to express the French word "chez":
a) Lä obs fidobs tü düp velid = At our house we eat at seven
LEN is used as follows:-
1. to indicate "at the side of" :
a) Julans stanons bal len votik = The schoolchildren stand side
b) Famülans äseadons len tab ad fidön = The members of the
family used to sit at the table to eat.
c) Zif ela Köln topon len flumed ela Rhein = The city of
Cologne is situated on the river Rhine.
2. to indicate "against" :
a) Ästanobs len völ lunüpo = We stood by the wall for a long
b) Nafil enafädon len klif = The boat ran up against the rock;
c) Kriman iseidom vome neifi len gug = The criminal had thrust
a knife to the woman's throat.
3. to indicate "by means of":
a) Ägleipom obi len kolet = He grabbed me by the collar;
b) Mot ädugof cili len nam = The mother led the child by the
c) Julans vobons len vödabuk = The schoolchildren are working
from the dictionary.
4. to indicate "in turn" :
a) Lubegans ägoloms len dom alik = The beggars used to walk
from house to house.
The difference between "bai" and "ma" is as follows:
BAI and MA both mean "in accordance with" and can be used in that sense :-
a) Bai ced oba/Ma ced oba = in my opinion;
b) Bai doküm at binol gaenan cifik/Ma doküm at . . . = In
accordance with this document you are the
c) Bai sev obik everätükoy pöli/Ma sev obik . . . = As far
as I know the mistake has been rectified;
d) Pedunos bai vip ola/Pedunos ma vip ola = It has
been done in accordance with your wish.
----- Original Message -----
From: "reyespresidente" <reyespresidente@...>
Sent: 29 March 2004 22:49
Subject: [volapuk] Begö yufolsös obi!
Glidis oles, o flens!
I would appreciate it if someone could explain to me, with examples,
the differences between the following prepositions:
I don't know when to use them, or when to use which.
And what is the difference between "bai" and "ma" (if there is any)?
Domingo A. Reyes
PS: Sorry for using English
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