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Predikatod/Predicative Object.

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  • Ralph & Betty Midgley
    O flens Vpaliseda! Su pad mäldeg Gramata Volapüka (Noet degvel) Arie de Jong penom sökölosi:- Ob, as bevoban lebuka at, evilob ninükön suemodi nulik ini
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 5, 2003
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      O flens Vpaliseda!
          Su pad mäldeg Gramata Volapüka (Noet degvel) Arie de Jong penom sökölosi:-
          „Ob, as bevoban lebuka at, evilob ninükön suemodi nulik ini gramat Vpa,  suemodi, kel no komädon in natapüks, sevabo:  suemod predikatoda.  Pö ninükam suemoda at, inedos, i, lüsumön deklinafomi nulik, efe deklinafomi mälid  ü  predikatifi, ko finot : -u in balnum e finot : -us in plunum.
          Ven äfoseitob cifale namapenäda gramata Vpa ad bespikön kobo donadilis valik gramata at, cifal äkanom lobülön cedi oba dö predikatod, ab om it äcedom too ninükami suemoda ona no vipabiki, bi dub ninükam predikatoda, Vp in stukot oka odistonöv tu mödo tefü natapüks mödikün.  Cedü om ba komandabos-la ad gebädön in stül sublimik deklinafomi mälid at.  Sekü kod at, ed i bi ob nog ai cedob, das ninükam suemoda predikatoda, binon tikavik, e das balugükonöv süntagi Vpa, dälolös obe ad givön is plänedi dö din at!  In pläned at ogebob, noe in sams, abi mögädo in dil votik vödema predikatifi.
          Äs löpo ya pesagos, suemod predikatoda no komädon in natapüks.  Me vöd at ävilob malön tefi, keli din labon tefü subyet u yegod lä värbs semik.  Sams :
      1.    Binom yaganu.
      2.    Lecedob omi manu gretik.
      3.    Din at panemon kübu.
      In set balid vöd : yaganu < tefon subyeti : om lä värb : binön.
      In set telid el manu gretik tefon yegodi : omi lä värb : lecedön.
      In set kilid vöd : kübu tefon subyeti : din at lä värb : nemön in sufalefom.
          Kluö!  värbi : binön ävilob nemön värbu neloveädik predikatodik, e värbis : lecedön e nemön värbus loveädik predikatodik bi värbs at reigülons me predikatif.
          Pö loveükam seta dunalefomik ko predikatod in sufalefom, predikatod ai blebon predikatodu, e kludo bleibon binön in predikatif.  Leigodolöd seti kilid pemäniotöl!”
          Kisi cedols-li dö tikamagot at Söla de Jong? nulälom hiel Ralph.

      Because I know that not everyone on the list is able to attempt such advanced Volapük, I translate it into English for their convenience:-
      On page sixty of the Grammar of Volapük (Note seventeen)  Arie de Jong writes the following:-
          „As the compiler of this volume, I myself was desirous of including a new concept into the grammar of Volapük - a concept which is not present in the natural languages, that is to say : the concept of the predicative object.   With the inclusion of this concept came the requirement of a new grammatical case, to wit, a sixth case  or  predicative with the ending : -u in the singular and the ending : -us in the plural.
          When I submitted the manuscript of the grammar of Volapük to the Cifal in order to discuss together all its component parts, the Cifal was able to approve my opinion with regard to the predicative object, but he himself opined, nevertheless, that the inclusion of such a concept was not opportune, because by including the predicative object, Volapük would differ too much in its structure from most natural languages.  In his opinion the use of this sixth case would perchance be opportune in very elevated styles of language.  Because of this reason, I myself always opined that the inclusion of this concept is rational and that it would simplify Volapük syntax  -  please permit me to give here some clarification regarding this concept.  Herein, not only by way of examples, but eventually in another part of the text I shall use the predicative.
          As already mentioned above, the concept of the predicative object is not present in natural languages.  By means of this word, I want to show the relationship which it has in respect of the subject and object linked to some verbs.     Examples:
      1.    He is a hunter  (= binom yaganu).
      2.    I consider him a great man  (= lecedob omi manu gretik).
      3.    This object is called a cube.(= din at panemon kübu).
      In the first sentence the word yaganu < has reference to the subject : om  with the verb : binön.
      In the second sentence manu gretik has reference to the object : omi with the verb : lecedön.
      In the third sentence the word : kübu has reference to the subject : din at with the verb : nemön in the passive.
          There you are!  I wanted to call binön an intransitive predicative verb, and the verbs : lecedön and nemön transitive predicative verbs, because these verbs are governed by the predicative.
          By turning over the active voice with the predicative into the passive, the predicative object remains  nonetheless the predicative object always, and therefore remains in the predicative.  Compare the third sentence mentioned!
          Ralph wonders what you think about Mr. de Jong's idea?

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