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yahshimy siler!!!!

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  • karwan yasin
    Essalamueleykum! Men Tor Beti Yasatmaqci Idim,Kespi TorBeti Layhiliguciler Bolsa Men Bilen Alaqilishishinglarni Umid Qilimen!Bahasini Yuzturane
    Message 1 of 7 , Jul 31 9:38 PM
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      Essalamueleykum!
           Men Tor   Beti  Yasatmaqci Idim,Kespi TorBeti Layhiliguciler Bolsa Men Bilen    Alaqilishishinglarni  Umid Qilimen!Bahasini Yuzturane Sozlisheyli.tel:13899978438,0991-2809618



      Do You Yahoo!?
      暑期大片齐聚雅虎通 网络摄像头+雅虎通调频收音机等你来拿
    • oghli qarluq
      The Turkish website said proudly that their ancestors comprised of Huns and the White Huns, and the Uygur nationalists had further provided two lineages of
      Message 2 of 7 , Aug 1, 2003
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        The Turkish website said proudly that their ancestors comprised of Huns and the White Huns, and the Uygur nationalists had further provided two lineages of eastern and western Hunnic kings to support their claim of Hunnic heritage, in direct competition with the Mongols who celebrated the 2000th anniversary of first Hunnic empire in 1991.  The Turks are a group of group no secondary to the Huns, and their influence would be felt in Ottoman Empire's conquest of the Byzantium and the Balkans as well as waves of raids into the Indus Valley.  Their history had been full of extraordinary events like slaves turning into rulers. Their linguistic flavor found entries in Finno-Ugric language. They pushed Islam to its apex. It is too broad a topic for me to cover them all in here.  
         
        In this section, I will concentrate on the Turkic origin and influence in China and Mongolia during their early developments. There is a need to expand on the Turks. Because the Turks had impacted the Chinese more than the Huns. There had been reports that Chinese visitors and delegations were very well received by the Turkish people in today's Turkey. The Turkish people treated the contemporary Chinese like brothers. In this perspective, the Turkish people identified more with the Chinese than the Chinese did to the Turkish people of Turkey. The reason the Turkish people in Turkey feel affiliated with the Chinese is that their ancestors had originally lived in northern China and today's Mongolia. In China, Turkic influences could be said to be more profound than the Huns. By Sui Dynasty (AD 581-618), a Turkic man, Yang Su, would be the prime minister. During the Tang Dynasty, Pogu Huai'eng, an Uygur, had obtained a post as a general in the court. After the fall of Tang Dynasty (AD 619-907), three dynasties among the Five Dynasties, Posterior Tang 923-936, Posterior Jin 936-946, Posterior Han 947-950, were ruled by the Shatuo (Sha'to) Turks. (Sha'to Turks were a group of Western Turks who were first employed by the Tibetans as their herald armies, but they later defected to the Tang Chinese and were assigned the border posts in northern China to guard against other nomads and Khitans.) One more interesting thing would be the fact that the Uygur Turks had a long history of co-living with the Chinese. There is on record a big Uygur community around Yuan-shui River in today's Hunan Province, Central China. The famous writer, Jian Bozan, who committed suicide during the Cultural Revolution, happened to be an ethnic Uygur from Hunan Province.  
         
        Who are those people called Turks then? They did not disappear as the Huns did. Today's Turkish people in Turkey are direct descendants of Osmanli Turks who belonged to the Oghuz confederations which have the origin in today's Mongolia. We had traced the original Huns to a group of people driven out of Hetao area, south of the Yellow River, by Qin (BC 221-206)  emperor Shi Huangdi (Shihuangdi).   Chinese history books invariably claimed that the Gaoche people, the Tiele Tribe (ancestors of Uygurs), Ruruans (Rou Ran or Ru Ru), and Turks were alternative races of the Huns, and we would sort out their relationship below. There is one common feature among those ancient tribes, namely, they loved the nomadic way of life, they never settled down, and they preyed upon Chinese Turkistan and Northern China as an outsider force. In contrast, tribal states of Chinese Turkistan, i.e., Loulan (Rongjiang), Cheshi (Gaochang), Qiuci (Guqa or Kuqa), Yanqi, Yutian (Hotan), Shule (Kashi), are recorded to have city-walls and cultivation.
         
        Unlike the Huns, the Chinese of Former Han Dynasty did initiate some colonization efforts in Chinese Turkistan. The Uygur claim, at http://www.uygur.org/enorg/history/uygurlar_kim.htm, was not that correct in one of the assertions, namely, the Chinese never colonized Xinjiang or Chinese Turkistan. The Chinese, like the Huns and Turks, had been outside contenders. The Huns, after driving out the Yuezhi, did station some official in Chinese Turkistan. The Huns, according to Ban Gu, devised an official entitled 'Tongpu Duwei', similar to governor, and sent this person to the post in charge of ancient tribal states of Yanqi, Weixu and Weili, located to the southwest of today's Urumqi. Hunnic 'Rizhuowang' (king of sun chasing) was usually stationed in the 'west court', a place to the north of Altai, while Hunnic 'central court' was always in today's Outer Mongolia. In 121 BC, Han Emperor Wudi ordered a campaign against the Huns, with Huo Qubing and Gongsun Ao departing from northern border, while Li Guang and Zhang Qian from the Beijing area in the east. Huo attacked the Huns in and around Qilian Mountains, the ice and glacier of which fed the farming of the so-called Hexi Corridor (i.e., corridor to the west of the West Yellow River Bend). Hunnic King Hunye, for fear of punishment by Hunnic Chanyu, killed King Xiutu and surrendered his 40,000 people to Huo Qubing. Wudi relocated the Huns to five prefectures, Longxi (today's Weisui and Tiaohe Rivers, Gansu Prov), Beidi (today's northeastern Gansu Prov), Shangjun (today's northeastern Shenxi Prov), Shuofang (somewhere on north bank of the Northern Yellow River Bend), and Yunzhong (today's Tuoketuo County, Inner Mongolia). Wudi further set up Wuwei and Qiuquan Commandaries in the old territories of King Hunye. In 102 BC, Zhangye and Dunhuang Commandaries were set up along the corridor. Civilians were relocated to guard the posts along with the army. After General Li Guangli campaigned against the ancient state of Da'yuan (Fergana) in Central Asia, more posts were set up on the Silk Road. From Dunhuang to the Qinhaihu Lake, hundreds of 'farming soldiers' were stationed. By the time of Emperor Xuandi (reign 73-48 BC), south of Tianshan Mountains was firmly under Han Chinese control. Hunnic 'Rizhuowang' (king of sun chasing) offended Hunnic Chanyu, and he defected to Han China, yielding to Chinese the Hunnic control of the northern part of Chinese Turkistan. By 62 BC, north of Tianshan Mountains was controlled by Chinese as well. Colonization went as far as the ancient state of Sha'che. This post was responsible for reporting on the situations in such states as Kangju (Kang-chu) and Wu'sun (Ili). During the reign of Emperor Yuandi, 48-32 BC, another group of Huns surrendered to Chinese, and colonization reached Che'shi.  
         
        The Uygurs and the Mongols, however, could be both right or both wrong in their assertion in regards to the Hunnic ancestry.  The Uygur claim could be built on basis of their ancestor (Huihe)'s membership in the Tiele Tribes, a group of people sanwiched between the Huns/Turks and the original dwellers of Xinjiang or Chinese Turkistan. (Uygurs claimed they descended from 'Chunwei', the son of Jie, last Xia Dynasty lord.) The Mongolian claim could be built on basis of the nomadic tribal groups which never left the Mongolian plateau. Western history books tried in vain to make a distinction, and they had said that the Genghis Mongols were descendants of the Ruruans. The Ruruans, however, were Hunnic than Mongol as we would explore in this section and had explored in the section on the Huns. The 'Mongol' claim for Ruruans could be built on basis of one comment in History Of Toba Wei Dynasty, namely, the founder of Ruruan people might have origin in Eastern Hu nomads, a group more associated with the Tungusic people of Manchuria and eastern Mongolia. My research into various records, however, shows that the Ruruans were more Hunnic than anything else after relocating to the west. After the Ruruan founder fled to the Altai Mountains, he conquered and absorbed remnant Hunnic and Gaoche tribes there. To provide as detailed descriptions as possible, I had traced the Huns and Turks according to the specific naming as recorded in history, rather than generic naming. I traced the ending of the Eastern Huns to their relocation to Hebei Province by the Tuoba in AD 523 and that of the western Huns to Attila and his warfare in Europe in AD 433-453. The third group of Huns, Ruruan, and their relationship with Nie-ban (Nirvana) Huns, would be touched upon below and in Huns section.

         
        The Turks did not come about till they, employed as a group of iron miners in the Altai Mountains, rebelled against the Ruruans in AD 546-553.  We need to make a distinction here between the words of 'Turk', 'Turkic' and 'Turkish'. The word 'Turk' would denote the group of people as recorded in the middle 6th century. The word 'Turkic' means more a language that was spoken by the Euroasian nomads, and the earlier Huns were said to be Turkic as well. The word 'Turkish', however, would denote specifically the people and the language in today's Turkey, i.e., Anatolia. Western history books classify the Ruruans as the Mongolian, but the term "Mongolian" was a much later concept. The term 'Mongolian' did not appear till Khubilai endorced it in the 14th century, supposedly on basis of the word 'Mengwu Shiwei'.  Conventional history would make such a distinction between the Turkic and Mongolian ethnicity. Here, I will refer to the Ruruans as 'Hunnic' versus their Turkic adversaries for clarification's sake.  The Ruruans are said to be the successors to the Huns, and this group of people had also been responsible for pressuring the so-called 'Huns' into migrations towards Europe as well as cracking down on the eastern Huns in collaboration with the Tuoba. The Ruruans, as we detailed in the Hun section, were more Hunnic than those they chased away towards Europe. The two groups, Ruruans and Turks, were hostile towards each other and numerous records point to the Turks' chasing the Ruruan khan to the Western Wei Dynasty (AD 535-557)  as well as chased other Ruruan royal family members to the Hephthalite Empire of the White Huns (Ye-tai). Please note that the Ruruans had inter-marriage with both Western Wei and the Ye-tai.  In AD 553-68, the Turks and Sassanians in today's Iran allied in destroying the Hephthalite Empire of White Huns or Ye-tai. 
         

        Turkic Language
         
        Unlike other earlier nomads who left no records of written language, the Turks possessed the so-called Orkhon inscriptions (a Kok Turk invention related to Eastern Khate around AD 682) in a runic-like script, and this script was deciphered back in 1896.  There was some element of Chinese language among the early Orkhon scripts, though.  Note Han Dynasty Chinese had no problem communicating with the Huns who were speculated to be Turkic-speaking as well. The forms of the lost languages of the Khitans, Tanguts and Jurchens, like the Korean writing, had all appeared to be some kind of revision on top of Chinese pictographs.  Among the Turks, the Uygurs were great language masters, and adopted their own script which became known as the Uygur script.  They helped Chingiz Khan's Mongols in devising the written Mongol language in early 13th century.  The Uygur script indirectly influened the Manchus when the latter adopted the Mongolian script in 1599.  (The Manchus first used Khitan's Siniform script and finally adopted Chinese logographic characters.)     Turkic language is one of the three language branches in the Altaic language family, namley, Turkic, Mongolian and Tunguzic.  My suspicion is that the branches did not distinguish themselves till much later, and the three language branch designations were the products of linguists of 20th century any way.  When you look at the photos of ruins of Karakorum, near the Orkhon River, southwest of Ulaanbaatar as well as few slates of tomb stones on the desolate Gobi, the impression will be all yours to imagine who the successive dwellers had been on that land.  The control of the area of Mongolia had passed from the Turks to the Uygurs, then to the Kyrgyz. (The Kyrgyz were said to be the last Turkic people to have resided in Mongolia, but in the section on Mongols, we had listed quite a few groups of peoples who appeared to be more Turkic than the later Mongols.)
         
        A simple comparison of some words in later Mongolian language yields the following interesting points: The word for the Mongolinas, Mongqol irgen, is the same word 'irgen' as used in ancient Chinese pronunciation which could be corrobated by the Cantonese pronunciation of 'irgen' and Japanese pronuncitation of 'nin' or 'dgen'. Still more interesting is the fact that Genghis Khan's name, Timuchin, shared the same prefix as some of his brothers and sister, with Ti meaning nothing more than a Chinese word 'Tie' for iron or smith. JOHANN WILHELM ADOLF KIRCHHOFF (1826-1908) mentioned two Kara-Kirghiz groups, i.e., "the On or “ Right “in the east, with seven branches (Bogu, Sary-Bagishch, Son-Bagishch, Sultu or Solye, Cherik, Sayak, Bassinz), and the Sol or “Left” in the west, with four branches (Kokche or Kfichy, Soru, Mundus, Kitai or Kintai)". As stated at http://57.1911encyclopedia.org/K/KI/KIRGHIZ.htm, the "Sol section occupies the region between the Talass and Oxus headstreams in Ferghana (Khokand) and Bokhara, ... The On section lies on both sides of the Tian-shan, about Lake Issyk-kul, and in the Chu, Tekes and Narin (upper Jaxartes) valleys." Once again, ancient Chinese words, life right for 'you' (mutated into 'on') and left for 'zuo' (mutated into 'sol'), were adopted by nomadic tribes on the steppe. Note that the Huns used to designate their officials into rightside and leftside virtuous kings, similar to Qin Principality's adoption of rightside and leftside prime ministers. Isenbike Togan of Middle East Technical University stated that "written Chinese is also a system of signs... Central Asian people who were not Chinese used this system at some time in the past, including the Turks." Isenbike Togan concluded that the Trukish word for freesing came from Chinese word 'dong[4]'.
         
        As to Turkic language, there had existed a much earlier version of language than the Orkhon script. There is on record a poem written by the wife of a Chinese officer under the Di[1] people's Anterior Qin Dynasty (AD 351-394), and it was said that this love poem was sent to her husband who was exiled to the border post in China's silk road. The points to make here is that it was written in so-called 'Hui' language, namely, a terminology that was to be used for denoting Turkic language later. Hui means something self-looping or percolating, in a similar fashion to the Iranian languages. (Today's Chinese designated Muslims as 'Hui Ren' and Islam as 'Hui Jiao'.) The poem, woven on silk clothing, could be read from right to left and from left to right. Both the earlier 'Hui Wen' and later Orkhon script must have been impacted by more than Chinese. Iranian languages had been found in the same area. Excavated in areas rear Turfan would be manuscripts in Bactrian, the ancient language of Bactria in northern Afghanistan. Kushan ruler Kanishka, who was of Yuezhi origin, adopted Bactrian as the language of his coinage. After the collapse of the Kushan empire, Bactrian language continued in use till the ninth-century, as evidenced by inscriptions from the Tochi valley in Pakistan and the remnants of Buddhist and Manichean manuscripts found in the Turfan oasis.
         
        In the following, I will tentatively explore the origin of Uygurs, Turks and their history. 
         
         
        Origin Of Turks & The Uygur Turks
         
        Nationalist Uygurs, at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/1730/buh.html, stated that "after 210 B.C., the Uygurs played important roles in the Hun (220 B.C. - 386 A.D.), Tabgach (To'pa) (386-554 A.D.), and Kok Turk (552-744 A.D.) empires which were established in Central Asia".   This statement would be erroneous in its lumping together different groups of peoples. 
         
        The Turks, specifically called Tujüe or Tujue (Turks) at the time of North Dynasties (AD 386-581) and Sui/Tang Dynasties, asserted themselves in late time period of Toba Northern Wei Dynasty (A.D. 386-533). Toba Wei split into Eastern and Western Wei Dynasties in AD 534. The Turks rebelled against the Ruruans in AD 546-553. However, there were earlier references to Turkic tents in the 4th and 5th centuries, respectively.  Below, I will cite a few records in Chinese history. Among the following sayings, personally, I am more inclined to believe that the ancestors of Turks might be related to the 500 families who fled to the Altai Mountains after Toba Wei Emperor Daowudi (Toba Gui, reign 386-409) defeated the Hunnic Statelet of Juqu in today's Gansu Province.
         
        In China, 16 Nations (AD 304-420) were comprised of various nomadic groups of people, Huns, Jiehu, Xianbei (including Wuhuan & Toba), Qiang, & Di. Ultimately, the Toba (Tuoba), who were of Xianbei heritage, took over northern China. Leftover Huns were absorbed by Ruruan, and Ruruan were defeated and exterminated by Turks. Toba would deal with the onslaughts by the Ruruans first and then the Turks. Toba got sinicized in northern China. Ultimately, Toba Wei Dynasty would be usurped by two generals of Xianbei heritage. Northern Qi and Northern Zhou replaced the two Toba dynasties. Sui China would be built on Northern Zhou Dynasty of Yuwen clan.
         
        The origin of the Turk was interesting as well as the name of it. Tang Dynasty writer, Li Yansou, in his book History Of The Northern Dynasties, wrote that the Turks were alternative Huns whose ancestors had originally dwelled to the right side of the Xihai (West Sea), i.e., Qinghaihu Lake of Qinghai Prov. According to Chinese records, the ancestor of the Turks came from a boy whose arms were cut off and whose ankles were also deliberately disabled by the tribal feuds. This boy was from the background of mixed Hu nomads in today's Gansu-Qinhai areas. History Of The Northern Dynasties said that those Turks dwelled to the west side of Xi Hai (Xi Hai was also the name for the Mediterranean). A wolf would be responsibile for saving the life of the boy. When the enemies found out about the boy, they killed the boy. But the pregnant wolf fled to the mountains near ancient Gaochang Statelet (Turpan) and she gave birth to 10 children who ultimately became the ancestors of later Turks, i.e., Ten Turkic Family Names. The ten Turks used their wives' family name as their respective family name, and Ashina was one of the ten names.
         
        Li Yansou also recorded another theory, namely, the ancestors of the Turks were the mixed Ashina Hu nomads in Pingzhou and Liangzhou areas, and about 500 households of them fled to the Ruruan for protection, dwelled to the south of the Altai Mountains, and became the iron slaves of the Ruruans, at the time when Toba Wei Emperor Daowudi (reign 386-409) defeated the Hunnic Statelet of Juqu's Northern Liang in today's Gansu Province. The name of "turk" was in fact something denoting some cloth cover on the head, and it is also of the same shape as the mountains in today's Western China. Li Yansou also said that the Turks could have their origin from a statelet called Suoguo which was to the north of the Huns. The Hunnic tribal chieftan, A'pangbu, possessed 70 brothers, with one of them born with a wolf. Brother Nishidu would revive the tribe after it was conquered by neighbors. Nishidu had four sons, with one son leading the Qigu statelet, and the elder son living on Mount Ba-si-chu-zhe-shi-shan. This elder son was made into the chieftan, and he bore ten sons, with the youngest by the name of Ashina. Ashina was later selected as the chieftan because he could jump the highest against the tree. Ashina had one of his descendant by the name of Tumen (Bumin). In AD 545, a Western Toba Wei emissary visited Tumen, and Tumen, delighted that the visit by grandiose Chinese emissary might for sure bring along luck to him, sent in tributes to Toba Wei Dynasty the second year.
         
        From the standpoint of one Chinese historian writer (Cai Dongfan), the Turks are a so-called "bie zhong" of the Huns, namely, "alternative race" or "different race" if translated literally.   The Turks became a strong power after they, under Tumen, defeated the 'Tiele Tribe' and absorbed about 50,000 households in AD 546. Juqu's Northern Liang connection is the most credible explanation, in my opinion.

         
         
        Early Turkic History
         
        Turks, thinking that they helped to rear the Tiele Tribes on behalf of the Ruruans, proposed a marriage with the princess of the Ruruans. Ruruans declined their request. Hence, Turks sought for marriage with Toba's Western Wei Dynasty. In the 17th year of Western Wei's Datong era, i.e., AD 551, Turkic Khan Tumen (Bumin) obtained Toba Princess Changle as a bride. When Western Wei Emperor Wendi died, Tumen sent 200 horses as condolences. In the first year of Western Wei Emperor Feidi, Tumen defeated the Ruruans, causing Ruruan Khan commit suicide and Ruruan Khan's son flee to Northern Qi Dynasty. Tumen declared himself Khan Yili and gave his wife the title of Ke-hedun or Kedun (similar to Hunnic title of Yanzhi for queen). Tumen's son, named Keluo, was Khan Yixiji, and he would defeat Ruruan Khan's brother (Dengshuzi). Yixiji's brother, Sijin (Sinjibu?), aka Yandu, would succeed Khan Yixiji as Khan Muchu. Sijin was recorded to be red-faced and possess 'liuli' or green/yellow eyes, and he would defeat Dengshuzi at Mount Beilaishan and drive Dengshuzi into Northern Zhou territories for asylum. (Dengshuzi and his 3000 followers would later be handed over to the Turks for execution by Northern Zhou.)
         
        Sijin would now defeat the Ye-tai in the west, the Khitans in the east, and Qigu in the north. Hence, the Turks controlled the vast territories extending from Chinese Turkistan to Manchuria. Turks were recorded to have about 28 levels of officials, including Yehu, She(4), Teqin, Silifa, Tudunfa etc. They had the same custom as the Scandinavian pirates in that they would burn the dead body of their chieftan together with the belongings like horses and clothes. Tents were always opened towards the east where the sun rose.
         
        In the third year of Northern Zhou Emperor Wendi (?), the Turks defeated the Tuyuhun. Sijin had once wavered, in face of gifts from two Chinese states, several times, in marrying over his daughter to either Northern Qi or Northern Zhou, and he finally settled down on intermarriage with Northern Zhou. In AD 561, the first year of Baoding Era (Northern Zhou Emperor Wudi), the Turks under Sijin (Khan Muchu), with 100 thousand army, joined Northern Zhou's Duke Sui (Yang Zhong) in attacking Northern Qi and they reached ancient Bingzhou Prefecture. Turks requested for a second attack on Northern Qi. Sijin yielded his post to his brother at death bed. Sijin's brother, Tabo or Tuobo Khan, would make Shetu as Khan E'fu in charge of the east and a brother (Khan Rudan) as Khan Buli in charge of the west. Tabo Khan would play Northern Zhou and Northern Qi for tributes and treated the two Chinese rulers as stepsons. A Northern Qi monk called Huilin would convert him to Buddhism. After Northern Zhou destroyed Northern Qi, Tabo Khan would welcome a Northern Qi prince called Gao Baoyi (King of Fanyang) and make him the new emperor of Northern Qi. In AD 578, the first year of Xuanzheng Era of Northern Zhou Emperor Wudi, Tabo attacked Beijing and killed a Northern Zhou general called Liu Xiong. Khan Tabo raided Qiuquan thereafter, and meantime, Yutian, Persia and Ye-tai rebelled against the Turks in the west. Northern Zhou Emperor Wudi would promise to send Princess Qianjin to Tabo Khan for reconciliation. Khan Tabo raided Bingzhou and stopped raiding when Princess Qianjin was delivered. Tabo would expell Gao Baoyi to Northern Zhou years later. At the death of Tabo Khan, Tabo Khan asked his son to yield the throne back to his second brother's son. The elder brother's son, Shabolüe, refused to acknowledge the new khan. Hence, Turks would possess four different khans.
         
        After Sui Dynasty replaced Northern Zhou in AD 581, Shabolüe's wife, Princess Qianjin, would pursuade Turks into avenging on the Sui Dynasty. Defeated by Sui, Shabolüe Khan would blame Khan Ah'bo and henced attacked and killed the mother of Ah'bo. Ah'bo fled to the west for asylum with Datou (Tardu) Khan. The Turkic Khans attacked each other. Hence, Sui sent an official called Yu Qingzhe and pursuaded Shabolüe into seeking vasslage with Sui. Shabolue gave his sister to Yu Qingzhe as an appreciation of the peace efforts. When attacked by Turks from the west and the Khitans from the east, Shabolüe Khan was allowed to relocate to the south of the desert and Sui Dynasty acknowledged him as a minister instead of a vassal. Sui Emperor Wendi conferred the family name of Yang on Princess Qianjin and renamed her to Princess Dayi. After the death of Khan Shabolüe, Sui Emperor Wendi mourned for three days. Khan Shabolüe's brother, Shetu (Khan E'fu), was in charge of the east. Shetu asked his son to see another Shabolüe brother called Chuluo-hou and made Chuluo-hou the new khan. Chuluo-hou attacked Turks in the west by demonstrating the flags sent by Sui and he captured Khan Ah'bo. After Chuluo-hou died of an arrow wound, Shetu's son, Yongyulu, was made into Khan Duolan. When Sui Emperor sent over the screens of deposed Southern Chinese Dynasty of Chen to Prince Dayi, Prince Dayi thought about revenge again and she contacted a Western Turkic Khan for assistance. Shaobolue's son, Tuli Khan, was in charge of the north. Sui asked Tuli Khan to advise Khan Duolan in killing Princess Dayi before Tuli Khan could marry Princess Anyi of Sui Dynasty. Sui Emperor played a trick in bestowing a lot of gifts on Tuli Khan, hence angering the Arch Turkic Khan Duolan into a rivalry against Tuli Khan. Khan Duolan once killed all brothers and children of Khan Tuli. After the death of Princess Anyi, Tuli Khan (Rangan) would marry with Princess Yicheng of Sui Dynasty. Tuli Khan would be entitled Qiren Khan (Qimin Khan) and was allowed to stay south of the Yellow River, at Xia-zhou and Shen-zhou prefectures. Similar to Han Emperor Wudi, Sui Emperor Wendi dispatched multiple columns of armies against the rivalry Turks, several times, deep into northwestern territories. Khan Duolan was killed by his own people. Datou would proclaim himself Khan Bujia and fought wars with both Sui and Khan Tuli. In the first year of Rensou Era, Yang Su was conferred the post of Grand Marshal of Yunzhou and led Khan Qiren Khan to fight the Turks under Nili Khan. Khan Bujia fled to Tuyuhun. Khan Qiren took over the people of both Nili Khan and Bujia Khan. While Sui Dynasty was attacking the Turks, the Tiele Tribes joined in and defeated the Turks in the northwest. Sui armies, joined by Qimin Khan, would quell the rivalry Turks. In AD 607, the third year of Daye Era of Sui Emperor Yangdi, Qimin Khan and Princess Yicheng came to pay respect to Emperor Yangdi and offered 3000 horses when Yangdi arrived at Yulin, Shenxi, in the Hetao area. When Khan Qiren died, Sui Emperor mourned for three days. Khan Qiren's son, Tujieli, would succeed as Khan Shibi. During the 11th year of Sui Emperor's reign, Khan Shibi came to Sui capital. Later, Khan Shibi attacked Sui emperor at Yanmenguan Pass. Duke of Tang, Li Yuan, defeated the Shibi Turks at Mayi. When Sui was in upheaval, Shibi Khan welcomed Sui Emepress Xiaohou. Chinese fled to Turks in hordes for avoiding civil wars, and Turks became powerful while Tang China was weak after emerging from the civil wars after the demise of Sui Dynasty.
         
        In the west, the Turks was led by the son of Muchu Khan. When conflicting with Khan Shabolue, Western Turks set up two courts, one in ancient Shi-guo Statelet and the other in ancient Qiuci (Chouci) Statelet. Chouci, Tiele and Yiwu etc were all subject to Western Turks. After Chuluo-hou captured the western Turkic khan, Nili Khan would be enthroned. Nili Khan's son would be Chuluo Khan who resided in the old Wusun territory, i.e., today's Ili. By AD 605, the western Turks were in constant fights with the Tiele Tribes. Sui Dynasty sent a minister called Fei Ju to pursuade Western Turkic Khan Chuluo to seek vassalage with Sui. Khan Chuluo's mother, named Lady Xiang, was a Chinese who was living in Sui capital at the time. Sui tried to have Chuluo Khan attack Tuyuhun using the pretext that Chuluo could safely come to Sui capital to see his mother should Tuyuhun be cleared in the midway. Since Khan Chuluo refused to pay respect to Sui Emperor Yangdi in person, Yangdi would adopt Fei Ju's advice in supporting the grandson of Tardu (Datou) to have Chuluo replaced. Chuluo Khan fled to Gaochang Statelet and he later was pursuaded into surrender by his mother, Lady Xiang. Chuluo Khan later followed Yangdi in the Korean Expedition and was entitled Hesana Khan. Princess Xingyi was married to Khan Chuluo. When Sui Emperor Yangdi was killed by palace corp in Yangzhou, Chuluo Khan fled back to the Sui capital, but he was killed by Turks from the north.
         
        When Tang Dynasty's founder, Li Yuan, rebelled against Sui Dynasty, he would sent his minister (Liu Wenjing) to the Eastern Turks (ruled by Khan Shibi) for borrowing 2000 horses and 500 cavalry. At this time, Khan Shibi subjugated Tuyuhun in Gansu-Qinghai, Gaochang near Turpan, Khitans and Shiwei in northwestern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia. Khan Shibi intervened in China's civil wars and assisted Li Yuan's rivals, such as Liu Wuzhou & Liang Shidu. After the death of Khan Shibi, his brother, Chuluo Khan (same name as Chuluo Khan during Sui Dynasty time period), would be enthroned. Chuluo Khan assisted another Tang rival, Wang Shichong. Later, Chuluo Khan retrieved ex-Sui Empress Xiao and ex-Sui royal family from still another Tang rival called Dou Jiande. Chuluo Khan erected an ex-Sui royal member as the new Sui King. Chuluo Khan was determined to fight Tang on behalf of dethroned Sui Dynasty, saying that he wanted to return favor to Sui for Sui's helping his ancestors in the restoration of the Turkic khanate. Later, Chuluo Khan died and his brother, Khan Xieli, would be enthroned.
         
        Khan Xieli was disuaded from an alliance with another Tang rival called Xue Ju. Khan Xieli would erect his cousin, i.e., Shibi Khan's son, as Khan Tuli (same name as Tuli during Sui Dynasty time period) in the east, and Tuli would take charge of the ancient tribes of Khitans and Mojie (ancestors of Jurchens) people. Khan Xieli would take over Princess Yicheng as his wife. Princess Yicheng's brother (Yang Sanjing) and Wang Shichong's emissary would somehow pursuade Khan Xieli into challenging Tang Dynasty on behalf of dethroned Sui. In AD 621, Khan Xieli invaded Yanmenguan Pass and Dai Prefecture. For several years, Tang and Turks fought numerous battles across the northern border areas. By the 7th year of Tang Emperor Gaozu, in AD 626, Li Shimin or Li Shih-min (i.e., King Qin of Tang Dynasty and later Tang Emperor Taizong or Tai-tsung, AD 597-649), would sow a dissension among Xieli Khan and Tuli Khan. Unable to call upon Tuli to fight Tang further, Xieli Khan sent Tuli Khan and Simo to Tang for sake a peace treaty with Tang. Tuli Khan and King Qin promised to be brothers, while Tang Emperor Gaozu said to Simo that he felt he had seen Khan Xieli by meeting with Simo. In the following two years, Tang was busy building ships around the North Bend of the Yellow River for defence against Turks, while Turks broke the peace and kept attacking Tang. In AD 627, Tang Emperor Taizong got enthroned after staging "Xuan Wu Men Coup D'etat" during which he killed two brothers and forced Emperor Gaozu into abdication. This year, Tiele Tribes, including Xueyantuo, Huihe and Bayegu, rebelled against the Turks. Khan Xieli accused Khan Tuli of failing to quell the Tiele rebellion. Being attacked by Khan Xieli, Khan Tuli requested for help with Tang Emperor Taizong in AD 628. The next year, Xueyantuo proclaimed themselves as a khan and sought allianace with Tang. In the fourth year, AD 630, Tang ordered General Li Jing on a full campaign against Khan Xieli and captured Khan Xieli. Further details of Turkic history will be covered in Eastern Khnanate and Western Khnanate.
         

        The Uygurs
         
        Huihe would be a more correct name for the ancestors of the Uygurs. Interestingly, nationalist Uygurs had produced two lineages of eastern and western Hunnic kings on their website dating back to Before Christ era. Uygurs claimed they descended from 'Chunwei', the son of Jie, last Xia Dynasty lord. According to Shi Ji, Chunwei fled to the northern plains where he became ancestors of the Huns. The Hunnic successors will include the Ruruans, Gaoche, the Tiele Tribes and the Turks etc. New History Of Tang Dynasty, written by Song Dynasty's Ouyang Xiu, mentioned that the ancestors of Huihe were Hunnic, and they were called Gaoche because of their custom of riding in high-wheeled carts. They were alternatively called 'Chile' which was to mutate into 'Tiele'. History of the Northern Dynasties mentioned that the Gaoche people could be related to 'Dingling', descendants of the Chi Di or Red Di people who once resided in the Shanxi areas. They dwelled to the northwest of Luhun (?) Sea. Chinese history put Gaoche (descendants of Chidi or Red Di peopel, also known as Dingling), in a different category from the dozens of tribal states in Chinese Turkistan. Chidi once dwelled in Hetao and should belong to the earlier Rongdi Rongs. Rongdi had intermarriage with Zhou court, while Chidi with Jin Principality. Chidi first was called Dili, and then Gaoche and Dingling. They were recorded to have similar language to the Huns.
         
        Gao-che People   Record showed that the Gaoche people had similar traits as the early Huns and they were the nephews of the Huns. Among the Gaoche would be clans like Hulü, Di(2), Yuanhe, Jiepi, Hugu, and Yiqijin. Twelve family names could be found: Qifuli, Tulu, Dalian, Dabo, A'lun, Muoyun, Sifen, Fufuluo, Qiyuan, and Youshupei etc. The words Gao-che mean "high wheeled carts" which was to point that the Gaoche people liked to ride in high-whelled carts. The high-whelled carts were said to have lots of radius grooves or shafts. I have noticed that some Uygur website had adopted the Yuanhe clan of the Gaoche people as their ancestors. http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/society/A0849917.html had mentioned that the Uygurs (Uigurs) were the Yue-che of ancient Chinese records. This should be a typo of the Yuanhe clan. http://ignca.nic.in/pb0013.htm
        corroborated the phrase of Yue-che or Yueche as nothing other than a mutated form of spelling for the Yuezhi or Yueh-chih people who relocated to Bactria from Gansu.
         
        Tiele Tribes   History records from the Toba Wei period contain many references to the 'Tiele' or 'Chilie' tribes and their rebellions against the Tobas. Toba Emperor Daowudi defeated the Gaoche people. Gaoche tribes sought vassalage with Toba, and one chieftan was conferred the post of Yangwei Jiangjun (general)., and another chieftan Weiyuan Jiangjun (general). Both enjoyed Toba bestowals in clothing and grains. The Ruruan Khan, Shelun, would invade Gaoche lands. Hulü tribe defeated the Ruruan army and then slept with Ruruan women for days. Ruruan Khan Shelun then attacked Gaoche all of a sudden. Only 20-30 percent of Hulü people fled and they sought asylum with Toba Wei Dynasty. Hulü Beihouli was conferred the title of Duke Mengdugong and King of Zhongzhuangwang posthumously. Toba General Yiwei later conquered the remnant Yuanhe Tribe. At a place called Sinipo, Daowudi conquered over 100,000 households of the Gaoche people and then relocated them to south of desert. Gaoche bagan to learn agriculture. When Toba Emperor Xiaowendi called upon them to campaign in the south, Yuanhe Tribe selected a person called Shuzhe as a chieftan and fled to the north. Toba General Yuwen Fu was defeated. Yuanhe first fled to the Ruruans, but then left the Ruuans.
         
        According to History Of Toba Wei Dynasty, the Uygurs originated from the Tiele Tribes who were in turn descendants of the Huns. Tiele Tribes would be a generic name pointing to the dozens of tribal states across the northern belt of today's western China or Chinese Turkistan. These peoples were subject either to the Eastern Turks or to the Western Turks by the time of Sui Dynasty.
         
        During late Toba Wei Dynasty, there appeared many references to the 'Tiele' or 'Chile' tribes and their rebellions against the Tobas. History said that Tiele Tribes derived from the Gaoche people.

         
        As mentioned in the Hun section, there were two distinct groups of people in Western China, the Huns and the Yüeh-chih. The Yüeh-chih dwelled to the west of Chinese, in today's Gansu Province. After a defeat by the Huns, about 500,000 Yüeh-chih migrated to the Afghanistan. The Yüeh-chih tribal affiliates, like Kangju (Kang-chu) and Wu'sun, also fled to the west and set up satellite Yüeh-chih kingdoms. Those Yüeh-chih statelets invariably used the city name of 'Zhaowu' of Gansu Province as their royal family names. The Yüeh-chih people are said to be Caucasian, with links to the mummies excavated in Western China. A good speculation will be to link the Tiele Tribes to the mixed group of people between the Huns and the Yüeh-chih. Please bear in mind that the Huns and the Yüeh-chih were feuds. The later White Huns (Ye-tai) were also of the Yüeh-chih family according to Chinese history. It is said that Ye-tai was a family name of Yüeh-chih.
         
        Reading though history, two conclusions could be reached, i.e., that the tribal states of Loulan (Rongjiang), Cheshi (Gaochang), Qiuci (Guqa or Kuqa), Yanqi, Yutian (Hotan), Shule (Kashi) had been in continuous existance though the actual inhabitants of those states might have changed over the course of history, and that both the Huns and the Turks had appeared to be an outsider force that preyed upon those tribal states from the northern altitude of the Altai Mountains and Mongolia. More, according to Ban Gu of Latter Han Dynasty, the tribal states of Loulan (Rongjiang), Cheshi (Gaochang), Qiuci (Guqa or Kuqa), Yanqi, Yutian (Hotan), Shule (Kashi) are recorded to have city-walls and cultivation, while the Huns or later Turks did not possess those features.  
         
        Toba, Gao-che (Yuanhe), Ruruan   During early Toba period, Toba Wei Emperor Daowudi (reign 386-409), launched numerous campaigns against the Ruruans as well the Gaoche people. While Gaoche were at odds with Ruruans, they raided into Toba Wei as well. Daowudi personally led several campaigns against Gaoche and quelled their tribes. Gaoche people, however, were frequently mentioned as an ally in the war against Ruruans. The early Gaoche people had different names from later Tiele Tribes. There is an often-mentioned name called 'Hulü' among Gaoche, and in Toba Wei Dynasty, quite a few generals bearing this name were in existence. One Gaoche lord, Hulü Beihouli, fled to Toba Wei after being defeated by Ruruans, and he was conferred the title of Duke Mengdu. Daowudi relocated Gaoche people to the south of the desert and the Gaoche people began to learn cultivation. Gaoche posessed 12 family names, and they were enslaved by Ruruans mostly. Gaoche rebelled against Ruruans frequently. Gaoche were also subject to attacks from Ye-tai.
         
        Tiele Tribes (Huihe)   By late Toba Wei's Northern Wei Dynasty, a new alliance of people called Tiele (Toles) would emerge. The Tiele Tribes, descendants of the Huns, with many of later familiar Huihe family names, were recorded to have spread everywhere, i.e, north of the Luo River (e.g., clans like Tongluo, Bayegu, Pugu, Weihe, Fuluo, carrying names of Mengchen, Tuluhe, Sijie, Hun, Huxie), west of Yiwu & north of Yanqi (clans like Qibi, Boluozhi, Subo, Nahe, Wuhu, Hegu, Yunihu), southwest of the Altai Mountains (e.g., Xueyanto or Sheyanto, Shiban, Daqi), north of ancient Kangju Statelet (e.g., Ye-tai, Hejie, Bahu, Bigan, Juhai, Hebeiji, Bayemo), east and west of Nihai (?) Sea (Sulujie, Sahu), south of Beihai Sea (Dubo), and east of Byzantium (Eng'qu, A'lan, Beiru, Qiuli), numbering tens of thousands in each direction. History said the Tiele people in the west were good at cultivation and they had more buffalos and less horses. The Tiele people would now include the Ye-tai, with a strong hint that the composition would be both Yüeh-chih and Hunnic.
         
        By the end of Kaihuang Era, King of Jin (Yang Guang, i.e., later Sui Emperor Yangdi), defeated Bujia Khan of the Turks and dispersed the Tiele vassalage of the Turks. In the first year of Daye Era, i.e. AD 605, Chuluo Khan attacked various Tiele Tribes as well as suspected the loyalty of Xueyantuo Tribe. Chuluo Kkhan assembled hundreds of Xueyantuo chieftans and killed them all. Xueyantuo selected their own leader, Silifa and Sijin, and fought against Chuluo Khan. Xueyantuo people declared themselves as Khan Yihuzhenmuohe. Khan Yihuzhenmuohe would take over Yiwu, Gaochang and Yanqi from the Turks.
         
        Before Gaoche-Tiele, namely, in earlier Han times, there are simply too many tribal groups and states sandwiched between the Huns and the Han Chinese for me to pinpoint exactly where the Uygur ancestors came from. I will plan on a writing of tribal states in a separate section. By the time of Sui-Tang, The Tiele tribes had over a dozen or so tribes which include the Xueyantuo (Sheyanto) tribe that the Uygurs defeated later. (Xueyantuo Tribe was from the last name of 'Xue' and a conquered tribal name of 'Yantuo'.) Huihe was comprised of four of the dozen Tiele tribes, including Pogu, Tongluo, Bayegu and Weiqi.
         
        Huihu   Huihe was renamed to Huihu in AD 809. According to Old History Of Five Dynasties, the Huihe people sent an emissary to Tang court in AD 809 and claimed that they changed their name to Huihu by which they meant for a kind of eagle called 'hu' flying rotatingly in the skies. (The character for 'hu' could also be pronounced as 'gu' for a different bird called 'gu zhou', and could be pronounced as 'he' when combined with character 'hui'.)
         
        It is a bit unscientific to use the names of Uygur and Huihe/Huihu interchangeably here. The above historic literature points to the Uygur's ancestor being the Huihe peoples. The name 'Uygur' was probably a mutation of Huihu. In Ming Dynasty's records, the name 'Uygur' was widely cited in the descriptions about their tributaries. I will come back to this naming in the section on Ming Dynasty.
         
        Today's Uygurs, also spelled as UIGUR, UIGHUIR, UIGUIR, UYGHUR and WEIWUER in Mandarin, live largely in Xinjiang or Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (so-called Eastern Turkestan). They have a present population of over 10 million around or more.   There are also considerable number of them in Western Turkestan which includes Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan.  Among the Uygurs inside of China, there are three major groups, consisiting of the Yugur or Yellow Uygur in today's Gansu Province, and the Uygurs south and north of Khan Tengri (Tianshan Mountains).  The nationalist Uygurs disputed the specific naming like Kazaks, Uzbeks, and Turkmens etc, and they claimed they were of the same family.
         
        The Huihe people would come into prominence during the Tang times. At Tang times, the Huihe people were a long time ally of Tang Chinese in campaigns against both the Eastern Turks and the Western Turks, at least for a time period of over 200 years to AD 840.   The Huihe people had once ranked second to Xueyantuo tribe among the eleven tribes who had helped Tang in defeating Eastern Turkic Khanate in AD 630-640. For almost a hundred years, they would assert control over north Mongolia with the remaining Turks who re-established Eastern Khanate in AD 682/683 in Mongolia and Turkic Khanate in the Tarim Basin in AD 691.
         
        Around AD 640, the Uygurs helped Tang army in quelling the rebellion of another Turkic tribe 'Xueyantuo' which took advantage of emperor Taizong's first Korean expedition in attacking Tang south of the Yellow River. Tribes of the Huihe killed the khan of Xueyantuo tribe and hence controlled north Mongolia where the Turkic tribe Xueyantuo once held. So far, I could not locate an English name for the tribal name of Xueyantuo. A review of the major Turkic tribes in Mongolia yielded a tribe called 'Sakiz Oghuz' or the Eight Oghuz with a smilar pronunciation. The historic records showed 'Sakiz Oghuz' was a name which existed in 8th century, later than the fight between Uygurs and the Xueyantuo tribes. However, the Uygurs henced relocated to Mongolia and they ultimately set up Uygur Kingdom in AD 744/45 after defeating the remnant Turks in the area. The 'Sakiz Oghuz' tribe is said to have some remnants left in Mongolia. When the Kirghiz Turks defeated the Uygurs in AD 840 and took over northern Mongolia, there was a group of people called the Naimans who remained in their homalands in the Altai Mountains and attached themselves to the Kirghiz. The Naimans is said to be a Mongol name for a group of the Turkic tribe called 'Sakiz Oghuz'. (The authentic Oghuz Turks would find their way to Anatolia, separately.)
         
        Uygurs & Karlaks vs Orkhon Turks: Emperor Xuanzong, in AD 712, defeated Khan Muocho of the Eastern Turk (Orhkon Turks) and won over the defection of Muchuo's brother-in-law. The Orkhon Khante would end in the hands of the Uygurs and the Karluks. History said the Tang Chinese conspired to have the Uygurs and Karlaks attack the Orkhon Turks under Khan Muchuo (Mo-ch'o). To check the Orkhon Turks, Tang Chinese also allied with the Western Turks called Turgesh who were situated in today's Ili, between the Arabs and the Chinese from AD 716 to AD 733. After Khan Mochuo was killed by the tribesmen from the Tiele Tribes, the Orkhon Turks came to term with Chinese, and their successors were said to have erected a stone monument cursing the Chinese for the treachery and the Tiele tribesmen for betrayal. The Uygurs ultimately set up Uygur Kingdom in AD 744/45 after defeating the remnant Turks in the area.
         
        Orkhon Turks were defeated by Uygurs. Uygurs would control Kirghiz and Khitans. After the fall of Tang Dynasty (AD 619-907), three dynasties among the Five Dynasties (AD 907-960), Posterior Tang 923-936, Posterior Jin 936-946, Posterior Han 947-950, were ruled by the Sha'to Turks. The remaining Orkhon Turks were not heard from after China's Five Dynasties. Uygurs (Uighurs) took refuge in Ganzhou and Xinjiang after being replaced by the Kirghiz.
         
        Uygurs vs Kirghiz: Uygur nationalists claimed that "in AD 840, Tang Chinese emperor, in order to get rid of the encroachment of the Uygur (who were earlier invited by Tang emepror to come to Tang capital to quell rebellion) and wipe out the humilation, had incited the Kirghiz in attacking and replacing the Uyghurs in Mongolia. The Uygurs fled to Kansu province, south and north of Khan Tengri (Tianshan Mountains) and established three separate successive Uygur kingdoms."
         
        According to New History Of Five Dynasties, Kirghiz belonged to the ancient 'Jiankun' Statelet which was located to the western-most of the Huns. At one time, during Tang Emperor Suzong's reign of AD 758-760, the Huihu (Uygur) conquered the Jiankun Statelet of the Kirghiz. The Kirghis allied themselves with Tibetans, Arabs and Karlaks. Kirghiz, with the help of a defecting Huihu (Uygur) general and combining a cavalry forces of 100000, defeated Huihu (Uygur) and killed the Huihu khan around AD 840s. Tang emperors did not intend to support the Kirghiz as a replacement for the Uygurs, for fear that someday the Kirghiz would pose a threat to Tang China as in the case of the former. It would be in AD 859 that Tang Emperor Xuandi decided to confer the Kirghiz the title of Khan Bravery-Intelligence.
         
        New History Of Five Dynasties said that Kirghiz possessed lighter skin, red hair, green eyes and taller height, and that those Kirghiz with black hair must be the descendants of Li Ling. See Hun section for more descriptions of Non-Mongolian Physiques.
         
        Yellow Uygur: The Yugur or Yellow Uygur are one of China's 56 officially recognized nationalities, consisting of 12,297 persons according to the 1990 census.  Linguistically, this group of people were classified by belonging to Mongol language. The Yugur live primarily in Gansu Province, in Sunan Yugur Autonomous County, within the county of Zhangye.  The Yugur live in an area where four different language groups, Turkic, Mongolic, Chinese and Tibetan converge.  The Yugur nationality itself consists of four linguistically different groups.   The largest of these groups are the Turkic speaking Western Yugur.   The Mongolian speaking Eastern Yugur number the next.  A very small number of the Yugur speak Tibetan.  The remaining Yugur of the Autonomous County speak Chinese.  The Western Yugur are considered to be the descendants of a group of Uygur that fled from Mongolia southwards to Gansù after the collapse of the Uygur Empire in 840 A.D.  The Yugur people have been living together for about six centuries. 
         
         
        Turfan Mummies 
         
        In Turfan, a town of oasis famous for grapes, Hami melons (from seed introduced by Henry Wallace in 1940s) and mummies, not far away from Urumqi, there have been excavated a huge number of mummies.  Those mummies are not of the kind of so-called "Loulan Beauty".   They are all of Tang Dynasty Chinese from 1200 years ago, wealthy officials who chose this propitious place for their tombs which usually ran ten steps into a corridor underground, decorated with murals on both sides.   People, especially Western people, however, are more interested in the Caucasoid mummies.   Nova, in its TV series, had provided evidence that Caucasians did exist very close to China once upon a time.   http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/chinamum/taklamakan.html shows the excavations of mysterious 3000-year-old mummies in China's western desert, inside today's New Dominions Province, with appearance of yellow hair and European-style skull.  Hence, some of today's Uygurs and other minorities in the area had likened themselves to those early mummies.
         
        NOVA pointed out that those preserved 3000-year-old mummies excavated in late 1980's show that Chinese civilization did not evolve alone and Western counterpart might have played an important role in elevating the Chinese via possible introduction of 'donkey carts' and wheels, and even bronze knives. It further extrapolated that those mummies belong to the so-called Tocharians (http://www.wlc.com/oxus/tocharia.htm) with a tongue that is more closely related to the languages of Indo-European origin. This leads me to say that it sounds almost like another revolution similar to the Indo-European invasion of ancient India. But, if the mummie people had so advanced system, they could have crushed Chinese the lowland sedentary people easily and accomplished the feats of the Huns thousands of years earlier. Besides, the Indo-European language would have replaced the pictographic Chinese language of today. http://homepages.utoledo.edu/nlight/uyghhst.htm had a good exposition of the "remarkably racialized ideas" and approaches built on basis of the mummies.
         
        "Loulan Beauty", the name given to a woman excavated near Loulan and those exotic mummies, however, only corroborate the historical fact that the ancient Scythians, warrior tribes of Saka, had once roamed the entire Altaic region, with today's Kyrgyzstan as their base.   The Scythians are a loosely denoted term for Caucasoid nomads, while the Huns, on the other hand, would point to another loosely-termed Mongoloid nomads who roamed the trans-Euroasian continent of the time.   This kind of division is certainly a rough call since the Scythian-Hun tribal affiliations might have roamed the steppe all the way to Manchuria.
         
        The Scythians are better known in Persian, Rome and Greek records. Before Scythians, there were Cimerians of roughly 1000 BCE. http://www.geocities.com/kaganate/tribelist.html has a good account of historic Steppes nomad tribes, saying that the Scythians, approximately in the 8th century BCE, took the place of the Cimerians; that Scythians were related to Saka in the area of modern Kazakhstan; and that Amazons (possibly so-called Nü-ren or Women Statelet in Chinese records, and that Sarmatians, offspring of the Scythians and the Amazons, came onto the scene in roughly the 3rd century BCE. Alexander the Great met stiff resistance from Saka tribes in his 4th century BC advance through Central Asia.   Later, the Yüeh-chih or Yuezhi people, a relative of the Saka people, migrated southwest in 141-128 BC to the Oxus Valley, i.e., the modern Amu Darya, after being defeated by the Huns in Gansu, China in 174-161 BC.   The Yüeh-chih would push the Scyths out of their way and overran the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, which is renamed Tocharistan.        
         
        In Turpan,  archaeological finds made in the early 20th century will also include Nestorian literature and extant Manichaean literature.  Whatever mummies, later historical developments point to the influx of Mongoloid peoples into this area, and today's residents in Central Asia possessed more Mongoloid lineage than Caucasoid.   Further, after the peoples of Yüeh-chih/Scythians and before the rise of the Turks/Uygurs, there had existed numerous other groups of people:   Huns, Ruruans (i.e., Juanjuans, successors of the Huns), Xianbei, Qiang, and Toba, making it difficult to trace the origins of Turkic peoples.
         
         
        Nomadic Players
         
        Huns, Xianbei & Tobas:    Hunnic Han Dynasty & Hunnic Zhao Dynasty (AD 304-329), set up in today's Shaanxi, Shanxi and Henan Provinces, ended when Shi Le's Posterior Zhao (Jiehu barbarians, one of the five nomadic groups "ravaging China at the time", comprising of Huns, Jiehu, Xianbei- Wuhuan-Toba, Qiang, & Di) usurped the power.   Thereafter, the five nomadic groups would set up a dozen of short-lived states, categorically called "Sixteen Nations" in Chinese chronicle (prior to south-north dynasties), until Toba's Northern Wei united northern China in AD 386.   Toba nomads are said to be the northern-most branch of the Xianbei nomads, the proto-Tunguz people who had descended from Dong-hu or Eastern Hu nomads. Dong-hu split into Xianbei in the north and Wuhuan in the south after they were defeated by Hunnic Chanyu Modok.
         
        Toba Xianbei was recorded to have dwelled to the northeatern-most of all Xianbei, in a place called 'Ga Xian Dong', somewhere near the north segment of the Greater Xing'an Ridge. The Xianbei (Syanbiy) were the northern branch of the Donghu (or Tung Hu, the Eastern Hu), a proto-Tunguz group mentioned in Chinese histories. By the first century, two major subdivisions of the Donghu had developed: the Xianbei in the north and the Wuhuan in the south. The Xianbei expanded their territories by taking advantage of the Hunnic decline, and they took over most of the northern territories held by the Huns previously. There appeared a Xianbei chieftan called Tanshikui (reign AD 156-181) who established a Xianbei alliance by absorbing dozens of thousands of Huns (numbering 200 thousand). Tanshikui Xianbei dissolved after the death of this chieftan. By the time of Three Kingdoms Period (AD 220-280)
        , the Wuhuan nomads took control of today's Hebei Province and Peking areas. Warlord Yuan Shao campaigned against the Wuhuan and controlled three prefectures of Wuhuan nomads. Before Toba's march towards northern China, the Xianbei people had absorbed most of the Wuhuan branch. Wuhuan fell apart after Cao Cao defeated Yuan Shao and his Wuhuan allies. After Ts'ao Ts'ao defeated Yuan Shao, Yuan's two sons (Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi) fled to seek refuge with the Wuhuans. Ts'ao Ts'ao campaigned against the Wuhuan, killed a chieftan called Datu (with same last character as Hunnic Chanyu Motu), and took over the control of southern Manchuria. Xianbei alliances would consist of Greater Xianbei under Budugeng, Lesser Xianbei under Ke'bineng, and Manchurian Xianbei. Cao Wei Dynasty broke a new Xianbei alliance by sending an assasin to kill a Xianbei chieftan called Kebineng. By the "Sixteen Nations" time period, Xianbei could be distinguished into: a) Eastern Xianbei; b) Western Xianbei; and c) Toba Xianbei. The Eastern Xianbei would include tribes like Yuwen, Murong and Duan, while the Western Xianbei would include Qifu & Tufa (to mutate into Tubo in Chinese and Tibet in English). One ancient Chinese account put early Yuwen tribe in the Hunnic category. The Xianbei would later establish many successive states along the Chinese frontier. Among these states was that of the Toba Xianbei, Tufa Xianbei and Murong Xianbei etc.
         
        In earlier times of Western Jin Dynasty, Tobas were befriended by a Chinese border general called Liu Kun whose strategy was to "fight the aliens via the aliens".   Liu Kun, a general famous for "practicing swords in early mornings at the sound of cock crow" with general Xie Xuan in their teenage times, had requested with Western Jin emperor for the authorization to have the Toba settle down in today's Yanmenguan Pass, an area called the Dai prefecture in Qin Empire's times.   Liu Kun would later die in the hands of his Xianbei ally in today's Beijing area. Tobas were at first very vulnerable to attacks from the Xianbei whose Murong (or Mujong) kingdom would evolve into Anterior Yan, Posterior Yan and Southern Yan. (Northern Yan is Chinese.)
         
        Eastern Jin Chinese, under the banner of General Liu Yu, would retake from the Xianbei nomads the garrisons in Hebei-Shandong areas of northern China, and then took over Shaanxi-Henan ares by defeating the Qiang nomads in today's Xi'an.   However, General Liu Yu, eager to go back to Nanking to usurp the power (and formally started the history of South-North), would only leave his 13 year old son in charge of Xi'an, despite pleas from local elderly who said that they said they had not seen Han clothes for almost 100 years by that time and feared that they would be lost to the nomads again should General Liu leave.   A short-lived Hunnic Dynasty, called Xia, would attack the Chinese in Xi'an. General Liu's son would barely escape alive after the Chinese generals had internal turmoils in face of Hunnic attacks. One general, Wang Zheng'er, was killed by his comarade. Wang would be the general responsible for taking Xi'an from the Qiangs in early campaigns, and he was the grandson of Wang Meng who had aided Emperor Fu Jian of Anterior Qin (Di nomads) as prime minister. Tobas, having emerging from Dai in the Shanxi Province area between A.D. 338 and 376, would take advantage of Chinese northern expedition against Xianbei and Qiang in establishing control over the region as the Northern Wei Dynasty (A.D. 386-533). Toba first defeated the Xianbe

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      • oghli qarluq
        The Huns are the immortal topic of human pioneering spirits. They are the first Asiatic nomads to make the trans-continental expeditions, precursors to the
        Message 3 of 7 , Aug 1, 2003
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          The Huns are the immortal topic of human pioneering spirits. They are the first Asiatic nomads to make the trans-continental expeditions, precursors to the Turks and the Mongols. Their impact was felt in ancient Rome as well as in ancient China. They were a group of intriguing people as could be seen in the claim by Charles Hucker (China's Imperial Past, page 129) that some Roman legionaries could be found in the ranks of the Zhizhi Chanyu Huns who relocated to Jiankun Statelet in 51 BC. The name 'Hun', however, could be just a categorical designation of early Asian nomadic people, and there is no definite link between the Huns in Asia and their compatriots in Europe. In China, a Hunnic King, Liu Yuan of Eastern Huns, taking advantage of the rebellion by Xianbei nomads in AD 304, left the Jinn Chinese court to organize anti-Xianbei forces on behalf of Jinn and then proclaimed himself emperor of the Hunnic Han Dynasty in AD 308. Hunnic Han Dynasty, also known as Anterior Zhao Dynasty, was centered around today's Henan and Shanxi-Shaanxi provinces. As to the so-called Western Huns, they, in the second half of the 4th Century, attacked the Alans between the Volga and the Don Rivers, went on to conquer the Ostrogoths and drive the Visigoths westwards, triggering the chain reaction that led to the demise of the Roman Empire. In 5th century, the Huns pushed into Western Europe, and Attila the Hun fought the Battle of Châlons in Gaul in 451 AD, rerouted towards Italy in 452 AD, crossed over the Alps and swept through Milan and Northern Italy.  
           
          Who are the Huns? What do they look like? And what language do they speak? While today's Mongolian Mongols and Uygur Turks both claim that they are the descendants of the Huns, they could be both right or both wrong. In 1991, the Mongolians celebrated the 2000 year-anniversary of the first Hun (Hsiung-nu) state, established in 209 BC. The Mongolian claim could be built on basis of the nomadic tribal groups which never left the Mongolian plateau. Chingiz Khan or Genghis Khan, after defeating Naimans, Keraits, Merkits and Tatars in central Mongolia, would obtain the vassalage of two tribes of Kirgizs of the Yenisei River in AD 1207, of the Karluks in AD 1209 and of the Uygurs in AD 1211. Earlier, in 10th century, the Kirghiz people were defeated by the Khitans who at one time appealed to Huihe (Uygur) in returning the land of Mongolia. The Khitans, in 9-10th centuries, had conquered Dadan, Tanguts, Bohai & Shiwei Tribes, of which the subtribe called Mengwu Shiwei would be Genghis Khan's ancestors. Before Khitan's replacement of Kirghiz, the Kirghiz had expelled the Huihe (Uygurs) from Mongolia in AD 840. The Huihe, and the Turks whom the Huihe had defeated even earlier, were recorded to be the descendants of the Huns. The name "Mongols", however, did not come about till the time of Khubilai Khan.
           
          The Uygur claim could be built on basis of their ancestor (Huihe)'s membership in the Tiele Tribes, a group of people sanwiched between the Huns/Turks and the original dwellers of Xinjiang or Chinese Turkistan. Uygurs claimed they descended from 'Chunwei', the son of Last Xia Dynasty Lord Jie. Xia originally meant for the land of southern Shanxi Prov, but later appropriated to northern Shanxi/Shenxi areas, around the North Yellow River Bend. After the Hunnic Han/Zhao statelets, there appeared this statelet called 'Xia' set up by Helian Bobo of Tie-fu Huns, AD 407-431, which derived its name from the fact that the Huns were recorded to be of Xiahou origin, namely, Xia Dynasty descendants. Helian Bobo, in his eulogy about the founding of Xia, traced his ancestors to Da Yu or Lord Yu. Later, the Tanguts established their Western Xia later in the same place (around West and north Yellow River Bends) and in the same name. Both Genghis Khan's Mongols and the Uygurs, and the Tatars and the Kirghiz, are nomadic peopels active in Mongolia, from the Altai Mountains to Lake Bajkal and the Siberian forests, the same ground where the Huns had existed hundreds of years earlier.
           
          The Huns are a group of people who constantly preyed on the Chinese to the south, the tribal states in western China and the Asia Minor, and the Eastern Hu nomads to the east. Below, we will trace the Huns to a group of people driven out of Hetao area by Qin Emperor Shihuangdi and detail the history of the Rong & Di(2) barbarians as recorded in ancient China.
           
          Hunnic Successors The distinctiveness of early Huns from other groups of people (Yuezhi, for example) is clear. The Hunnic ancestry & successors, however, pose some ambiguity. Before touching on the origin of the Huns, we will have some discussion of the successors of the Huns. The successors will include the Ruruans, Gaoche, the Tiele Tribes and the Turks etc. Most European history books pointed out that the Ruruans (Juan-juan or Rouran) were 'Mongolian', and they claimed that the Genghis Mongols were descendants of the Ruruans. This false claim could be built on basis of one comment in History Of Toba Wei Dynasty, namely, the founder of Ruruan might have origin in Eastern Hu nomads, i.e., a group of people related to the Tunguzic people of Manchuria and eastern Mongolia. My research into various records, however, shows that the Ruruans were more Hunnic than anything else. After the Ruruan founder fled to the Altai Mountains, he conquered and absorbed remnant Hunnic tribes and Gao-che people. Toba Wei Dynasty, claiming heritage from a son of China's Huangdi (i.e., the Yellow Lord or Emperor), had united northern China in AD 386. Toba (Tuoba) treated the Ruruans as the descendants of the Huns and commented that though Ruruans were Hinnic in nature but their ancestry was hard to corroborate. Both Ruruan founder and Toba originated from the east of Mongolia. The Hunnic relationship with the Ruruans would be explored in the section on Hunnic Split of AD 89, a time when Northern Huns, under the attack of General Dou Xian and Dou's Southern Hun allies, fled westward to the ancient Kang-chu territory. The Ruruans, after being defeated by the Turks, were said to have migrated towards the west to become the ancestors of the Avars (? no record in Chinese chronology). Ruruans who stayed behind in Mongolia and the Altai Mountains were absorbed by the Turks. Numerous Hunnic rebels rose up against the Toba, but the two states who ultimately replaced both Western Toba Wei and Eastern Toba Wei were not Hunnic in nature, but Xianbei. The Huns merely played the role of contributing to the decline and disintegration of Toba's Wei Dynasty. Some of the Huns would be relocated to Hebei Province by the Tobas in AD 523. After Toba, the Huns lost its prominence, and would be difficult to trace for the five-six hundreds between Toba Wei Dynasty and Genghis Khan's Mongols.
           
          During early Toba period, Toba Wei Emperor Daowudi (reign 386-409) launched numerous western / northwestern campaigns against the Ruruans as well as the Gaoche people. Chinese history put Gaoche (descendants of Chidi or Red Di peopel, also known as Dingling, who once resided in central China during the Zhou Dynasty time period), in a different category from the dozens of tribal states in Chinese Turkistan. Record showed that the Gaoche people had similar traits as the early Huns and they were called the 'nephews' of the Huns. Among the Gaoche would be family names like Hulü. The words Gao-che mean "high wheeled carts" which was to point out that the Gaoche people liked to ride in high-wheeled carts. Gao-che had zigzag wars with the Ruruans, and there was a similar story about using the skull of a dead chieftan as drinking utensil. (The earliest reference to skull as a utensil for holding wine could be traced to Zhao Xiang-zi's killing the opponent Zhi-bo during the Warring States time period. See Sima Qian's Shi Ji, Section On Assasins.)
           
          During late Toba Wei Dynasty, there appeared many references to the 'Tiele' or 'Chile' tribes and their rebellions against the Toba. History said that Tiele Tribes derived from the Gaoche people. The Tiele Tribes, with many of later familiar Huihe family names, were recorded to have spread everywhere, i.e, north of the Luo River, west of Yiwu & north of Yanqi, southwest of the Altai Mountains, and north of ancient Kangju Statelet.
           
          Turks were said to be an alternative race of the Huns, and they originally sought protection with the Ruruan by fleeing to the Altai and worked for the Ruruan as iron miners (or iron smith). The hint here is to link the ancestors of Turks to the Huns under Juqu's Northern Liang Dynasty. The Turks later took advantage of Tiele's wars against Ruruans, attacked the Tiele Tribes from the rear, and absorbed 50,000 Tiele households to became a powerful entity. Turks, after their proposal for inter-marriage with their Ruruan master was rejected, would attack the Ruruans and kill the Ruruan khan. After the son of Ruruan khan fled to Northern Qi, the uncle of Ruruan khan was to become the new Ruruan khan. Turks then drove the new Ruruan Khan into Northern Zhou territories, and they defeated the Ye-tai in the west, the Khitans in the east and the Qigu in the north.

           
           
          Origins Of The Huns - Rong & Di
           
          Huns were called 'Xiongnu' or 'Hsiung-nu ', ferocious slaves, in Chinese. Huns were said to have originated from 'Chunwei' (or Xunyu), the son of last Xia Dynasty Lord Jie. Uygurs claimed they descended from this very person. Sima Qian's Shi Ji mentioned that Jie was driven to Youcao area (Caohu Lake of Anhui Province) in the southeast; that Jie's son married Jie's concubines; and that Chunwei fled to northern plains where he became ancestors of the Huns. Both Sima Qian's Shi Ji and Ban Gu's Han Shu said that the Huns were the descendants of Xiahou-shi (i.e., Xia descendant) ; that they migrated to the Western Rong areas during the demise years of Xia Dynasty; and that they would attack the ancestors of Zhou founder in a place called 'Bin'. Zhou ancestor was forced to relocate to Qishan Mountain. Zhou kings had zigzag wars with the Rongs.
           
          Two ancient categorical designation of barbarians would be 'Rong(2)' and 'Di(2)'. Rong was used mostly with the word 'Xi' for west, while 'Di' with the word 'Bei' for north. According to Sima Qian, among the northern nomads would be 'Shanrong' (Mountain Rong) or Xunyu or Xianyun at times of Lord Yao and Lord Shun, Chunwei tribe at times of Xia Dynasty, Guifang (ghost domain) at times of Shang Dynasty, again Xianyun at times of Zhou Dynasty, and Xiongnu (Huns) at times of Han Dynasty. Rong would be a categorical designation of barbarians in the west / northwest. (Shanrong or Mountain Rong, however, belonged to southern Manchuria.) Rongs are differentiated into "Jiangrong" (carrying the name Jiang of the tribe of Yandi the Fiery Lord), "Xirong" (Western Rong), "Quanrong" (Doggy Rong, a derogatory designation, similar to Mongols' calling the Tartars "Noghai" the running dogs), and "Shanrong" (Mountain Rong) or "Beirong" (Northern Rong, who are most likely the ancestors of ancient Koreas who lost large patch of land to the allied forces of Yan and Qi principalities of Zhou Dynasty).
           
          There is no solid evidence, written or archaeological, to expound the ethnic nature of the 'Rong(2)' and 'Di(2)' barbarians. What is apparent would be the fact that nomads, by the name of 'Shanrong' or 'Xunyu' or 'Xianyun', had been roaming on the east-west Asian steppe over 4000 years ago, prior to Xia-Shang-Zhou dynasties. The demise of Xia Dynasty would see Chunwei, the son of last Xia Dynasty Lord Jie, fleeing to the northwest to join the nomads and becoming the de facto ancestor of the later Huns. Sima Qian's section on Shang Dynasty did not mention too much on the steppe people. Shang King Wuding's wife, Fuhao, would be the famous female warrior of China who had led a campaign against ancient Gui-fang (ghost domain) barbarians (speculated to be either on the northern steppe or in Shanxi Prov). Shang Dynasty also warred with Jiang-fang in the west and Ren-fang in the east. As expounded below, Rong people in the west, sharing possibly the same blood-line with Xia Chinese but differring in 'Culture' such as cuisine, clothing, money and language, appeared to be an early offshoot of Sino-Tibetan speaking Qiangic people. After the demise of Shang, records from Zhou Dynasty mentioned a group of Rong people under King Bo in northwestern China. Qin Lord Wengong (r. BC 765-716) would defeat King Bo's Rong and gave the land east of Qishan Mountain back to Zhou court. This would be a Xirong lord by the title of 'Bo' in a place called 'Dang(4) She' where the character 'dang' was said to be a mutation of the Shang Dynasty founder, 'Shang-Tang'. Ancient classics said that this group of people claimed heritage from Shang-Tang and used the ancient Shang capital name 'Bo' for the title of their king. Later, Qin Lord Ninggong (r. BC 715-704) would defeat King Bo and drove King Bo towards the Rong people during the 3rd year reign, i.e., in 713 BC. Ninggong conquered King Bo's Dang-shi clan during the 12th year reign, i.e., 704 BC.
           
          Rong's Possible Link To Qiangic People
          The compositions of the Rong are complicated. In light of King Bo, we could say that some descendants or affiliates of Shang would be related to the King Bo's Rong people. Huangfu Mi of Jinn Dynasty had doubts about King Bo's ancestry in Shang-Tang. Huangfu Mi of Jinn Dynasty treated King Bo as a branch of 'Xi-yi' or Western Yi aliens. Yi is more an inclusive word to mean aliens, and the Qiangs and Di(1) people could be called Xi Yi, i.e., Yi in the west, while some southwestern barbarians would be called Xi-Nan Yi, namely, southwestern Yi. In this sense, some of the Rongs at the time of Zhou Dynasty could be of Qiangic or Di(1) nature.
           
          The Qiangs, in turn, would be the descendants of the Yandi (Fiery Lord or Fiery Emperor) tribal group carrying the tribal name "Jiang". Xin Tang Shi (New History Of Tang Dynasty) said that the Tibetans belonged to the Xi Qiang, namely, the western Qiangic peoples. There were 150 different groups of Qiangic peoples, widely dispersed among Sichuan, Ganshu, Qinhai and Shenxi Provinces. Ancient classics stated that the word 'qiang' means the shepherds in the west. The book which was called 'Continuum To Hou Han Shu' stated that the Qiangs were alternative race of the Jiang surname tribes of San Miao. According to Sima Qian, the 'SanMiao' people, who originally resided in the middle Yangtze River area where the later Chu Statelet was, were mostly relocated to western China to guard against the western barbarians. Lord Shun, who took over the overlord post from Lord Zhi (reign 2366-2358 BC ?, the son of Lord Diku), relocated them to western China as a punishment for their aiding Dan Zhu (the son of Lord Yao reign 2357-2258 BC ?) in rebellion. (This could lead to a sound speculation that Sino-Tibetan speaking San Miao people had dwelled in Gansu much earlier than the later Indo-European Yuezhi people, by about 1000 years at minimum.)
           
          Reading through China's history, we could distinguish three groups of Rong in the west, Xirong or Western Rong, Quanrong or Doggy Rong, and the Rongdi or Rong-Di Rong. (Borrowing Shan Hai Jing, Quan-yi or Quan-rong, one of the varieties of Rong people, could have derived from Huangdi the Yellow Lord since Huangdi bore Miao-long, Miaolong bore Nong-ming, Nongming bore Bai-quan or White dog which was the ancestors of Quanrong. ) All three groups could be of same family, could be related to Jie the son of last Xia Lord as Shi Ji claimed, and could be related to descendants of Shang Dynasty (as detailed in the story of King Bo of Shang heritage). Qin's ancestors absorbed eight Xirong Tribes, and Qin was also responsible for helping Zhou drive the Doggy Rong out of Zhou capital. The Rongdi Rongs had migrated to the central plains of China, and the Jinn Principality and its three successor states have very close connection with them. Rongdi Rongs had inter-marriage with Zhou Kingdom. They later split into Chidi and Baidi as explained below.
           
          Xia Chinese versus Rong - Differing In 'Culture', Not 'Blood-Line'
          What distinguished Chinese from Rong or Di would mostly likely lie in the customs, not the ethnicity. Zhou Dynasty's founder, per Shi Ji, Gugong abolished Rong & Di customs, built city in a plain called Zhou-yuan under the foot of Qishan, and devised five posts of si tu, si ma, si kong, si shi, & si kou per Shang Dynasty system. Similar to Zhou founder, Qin's ancestors had emerged from the barbaric West to become the ruler of China. In both cases, they discarded the Rong & Di(2) customs and adopted the rituals of the central China of the time. Shang Yang the Reformer claimed that he should be ascribed great contributions to Qin because he was responsible for renovating Qin's Rong-Di customs such as parent and son living in same bedroom and for differentiating the protocol of men from women.
           
          Scholar Liu Qiyu stated that the difference between Rong and Chinese lied in 'culture', not 'blood-line'. In article The Rong People In Nine Ancient Prefectures versus Rong-yu Xia People, Liu Qiyu cited ancient classics Zhou Yu's paragraph: "In the ancient times, Gong-gong-shi ... had first worked on repairing the 100 rivers (including the flooding of the Yellow River) ... Gong-gong-shi's descendant, Count Yu (i.e., Lord Yu), repented over his father Gun's mistake in flood control ... Gong-gong-shi's grandson, Si-yue, had acted as an assistant to Lord Yu in flood control ... Hence, Si-yue was conferred the fief of Si-yue-guo Statelet and assigned the surname of 'Jiang' which included the clan name of 'Luu' ... Today (i.e., in Zhou Dynasty times), the clan names of Shen and Luu had declined in prestige and influence but the 'Jiang' family still prevailed in Qi Principality." Liu Qiyu further cited ancient classics Zuo Zhuan and listed the statement of Ju-zhi, a son or prince of Jiang-rong, as paraphrased below: "Everyone had said that our folks, i.e., miscellaneous Rong people, belonged to the descendants of Si-yue ... Our various Rong peoples differed from Hua (i.e., Xia) people in cuisine, clothing, money and language." Liu Qiyu speculated that the clan names of Shen-Luu-Qi-Xu etc, who entered China during Western Zhou Dynasty, had been the Rong people who came eastward to China earlier, while Jiang-rong would be the original Rong people who came into China during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty time period.
           
          Yuezhi versus 'Jiang' Surname Tribe Of SanMiao People
          In the Yellow River Bend area could also be found Yuezhi people. The relationship of the Yuezhi to Rong people is not clear. Gua Di Zhi stated that Yuezhi country included ancient Liangzhou, Ganzhou, Suzhou, Yanzhou and Shazhou, i.e., today's Gansu, Ningxia and western Shenxi Provinces. Among Liangzhou, Ganzhou, Suzhou, Yanzhou and Shazhou, it seems only Yanzhou prefecture would fall inside today's Shenxi Prov while the rest would belong to the so-called 'Western Corridor' to the west of the West Yellow River Bend.
           
          The section on Huns, in Sima Qian's Shi Ji and Ban Gu's Han Shu, stated that the "Donghu nomads and the Yueh-chih or Yüeh-chih (Yuezhi) people were stronger than the Huns". Extrapolating on this sentence, I could say that the Yuezhi people, who had arrived in Gansu Prov 1000 years later than Sino-Tibetan SanMiao people, might have been steadily exerting pressure on the Qiangic 'Rong' & 'Di' peoples and could have ultimately driven the Qiangic people towards Shenxi-Shanxi-Henan provinces for 1000 years, from the Zhou Dynasty ancestor Gugong (12th c BC ?) to Qin China's expelling the Huns from the Ordos Plains (3th c BC).
           
          Rond-di barbarians, who had made peace with Jinn Principality, had later split into Bai-di and Chi-di. Baidi (White Di) dwelled in ancient Yanzhou (today's Yan'an), Suizhou (today's Suide) and Yinzhou (today's Ningxia on west Yellow River Bend). Zuo Shi Chunjiu stated Jinn defeated Baidi and remnants were know as Bai-bu-hu later. Chidi (Red Di) dwelled in a place called Lu(4), near today's Shangdang. Zuo Shi Chunjiu stated that Jinn Principality destroyed the Lu(4) tribe of the Chidi, and the remnants were know as Chi-she-hu nomads later.
           
          Yuezhi versus Xia People
          According to ancient records, after Shang Dynasty overthrew Xia, remnant Xia people fled northward and westward, and majority of them returned to their ancestral home in southern Shanxi Prov, i.e., ancient 'ji-zhou' prefecture or 'zhongguo' the central statelet. Some of those Xia people who fled northward and westward, per early 20th century scholar Wang Guowei, would become the Yuezhi (?) in the west and the Huns in the north. Should we buy Wang Guowei's speculation as to Yuezhi, then it would throw the discussion into an ethnicity dispute unless we discount the actual linkage between the Yuezhi of Gansu Province and the Loulan Mummies in Xinjiang Autonomous Region. It is understandable that Wang Guowei might have blundered in early 20th century since Loulan mummies were not known at that time.
           
          I would now expound on the underlying logic behind Wang Guowei's fallacy. Scholar Liu Qiyu cited Guo Yu's statement in regards to You-yu-shi as proof that Yu clan had deep connection with Xia people. Liu Qiyu claimed that Yu-shi and Xia-hou-shi might have generations of inter-marriage the same way as Ji-surname and Jiang-surname or Khitan's Yeluu-shi and Xiao-shi did to each other. The statement from Guo Yu could be paraphrased like this: "In ancient times, Count Chong-bo Gun also reigned in the land of You-yu-shi clan." Count Chong-bo Gun was the father of Lord Yu and dwelled in southern or southwestern Shanxi Prov, i.e., the east bank of today's East Yellow River Bend. Yu-shi clan's locality, considered the second 'Xia Ruins' in archaeology, would be in today's eastern Shenxi Prov, i.e., Hancheng (west bank of the today's East Yellow River Bend) and Pucheng (west bank of Luo-shui River). Today's East Yellow River Bend was known as 'Xi-he' or western river because the Yellow River did not flow horizontally into the sea via Shandong Prov but made a eastern bend northward for exit into the sea via Hebei Prov.
           
          It is widely agreed upon that after Shang Dynasty overthrew Xia in 1766 BC, remnant Xia people fled northward and westward, and majority of them returned to their ancestral home in southern Shanxi Prov. Those remnant Xia people remained on the two banks of the Yellow River Bend, across Shanxi-Shenxi provinces, for another 1100 years at minimum. Per section Qi Yu of Guo Yu, Qi Lord Huan'gong (r. 685-643 BC), who proclaimed himself a 'hegemony lord' in 679 BC and destroyed the statelets of Shan-rong and Guzhu in Manchuria in 664 BC, had campaigned against Bai-di barbarians in the west in 651 BC (i.e., 9th year of Lu Lord Xigong). Qi Huan'gong was recorded to have occupied 'da xia' (i.e., Grand Xia land) and might have crossed the river to subjugate 'xi yu' (i.e., western Yu-shi clan's land). Grand Xia land, by the 7th century BC, would probably be lying in northern Shanxi Prov only since Qin Emperor Shihuangdi (r. 246-210 BC) had his accomplishments of unification of China inscribed with such words as "reaching as far as 'da xia' land in the north", namely, Taiyuan of northern Shanxi Prov. 'xi yu' certainly pointed to the areas west of the East Yellow River Bend, namely, Hancheng and Pucheng of eastern Shenxi Prov. My conclusion is that Yuezhi people had nothing to do with the You-yu-shi or Yu-shi clan of the Xia people who were defeated by Shang people in 1766 BC. Alternative studies of Indo-European migrations could be checked for timing and movement. Wang Guowei and Xu Zhonhshu, including Oiu Qiyu, had all mistakenly pointed to the You-yu-shi clan as the origin for mutation into the first syllable of Yuezhi.
           
          Yuezhi versus Loulan Mummies
          Nova, in its TV series,   
          http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/chinamum/taklamakan.html shows the excavations of mysterious 3000-year-old mummies in China's western desert, inside today's New Dominions Province. I could not find definite link between the Yuezhi and the Loulan Mummies. The dating used here, however, shows that the San Miao people arrived in Gansu Province earlier than the Yuezhi people no matter whether Yuezhi were Indo-European or not. Note that the 'SanMiao' people were mostly relocated to western China to guard against the western barbarians by Lord Shun as a punishment for their aiding Dan Zhu (the son of Lord Yao reign 2357-2258 BC ?) in rebellion. Hence, the Sino-Tibetan speaking San Miao people had dwelled in Gansu much earlier than the later Indo-European Yuezhi people, by about 1000 years at minimum.
           
          Note more Tang Chinese mummies were found in this area than Indo-Europeans mummies. http://homepages.utoledo.edu/nlight/uyghhst.htm had a good exposition of the "remarkably racialized ideas" and approaches built on basis of the mummies.
           
          Yuezhi versus Scythians
          The Chinese recorded that the Scythians were called 'Sai' (aka 'Sai Ren' or 'Sai Zhong'), and this group of people were described to be located to the west of the Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) people. Yuezhi people were said to be Indo-European, a subgroup related to the Scythians. Gua Di Zhi stated that Yuezhi country included ancient Liangzhou, Ganzhou, Suzhou, Yanzhou and Shazhou, i.e., today's Gansu and Shenxi Provinces. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+mn0013)
          claimed that in the vast area "from the Korean Peninsula in the east, across the northern tier of China to the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic and to the Pamir Mountains and Lake Balkash in the west ... this has been an area of constant ferment from which emerged numerous migrations and invasions to the southeast (into China), to the southwest (into Transoxiana--modern Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, Iran, and India), and to the west (across Scythia toward Europe). By the eighth century B.C., the inhabitants of much of this region evidently were nomadic Indo-European speakers, either Scythians or their kin. Also scattered throughout the area were many other tribes that were primarily Mongol in their ethnologic characteristics." The world maps of Scythians versus Huns showed that the territories of the Scythians would extend all the way to the Bering Straits, encircling the Huns in and around today's Mongolia. There is no way to tell whether it is true or not. There are numerous excavations of Scythian tombs in the Caucasus and the Central Asia, with artifacts like 1500 BC bronze axes in Siberia, 1200 BC Cimerian bronze north of the Black sea, 800 BC Scythian gold artifacts north of the Caspian, but not in East Asia. 600 BC bronze artifacts from Baikal were labelled as Hunnic. Scythian influence in the east may not be significant as the Huns.
           
          It would be difficult to make a distinction between the two nomadic groups by pre-defining their domains. Could the early human beings reject each other simply by bodily appearance and hence maintain their separate physique till today? I might updold this argument by making an analogy to the relationship of dog versus wolf. It is reported via DNA studies that the dogs split from the wolves about 135,000 years ago, that they did not change in appearance till 15,000 years ago, and that they had undergone inbreeding in the last several hundreds of years, only (see Mercury News, July 25th, 2000 edition). I would not know when the Mongoloid and the Caucasoid split from each other; however, the physique of the Caucasoid points to the likelihood that their ancestors had lived in the severe cold weather of the northern hemisphere much longer than others, where they developed the lighter skin, high nose bridge and bodily hairs.
           
          Zhou/Qin People's Zigzags With Rong & Di
          Aside from the Rongdi Rong, Xirong, Jiangrong & Quanrong (aka Kunyi/Hunyi or Quanyi) in northwestern China, there were the Mountain Rongs (Beirong or Wuzhong) in the northeast and Chang-Di barbarian in Shandong. Across the areas of Yellow River Bend and northern Shanxi-Shenxi provinces would be numerous small 'Rong' statelets, Chi-di and Bai-di etc.
           
          Now back to Rong people at the time of Zhou Dynasty. Sima Qian's Shi Ji and Ban Gu's Han Shu said that the Quanrongs (possibly ancestors of the Huns), at one time, attacked the ancestor of Zhou people, forcing Zhou people into a move to Qishan Mountain where they set up the Zhou statelet. The Rongdi's relationship with Doggy Rong was not clear, but could be of same family. History book mentioned that Rongdi was of dog ancestry, related to Pan-hu the ancestor of San-Miao people who were exiled to Gansu Prov by Lord Shun.
           
          Count of West, Xibo, namely, Zhou Ancestor Ji Chang, once attacked the Doggy Rongs (said to be same as Xianyun barbarian on the steppe). Dozen years later, Zhou King Wuwang exiled the Rongs north of the Jing & Luo Rivers. The Rongs were also called Huangfu at the time, a name to mean their 'erratic submission'. 200 years later, Zhou King Muwang attacked the Doggy Rongs and history recorded that he captured four white wolves & four white deers (white deer and white wolf being the titles of ministers of Rongdi barbarians) during his campaign. The Huangfu (Doggy Rong) people then no longer sent in yearly gifts and tributes. Zhou King Yiwang, the grandson of King Muwang (r. 1,001 - 946 BC), would be attacked by the Rongs. The great grandson, King Xuanwang (reign 827 - 782), finally fought back against the Rongs. Shi Jing eulogized King Xuanwang's reaching Taiyuan of Shanxi Province and fighting the Jiangrong. Dongzhou Lieguo Zi said that King Xuanwang would be futile in fighting the Jiang-Rong nomads at Taiyuan. (Jiangrong could mean the same as Quanrong or later Rongdi Rong.) Thereafter, King Youwang (reign 781-771) was killed by the Doggy Rongs at the foothill of Lishan Mountain and capital Haojing was sacked. Quanrong & Xirong had come to aid Marquis Shenhou (father-in-law of King Youwang of Western Zhou, c 11 cent - 770 BC) in killing King Youwang of Zhou Dynasty in 770 BC. Rongs who stayed on at Lishan were called Li-rong. The Rongs moved to live between the Jing & Wei Rivers. Lord Qin Xianggong was conferred the old land of Zhou by Zhou King Pingwang (reign 770-720). Zhou King Pingwang encouraged the Qin Lord to drive out the Quanrongs.

           
          Geography: The Jing River is renowed for its clearness. It originated in today's Ningxia, entered Shenxi, converged with the Wei River, and then flew into the Yellow River. The Wei River originated from Gansu, entered Shenxi, converged with Jing River, and flew into the Yellow River. The Luo River originated from Shenxi, flew through Henan, and then entered the Yellow River.
           
          Quanrong or Doggy Rong of the west were also named Quan-yi-shi (Doggy alien tribe) or Hunyi / Kunyi (Kunlun Mountain aliens?, but was commented to be the same as character 'hun4' for the meaning of mixing-up). Shan Hai Jing legends stated that Huangdi or Yellow Lord bore Miao-long, Miaolong bore Nong-ming, Nongming bore Bai-quan (White dog) which was the ancestors of Quanrong. Shan Hai Jing also stated that Quan-yi had human face but beast-like body. An ancient scholar called Jia Kui stated that Quan-yi was one of the varieties of Rong people. Among the above names, one group of barbarians would be called the Rong-di(2) people. Some Rong and Di must have mixed up, and one more designation would be Rongdi Rong which later split into Chidi and Baidi.
           
          Qin warred with various Rong peoples over a time span of over 600 years. When Zhou King Liwang was ruling despotically, the Xi Rong (Xirong or Western Rong) people rebelled in the west and killed most of the Daluo lineage of Qin people. Zhou King Xuanwang conferred Qin Lord 'Qin Zhong' (r. BC 845-822 ?) the title of 'Da Fu' and ordered him to quell the Xirong. Qin Lord Zhuanggong's senior son, Shifu, would swear that he would kill the king of the Rong people to avenge the death of Qin Zhong before returning to the Qin capital. Zhuanggong's junior son would be Qin Lord Xianggong (Ying Kai) who assisted Zhou King Pingwang (reign 770-720) in cracking down on both the Western Rong and the Dogggy Rong. Shifu was taken prisoner of war by Xi Rong during the 2nd year reign of Qin Lord Xianggong and did not get released till one year later. During the 7th year reign of Qin Lord Xianggong, i.e., 771 BC, Doggy Rong barbarians sacked Zhou capital and killed Zhou king at the invitation of Marquis Shen (i.e., Shenhou). Qin Lord Xianggong (Ying Kai) died during the 12th year of his reign (766 BC) when he campaigned against the Rong at Qishan. Qin Lord Wengong (r. BC 765-716), during his 16th year reign, Wengong defeated Rong at Qishan. Wengong would give the land east of Qishan back to Zhou court. Qin Lord Ninggong (r. BC 715-704) would defeat King Bo and drove King Bo towards the Rong people during the 3rd year reign, i.e., 713 BC. Ninggong conquered King Bo's Dang-shi clan during the 12th year reign, i.e., 704 BC. Qin Lord Wugong (r. BC 697-677), during the 10th year reign, exterminated Gui-rong (Shanggui of Longxi) and Ji-rong (Tiansui Commandary), and the next year, exterminated Du-bo Fief (southeast of Xi'an), Zheng-guo Fief (Zheng-xian County) and Xiao-guo Fief (an alternative Guo Fief, different from the Guo domain conferred by Zhou King Wenwang onto his brother, Guo-shu). Xiao-guo Fief was said to be a branch of the Qiang people.
           
          Meanwhile, lord of the Jinn Principality, Jinn Xian'gong (r. 676-651 BC), attacked Li-rong (Xi Rong) barbarians during his 5th year reign, i.e., 672 BC approx, and captured a Li-rong woman called Li-ji. In 664 BC, Qi Lord Huangong destroyed the statelets of Shan-rong and Guzhu. (Guzhu was formerly Zhu-guo Statelet, a vassal of ex-Shang dynasty. In the northeast, The Shan-rong or Mountain Rongs went across the Yan Principality of Hebei Province to attack Qi Principality in today's Shandong Province. 44 years later, they attacked Yan. Around 664 BC, Yan-Qi joint armies destroyed the Mountain Rong Statelet as well as the Guzhu Statelet under the command of Qi Counsellor Guan Zhong, Marquis Qi Huanggong, and Count Yan. Around 664 BC, Yan-Qi joint armies drove them out, penetrated into the Rong land, and destroyed the Mountain Rong Statelet as well as the Guzhu Statelet. The story of 'old horses knew the way home' would be about the joint army being lost after they penetrated deep into the Rong land. Hence, Yan Statelet extended by 500 li to the northwest, in addition to the eastward 50 li which was given to Count Yan for his escorting Marquis Qi all the way into Qi Statelet.
           
          During the 16th year of Zhou King Huiwang (reign 676-652), namely, 661 BC, the Chang Di barbarians who were located near today's Jinan City of Shandong Province, under Sou Man, attacked the Wey and Xing principalities. The Di barbarians, hearing of Qi army's counter-attacks at Mountain-rong, embarked on a pillage in central China by attacking Wey and Xing statelets. The Di barbarians killed Wey Lord Yigong (r. BC 668-660 ?) who was notorious for indulging in raising numerous birds called 'he' (cranes), and the barbarians cut him into pieces. A Wey minister would later find Yigong's liver to be intact, and hence he committed suicide by cutting apart his chest and saving Yigong's liver inside of his body.
           
          Over 20 years later, in 636 BC approx, the Rongdi nomads attacked Zhou King Xiangwang (reign 651-619) at the encouragement of Zhou Queen who was the daughter of Rongdi ruler. Jinn Principality helped Zhou King by attacking the Rongs and then escorted the king back to his throne 4 years after the king went into exile. After the defeat in the hands of Jinn, the Rongs moved to the land between the west segment of the Yellow River loop or bend and the Luo River, and two groups were known at the time, Chidi (Red Di) and Baidi (White Di). (Note that ancient West Yellow River Bend is the same as today's East Yellow River Bend. Ancient Yellow River Bend did not equate to today's inverse U-shaped course with the North Bend lying inside Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, but the U-shaped Bend with South Bend in southern Shanxi Prov and then a south-to-north turn in Hebei Province for exit into the sea.) Baidi (White Di) dwelled in ancient Yanzhou (today's Yan'an), Suizhou (today's Suide) and Yinzhou (today's Ningxia on west Yellow River Bend). Zuo Shi Chunjiu stated Jinn defeated Baidi and remnants were know as Bai-bu-hu later. Chidi (Red Di) dwelled in a place called Lu(4), near today's Shangdang. Zuo Shi Chunjiu stated that Jinn Principality destroyed the Lu(4) tribe of the Chidi, and the remnants were know as Chi-she-hu nomads later.
           
          In 659 BC, Qin Lord Mugong conquered Maojin-rong. Two years after Xiao'er defeat, in 625 BC, Qin Mugong dispatched Mengmingshi on another campaign against Jinn. Meantime, Qin Lord Mugong conquered 8 Western Rong tribes. In 623 BC, i.e., during the 37th year reign, Qin Mugong, using You Yu as a guide, campaigned against the Xirong nomads and conquered the Xirong Statelet under their lord Chi Ban. Once Chi Ban submitted to Qin, the rest of Western Rong nomads in the west acknowledged the Qin overlordship. Qin Mugong would conquer altogether a dozen (12) states in Gansu-Shaanxi areas and controlled the western China of the times. Zhou King dispatched Duke Zhaogong to congratulate Qin with a gold drum.
           
          During the 3rd year reign of Qin Gonggong, i.e., 606 BC, Lord Chu Zhuangwang campaigned northward against the Luhun-rong barbarians and inquired about the Zhou cauldrons when passing through the Zhou capital. Luhun-rong barbarians, according to Hou Han Shu, had relocated to northern China from ancient Gua-zhou prefecture of Gansu Prov. Alternatively speaking, per ancient scholar Du Yu, Luhun-rong barbarians, with clan name of Yun-shi, originally dwelled to the northwest of Qin and Jinn principalities, but Qin/Jinn seducingly relocated them to Yichuan area (i.e, Xincheng, Henan Prov) during the 22nd year reign of Lu Lord Xigong (r. BC 659-627), i.e., in 638 BC.
           
          As to barbarian groups, there were Mianzu-Quanrong-Di-Wanrong to the west of Qin Principality, Yiqu-Dali-Wushi-Xuyan etc to the north of Qin Principality, Linhu-Loufan to the north of Jin (Jinn) Principality, and Donghu-Shanrong to the north of Yan Principality. Mianzu could be pronounced Raozhu. Quanrong was know as Kunrong or Hunrong or Hunyi. The character 'hun4' for Hunyi or Hun-yi is the same as Hunnic King Hunye or Kunye and could mean the word of mixing-up. Wan-rong dwelled in today's Tianshui, Gansu Prov. Yiqu was one of the Xirong or Western rong stateles at ancient Qingzhou and Ningzhou. Dali-rong dwelled in today's Fengxu County. Wushi was originally Zhou land, but it was taken over by Rong. Qin King Huiwang took it back from Rong later. Linhu was later destroyed by General Li Mu. Loufan belonged to Yanmen'guan Pass.
           
          During the 13th year reign of King Jianwang, i.e., 573 BC, Jinn Lord Ligong was killed by Luan Shu and Zhongxing Yan, and Jinn dispatched emissaries (led by a Zhi family member) to the Zhou court to retrieve Zi-zhou as Lord Daogong. Jinn Lord Daogong made peace with Rongdi (who attacked Zhou King Xiangwang earlier), and the Rongdi sent in gifts and tributes to Jinn. Another one hundred years, Zhao Xiang-zi of Zhao Principality took over Bing and Dai areas near Yanmen'guan Pass. Zhao, together with Han and Wei families, destroyed another opponent called Zhi-bo and split Jinn into three states of Han, Zhao & Wei. Yiqu-Rong built castles to counter Qin. Qin King Huiwang took over 25 cities from Yiqu.
           
          In 461 BC, Qin Lord Ligong, with 20,000 army, attacked Dali-rong barbarians and took over Dali-rong capital. In 444 BC, Qin Lord Ligong attacked Yiqu-rong barbarians in the areas of later Qingzhou and Ningzhou and captured the Yiqu-rong king. Around 430 BC, Yiqu-rong barbarians counter-attacked Qin and reached south of Wei-shui River. Qin Lord Xiaogong (r. BC 361-338), during the first year reign, Qin Xiaogong made an open announcement for seeking talents all over China in the attempt of restoring Qin Mugong's glories. In the east, Qin Xiaogong took over Shaancheng city, and in the west, he defeated and killed a Rong king by the name of Huan-wang near Tiansui, Gansu Prov.
           
          The Building Of The Walls
          Qin, under Qin King Zhaoxiangwang, continued wars against Wei & Zhao principalities. King Zhaoxiangwang's mother, Queen Dowager Xuantaihou, adultered with a Rong king from Yiqu Statelet in today's northwestern Shenxi Province. She had two sons born with Yiqu Rong King, but she killed Yiqu King and incorporated the lands of Longxi, Beidi and Shangjun (Yulin, Shenxi Prov) on behalf of Qin. Qin took over Shangjun from Wei. Qin built the Great Wall at Longxi of Gansu, Beidi and Shangjun of Shenxi land. The two successive Jinn states which bordered the northern nomads, Wei & Zhao, plus Qin and Yan, would be busy fighting the nomads for hundreds of years, and they built separate walls to drive the nomads out. Zhao King Wulingwang adopted reforms by wearing Hu cavalry clothing and he defeated Linhu / Loufan and built Great Wall from Dai to Yinshan Mountain. Zhao set up Yunzhong, Yanmen and Dai prefectures. A Yan Principality General by the name of Qin-kai, after returning from Donghu as a hostage, would attack Donghu and drive them away for 1000 li distance. Yan built Great Wall and set up Shanggu, Yuyang, You-beiping, Liaoxi and Liaodong prefectures.
           
          Qin State founded the first united empire of Qin in 221 BC. After Qin unification of China, Emperor Shihuangdi ordered General Meng Tian on a campaign that would drive the so-called Hu nomads or the Huns out of the areas south of the Yellow River. The Huns under Modok's father, Dou-man (Tou-man), fled northward and would not return till General Meng Tian died ten years later. Details about barbarians were also covered at prehistory section.
           
          Ban Gu, in his three sections on the Huns, just summed up the nomadic history indiscriminately. I could not find any corroborative explanations as to those barbarians, and the literal interpretation would be like this: Chi meaning red, Bai meaning White, Chang meaning long or tall, while Rong meaning woooly (against 'mao' character for hairy skin). To make sense of those Rong & Di people, Quanrong means the Doggy Rongs, Linhu the Forest Hu nomads, Donghu the Eastern Hu nomads, and Shanrong the Mountain Rongs. "Loufan" would be a group of people to be conquered by the Huns around the turn of Qin-Han Dynasties. "Donghu" would be denoting the Tunguzic ancestors of later Xianbei and Wuhuan nomads. "Shanrong" were the people dwelling in the place bordering Korea, from whom the Yan-Qi joint armies took over large patches of land.
           
          The closest affiliation to the Huns would be the Rongdi Rongs who had inter-marriage with the Zhou Kingdom and later split into Red Di and White Di. The later group of people called 'Dingling' were said to have derived from Chi Di or Red Di. Gaoche people, ancestors of Huihe (Uygurs), were said to have derived from Dingling. ('Dingling', in my opinion, was a much abused categorical name, and it was used in many places of ancient Chinese records where satisfactory explanations were lacking.) The Doggy Rongs' relationship to the Western Rong was not clear. The Doggy Rongs were called Huangfu as we mentioned above, and they were said to be the same as 'Xianyun' barbarians on the steppe. Then came the Rongdi nomads who had inter-marriage with Zhou Kingdom at one time. It is possible the Rongdi nomads were the same as the Huangfu while the Huangfu would be the same as the Doggy Rongs. The safest bet would be to go to those Rongdi nomads for Hunnic origin. If so, that means the Hunnic ancestors had at one time lived in the heart of Zhou China.

           
          By the time of Qin Empire (221 - 206 BC), Emperor Shihuangdi (Shi Huangdi), being given a necromancy note stating that the people who would destroy Qin would be named 'Hu' (which turned out to be the name of his junior son, Hu Hai or Hu-hai), would embark on a northern expedition against a people called Xiongnu (i..e, Huns) who were categorically called Hu nomads at that time. The record shows that the Huns lived not far away from the Chinese after all. Ban Gu, in his History Of Han Dynasty, said that the Rongdi nomads were inter-spersed in the land north of the Jing River and the Wei Rivers, that Qin Emperor Shihuangdi drove them out, and that Qin China went as far west as Lintao (Tao being the Tao River in today's Gansu Province). Qin empire would take over today's Hetao (the sleeve-shaped land surrounded by the Yellow River Bend on three sides) areas and set up 44 counties. Thereafter, Qing emperor ordered general Meng Tian to cross the Yellow River, and Yinshan Mountains of Inner Mongolia were taken, where 43 more counties were set up. In both campaigns, Qin migrated convicts to the new counties. It is very clear to me that the Huns had been driven out of China from the very beginning. When Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD) reunited China, Xiongnu (Huns) would be the name for the nomads in north and northwest of China, while Donghu (Eastern Hu nomads) would be the name given to the nomads to the east of the Huns. The word "nu" of Xiongnu means 'slave' literally, while the word "Xiong" means forocious'. (In latter times, Manchurian kings and emperors would call anyone serving them as "nu cai", i.e., slaves.)
           
           
          Linguistic Explorations
           
          A research via linguistics could help in determining the ethnicity of the Huns. There are three branches in the Altaic language family, Mongolian, Turkic and Tunguzic. While Mongolian and Turkic share many similarities, possibly because of the fact that the Mongolians relied on Uygur Turks for creation of the Mongolian written language and consequent inter-exchange, the Tunguzic branch is very much a separate branch which would include today's Manchurians and Koreans and some Yayoi-origin Japanese. Conventional wisdom points to some speculation that the Huns belong to the Turkic branch. Though no linguist existed at that time to study the Hun language, it seemed that the Han Chinese had no difficulty in communicating with the Huns. The Huns were very enthusiastic in retaining Chinese as ministers in their court, and at one point in time, the Huns had worn Chinese clothes sent over by the Han emperors. They discarded the Chinese clothing after they realized that the Chinese emperors tried to sinicize them by tricking them into silk clothing instead of the cavalry clothing. Most linguists assert that the Huns were Turkic-speaking and they spoke some kind of Turkic language. It could be a bold proposal to suggest that the language branches did not distinguish themselves till much later. While the Huns left no written language, the Turks had possessed a so-called Orkhon scripts which, like the lost languages of the Khitans, Tanguts and Jurchens, had all appeared to contain some kind of revision on top of Chinese.
           
          A simple comparison of some words in later Mongolian language yields the following interesting points: The word for the Mongolinas, Mongqol irgen, is the same word 'irgen' as used in ancient Chinese pronunciation which could be corrobated by the Cantonese pronunciation of 'irgen' and Japanese pronuncitation of 'nin' or 'dgen'. Still more interesting is the fact that Genghis Khan's name, Timuchin, shared the same prefix as some of his brothers and sister, with Ti meaning nothing more than a Chinese word 'Tie' for iron or smith. JOHANN WILHELM ADOLF KIRCHHOFF (1826-1908) mentioned two Kara-Kirghiz groups, i.e., "the On or “ Right “in the east, with seven branches (Bogu, Sary-Bagishch, Son-Bagishch, Sultu or Solye, Cherik, Sayak, Bassinz), and the Sol or “Left” in the west, with four branches (Kokche or Kfichy, Soru, Mundus, Kitai or Kintai)". As stated at http://57.1911encyclopedia.org/K/KI/KIRGHIZ.htm, the "Sol section occupies the region between the Talass and Oxus headstreams in Ferghana (Khokand) and Bokhara, ... The On section lies on both sides of the Tian-shan, about Lake Issyk-kul, and in the Chu, Tekes and Narin (upper Jaxartes) valleys." Once again, ancient Chinese words, life right for 'you' (mutated into 'on') and left for 'zuo' (mutated into 'sol'), were adopted by nomadic tribes on the steppe. Note that the Huns used to designate their officials into rightside and leftside virtuous kings, similar to Qin Principality's adoption of rightside and leftside prime ministers. Isenbike Togan of Middle East Technical University stated that "written Chinese is also a system of signs... Central Asian people who were not Chinese used this system at some time in the past, including the Turks." Isenbike Togan concluded that the Trukish word for freesing came from Chinese word 'dong[4]'.
           
          As to Turkic language, there had existed a much earlier version of language than the Orkhon script. There is on record a poem written by the wife of a Chinese officer under the Di[1] nomads' Anterior Qin Dynasty (AD 351-394), and it was said that this love poem was sent to her husband who was exiled to the border post in China's silk road. The points to make here is that it was written in so-called 'Hui Wen' language, namely, a terminology that was to be used for denoting Turkic language later. Hui means something self-looping or percolating, in a similar fashion to the Iranian languages. The poem could be read from right to left and from left to right.
           
          However, languages should not be the determinant factor in determining ethnicity since people could adopt other languages by inter-exchanges. The so-called Turkic language was a term denoting some common pronunciation components among the various nomadic groups of peoples roaming the Euroasian continent, and it is exactly due to this kind of mobility that could lead to the result that the Magyar or Hungarian language (which belongs to the Finno-Ugric family) contains many words of Turkish origin, relating to animal husbandry and political and military organization.

           
          It is said that the Magyars had migrated (c.460) from the Urals to the Northern Caucasus region. Remained there for about 400 years, they were allied with the Khazars of Turkish origin. Late in the 9th cent, the Pechenegs forced the Magyars westward across Southern Russia and into present Romania. They defeated the Bulgar czar Simeon I, but Simeon, with the help of the Pechenegs, forced them northward into Hungary where they permanently settled in AD 895. They conquered Moravia and penetrated deep into Germany until they were checked (955) by Holy Roman Emperor Otto I at the Lechfeld. The terms Magyar and Hungarian are identical, but in non-Hungarian languages the word Magyar is frequently used to distinguish the Hungarian-speaking population of Hungary from the German, Slavic, and Romanian minorities. Székely, ethnic group of Transylvania and of present-day Romania, is another good example. The Székely (also known as Szeklers or Siculi) came into Transylvania either with or before the Magyars. Their organization was of the Turkic type, and they are probably of Turkic (possibly Avar) stock. By the 11th cent., however, they had adopted Magyar speech. Some scholars disputed the word 'adopt' since they believe that Székely were of Magyar family, related to one of the two sons of Attila the Hun. Székely later formed one of three privileged nations of Transylvania (the others were the Magyars and the Saxons).  


           
          The Huns vs Eastern Hu Nomads
           
          The 'Donghu' nomads are an interesting group of people and they joined the Hunnic / Jiehu forces sacking northern China in 4th century, similar to the Visigoths in sacking Roman Empire. The word 'dong' means east in Chinese, and this group of people are referred to as proto-Tunguzic. Donghu (or Tung Hu, the Eastern Hu) would be a proto-Tunguz group mentioned in Chinese histories as existing as early as the fourth century B.C. (In the paragraph on the 'Zigzags With Rong & Di' nomads, we have on record the Donghu nomads in 7th century BC.) The ancestors of Xianbei and Wuhuan people were located much to the center of Mongolia and northern China. They lived to the east of the Huns.
           
          The Donghu nomads and the Yueh-chih or Yüeh-chih (Yuezhi) people were said to be stronger than the Huns according to Ban Gu. The Huns retreated to the north of the Yellow River and did not return till Qin's General Meng Tian were ordered to be killed by Qin's second emperor. The Huns were still required to send in their prince to the Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) as hostage. Modu (Modok), who escaped from Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) alive, later killed his father and his elder brother and proclaimed himself 'chanyu', a word meaning the grand expanse of the universe, similar to Chinese 'Tian Zi' or Son of the Heaven. Before the Huns attacked southward and southwestward, they had conquered 5 states to the north, including Hunyu, Qushi (Quyi), Gekun, Xinkuang, and a name called 'Dingling'. Dingling would be part of later Gaoche people. Dingling was said to have dwelled in a place to the north of later Kangju people. Modok boasted of an army of 300,000. When the Donghu nomads accused the first Hunnic Chanyu Modu of patricide, they were driven away by the Huns. Later, Han Emperor Wudi (reign 140-87 BC) relocated the Donghu nomads to today's Liaoning Province for segregation from the Huns.
           
          By the first century AD, two major subdivisions of the Donghu had developed: the Xianbei in the north and the Wuhuan in the south, by names of the two mountains. This also exemplifies the kind of mobility of nomadic peoples across the whole northern plains of Euroasian continent. More interesting about the Xianbei people would be their ethnicity. Eastern Jinn minister (Wang Dun) rebelled against Emperor Mingdi in AD 322-325 and he called the emperor by a derogatory name "yellow-haired slave of the Xianbei nomads". Emperor Fu Jian of Anterior Qin Dynasty (AD 351-394) called the Xianbei rebels 'Bai Lu', namely, light-skinned robbers or savages. My guess is that ancient Chinese treated brownish hair as yellow and that Xianbei people possessed lighter skin due to their dwelling in the northern altitude. The early Eastern Xianbei people were composed of three tribes of Yuwen, Duan and Murong as well as closely allied with the Koguryo people in the areas of today's Manchurian-Korean border. (An alternative school of thought stated that Xianbei people were comprised of the Chinese coolie who fled from Qin Emperor Shihuangdi's order to build the Great Wall at the northern borders.)
           
          The nomads somewhat likened their status to each other. While they were pillaging in northern China, they constantly called themselves as well as their nomadic adversaries by the usual Chinese derogatory terminology of "barbarians". They constantly expressed doubts about themselves as well as their competitors becoming an orthodox emperor ruling northern China. While the so-called Tungunzic Donghu nomads might not be of the same family as the Huns, they did show some kind of identification with each other. Hunnic Duke Liu Xuan, in discussions with the emperor Liu Yüan of Hunnic Han (AD 304-329)
          about attacking the Xianbei nomads on behalf of Chinese emperor, said, "The Xianbei and Wuhuan nomads are in fact of same kind as us, why should we attack them on behalf of the Chinese?" At times of Qin Empire, the Huns were called "Hu", and general Meng Tian is famous for fighting the Huns to the extent that the "Hu nomads dared not to graze their horses southward." In order to distinguish between the Huns from the Hu nomads in northern and northeastern China, Chinese used the words "Donghu" to denote the eastern Hu nomads.
           
          The Huns and the Eastern Hu nomads are not friends, however. Hunnic king, Modu (often wrongly pronounced as Maodun in Mandarin), first defeated the Eastern Hu nomads and then attacked the Han Dynasty, once encircling the army led by Han's first emperor Liu Pang. In later times, the Eastern Hu nomads and the Qiang nomads had acted as the mercenaries of Han Chinese emperors in fighting the Huns. More history about Donghu would be described at Xianbei & Wuhuan.
           
           
          Modu's Hun Empire and Early Han Dynasty
           
          In AD 308, Hunnic king Liu Yüan proclaimed himself emperor of Hunnic Han Dynasty on basis of one sound logic: Hunnic kings had historically ackowledged that they were the nephews of Han Chinese emperors. By designating his dynasty as 'Han', he intended to play the card of asserting the so-called 'Mandate of Heaven'.
           
          The Huns, as a group of people having origin from China's Xia Dynasty and dwelling in Ordos and Hetao originally, came to the Chinese Turkistan as an outsider. Han Emperor Liu Bang led 300,000 army to attack the Huns in 200 BC; after a defeat, Han China signed a peace treaty with the Huns by means of inter-marriage with Han princesses. Peace ensued with intermittent Hunnic raids around the northern border. According to Chinese history, the Hunnic Chanyu wrote to Han emperor saying that he ordered one of his kings, Youxianwang (rightside virtuous king), to strike at the Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) as a punishment for breaking peace near the Chinese border. In 175-174 BC, Hunnic Chanyu's letter mentioned that they defeated Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) people by conquering Loulan, Wusun and Hujie etc, altogether 26 statelets in Chinese Turkistan. Hunnic Chanyu Laoshang (son of Modok Chanyu) had at once used the skull of Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) king as his utensil for drinking. In 173 BC, Han Emperor Wendi replied to Modok Chanyu emphasizing the wish for peace. Soon after that, Modok died, and his son, Jiyu, got enthroned as Laoshang Chanyu. Wendi ordered that an eunuch by the name of Zhongxing Shuo accompany a Han princess to the Huns. Zhongxing Shuo would instigate the Huns in attacking the Han, and he also taught the Huns how to count cattle and horses.
           
          In Chinese Turkistan, the Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) and their affilates, Kangju and Wusun, all dwelled in the so-called Qilian Mountains area, Gansu Province. Gua Di Zhi stated that Yuezhi country included ancient Liangzhou, Ganzhou, Suzhou, Yanzhou and Shazhou, i.e., today's Gansu and Shenxi Provinces. When they moved to Central Asia, under the attacks of the Huns, they used the city name of 'Zhaowu' of Gansu as their family name, for sake of not forgetting their roots. Some history account mentioned that altogether 500 thousand Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) took part in this migration, and this group of people would later set up the Kushan Empire in Bactria and Afghanistan during the period of 141-128 BC. (Bactria, translated as 'da xia' in Chinese, was also mistaken by Wang Guowei as a validation of his extrapolation of Xia's You-yu-shi clan as equivalent to Yuezhi. Wang Guowei speculated that Yuezhi people, after their defeat in the hands of Huns, fled to Bactria to found a similar 'xia' kingdom and that even the later 'Tu-huo-luo' kingdom of Afghanistan could be a mutation of the ancient pronunciation for 'da xia'. I expounded on Wang Guowei's blunder earlier in this section. Note that Bactria existed at the time of Alexandre Invasion which was before the Yuezhi migrated to the west.) In c. AD 50, Kujula Kadphises united the five Yueh-chih tribes and established the Kushan Empire. Later, King Kanishka extended the Kushan Empire to the Tarim Basin, covering territories from Persia to Transoxiana to Tarim Basin to the Ganges in Upper Indus, with Buddhism as the state religion.
           
          After being defeated by the Huns in 174-161 BC, the Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) first migrated to today's Ili area. In the west, Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) pushed out the Scythians. Under the attack of their Wusun affiliates, Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) migrated southwest in 141-128 BC to the Oxus Valley, pushing out the Scythians again. The son of Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) was ordered to stay behind in Gansu Province and they were referred to as the Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) Minor (or Lesser Yüeh-chih) who survived in Western China for hundreds of years. The new country in Central Asia would be called Yueh-chih (Yuezhi) Major (or Greater Yüeh-chih). This touched off a wave of 'chain reaction'. The Scythians went to take over Greco-Bactria kingdom. The Wushun people, previously enslaved by the Yüeh-chih, went on a revenge against the Yüeh-chih. Yueh-chih (Yuezhi)

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        • oghli qarluq
          Chinese Chronicles After Toba, Chinese chronicles did not mention the Huns any more. The Ruruans and the Turks came into play. Whereas the Huns called their
          Message 4 of 7 , Aug 1, 2003
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            Chinese Chronicles
             
            After Toba, Chinese chronicles did not mention the Huns any more. The Ruruans and the Turks came into play.   Whereas the Huns called their kings "chanyu" (or sanyu), the Ruruans used the "khan", instead.   Historians think that it was the Ruruan people who first used the title "khan".   Turks, who chased the Ruruan khan all the way to Western Toba Wei Dynasty, also used the title "khan" for their kings.   In this sense, Mulan the heroine, who was recently depicted by Disney in a cartoon, would be more likely either a Ruruan or a Turk in connection with the times when the story was first written, namely, late time period of Toba's Wei Dynasty. Emerging in this time period would be another group of people called the Tiele Tribes. The Turks reared the Tiele people on behalf of Ruruans. It was recorded that Turks absorbed about 50,000 households of the Tiele Tribes which included the later so-called 'Nine Family Names'. Chinese records pointed to several fights between Khan Muchuo's Orchon Turks and the Nine Family Name People. (Do note that the Western Turks possessed another alias, i.e., Ten Family Names.) (AD 386-534)
             
            By the time of Sui
            (AD 581-618) and Tang (AD 618-907), several groups of nomads remained on the borders with China, the Khitans, Xi & Shiwei in the northeast, the Turks & Tiele Tribes in the north and northwest, the Tuyuhun people in the west, and the Nan-Zhao people in the southwest. Xianbei, Wuhuan, Toba and Ruruan nomads had either dissappeared or been absorbed into the melting pots at that time.   Khitans were said to be descendants of early Tanshikui Xianbei alliance and Xi the descendants of Wuhuan people. In the west, the Qiangic-Xianbei peoples (who had absorbed Di nomads etc) was still in existence in Gansu-Qinghai-Tibet areas, were to assert themselves in later Xixia Dynasty (AD 1032-1227).  
             
            The Sha'to Turks would become vassals for Tang Dynasty and later set up 3 successive dynasties of Posterior Tang 923-936, Posterior Jin 936-946, Posterior Han 947-950. The Sha'to dynasties, however, were very much controlled by the Khitans during this time period, and the Khitans received a secession of 16 zhou (a unit larger than prefecture but smaller than province) from Posterior Jin (AD 936-946) led by a Posterior Tang general called Shi Jingtang, also a Shatuo (Sha'to). The Khitans, newly defeated by the Turks, would emerge as first the Liao Dynasty
            (AD 916-1125) by the end of the Tang Dynasty, and then Western Liao after Jurchens defeated them.

             
            Tang Dynasty chronicler, Du You, wrote sixteen books on historical "border nomads" as of Tang's times.   He classified western Rong nomads into five books:    1) ??; 2) Tuyuhun, Tibets, Dangqiang (later Tanguts) etc; 3) Loulan (Rongjiang), Cheshi (Gaochang), Chouci (Guqa) etc; 4) Yanqi, Yutian (Hotan), Anxi (Iran), Daxia (Bactria); 5) Persia, Daqin (Rome).  As to northern nomads, he classified them into  1) Huns Book One; 2) Huns Book Two, Southern Huns; 3) Wuhuan, Xianbei, Toba Tribe, Murong Tribe, Yuwen Tribe etc; 4) Turks Book One; 5) Turks Book Two; 6) Turks Book Three, Xueyantuo Tribe (which sound very much like 'Sakiz Oghuz' or the Eight Oghuz) etc; 7) Huihe (Uygur) Tribe etc.   The names of Toba, Murong and Yuwen are just tribal names among the Xianbei nomads, and Wuhuan and Xianbei nomads obtained their names from the Xianbei/Wuhuan Mountains where their ancestors, the eastern Donghu nomads, had fled after being defeated by the Hsiongnu (Hun) Hu nomads.    
             
            The origin of the Turks notwithstanding, the Uygur's relationship with the Turks is worthy of an explanation here.   The word Uygur was mentioned in Tang Dynasty's chronicles as being only one of the fifteen Tiele tribes, ranking in second place among the eleven tribes who helped Tang in conquering the Eastern Khanate.   Reading through Tang records, one important conclusion could be reached about the Uygurs, that is, the Uygurs were long time ally of Tang Chinese in their campaigns against both the Eastern Turks and the Western Turks, at least for over 200 years till AD 840 when Tang Chinese incited the Kirghiz in attacking and replacing the Uyghurs in Mongolia. 
             

            Turks vs Tiele Tribes, & Oguz vs Ogur
             
            The most confusing part of Chinese chronicles would be descriptions of the Turks versus Tiele Tribes. Certainly, there are other disputes, such as the place of origin for the Turks and Huns. Frankly, I could not reconcile Chinese records in regards to the Turks vs Tiele Tribes. That's why I am now relying heavily upon the following URL-linked website for explanations. I believe I had very much explained the riddles in regards to Hunnic descendents, i.e., the Gao-che people (including Yuanhe clan), Tiele Tribes (including Huihe clan), the Ruruan (Rouran or Juan-juan) and the Turks. After a matter of few hundreds of years, it is no surprise to see the melting pot where the Turks and Tiele (Tara or Tole) had mixed up with each other. We mentioned earlier that Turks, iron slaves of Ruruans, had become a strong power after absorbing about 50,000 households of the Tiele Tribes (which included the later so-called 'Nine Family Names'). Turks inevitably split into two groups in the east and west as had happened with their Hunnic predecessors. Eastern Turkic Khanate was broken by Tang Dynasty in AD 630 as a result of its internal strife as well as Tiele rebellions. Khan Muchuo's Orchon Turks had fought the Nine Family Name People of Tiele Tribes frequently. (Do note that the Western Turks possessed another alias, i.e., Ten Family Names.) Khan Muchuo died in the hands of the Bayegu clan of the Tiele Tribes when his rear column was ambushed. Western Turkic Khanate would be dispersed by the Tang's westward expansion in 651 AD. In AD 681, a Western Turkic Khan by the name of Ashina Duozhi, together with Tibetans, attacked Tang's Anxi Protector General (Marshal Presidio) Office. On basis of Chinese records, we could tell that Ashina Turks were acting more as a noble or royal line which played the role of a political entity unifying various Turkic speaking tribes.
             
            A good understanding of the relationship between Turks and Tiele Tribes would be essential to untangling the riddles of Western Turks who were comprised of so-called Ogur (known as Oguz in the east). http://sophistikatedkids.com/turkic/13%20Oguz%20and%20Ogur/OguzesEn.htm had a good exploration into the issues of OGUZ & OGUR, and it claimed:
             
            1) that Uch-Oguzes would be "3 Oguz" or Karluks;
             
            2) that the word Turk was a "political name";
             
            3) that "in the documents of the period of rule Tang (after 618, annual chronicles Tang-Sy and Kiu Tand Shu with four different translations), the Nine Tribes, called in the inscriptions 'Nine Oguzes', sometimes 'Nine Türkic Tribes (Kok-Türks)' are mentioned as 'Türks of Nine Tribes (Kok -Türks)', and sometimes as 'Nine Toles Tribes', Nine Toles Oguzes means the same, as Nine Kok-Türk Oguzes. The roots of Kok-Türks are The Oguz tribes";
             
            4) that "in 630, in the area of the rivers Tolga and Selenga, Oguzes jointed into a union, creating a Nine-Oguzes Khanate. Oguzes, defeated by Ilterish in 682 (in the war on the Cow lake) were in this status. Later, at tomb of Ilterish-Khagan, was installed the monument (balbal) to Baz - Khagan, the ruler of the Oguz state, who died in this battle ... 682 Concerned with Kutlug progress, Oguzes, living on coast of Selenga, made an attempt of cooperation with Chinese and Kitans ... 682 The attack, initiated on the advice of Tonyukuk, on a coast of the Cow lake, was successful and has removed the Oguz threat ... In 6-9 centuries Oguzes lived in the area of the river Selenga ... 691 In the beginning of the Uigur Khanaate the Uigur leader, Moen-Chur, still being a 'Tegin', was in the head of the Oguzes. A bit later the Oguzes rose against the Uigur Khanaate. This time they were a part of the Eight Oguzes. In Burgu and on the bank of Selenga Moen-Chur subjugated Oguzes, who joined with Otuz-Tatars, 'Thirty Tatars'. Oguzes, crossing Selenga, retreated. After that there is no sufficient information on the destiny of Oguzes in their native land. Certainly they resettled to the west in mass ... 716 Revolt of Nine Oguzes and death of Qapagan Khagan";
             
            5) that "in 775 the Oguzes came to the vicinity of Maverannahr, according to Ibnul-Esir who dated this event to the times of the Caliph el-Mekhdi (775-785)... The members of the Oguz tribal union relocated in great numbers from the Orkhon area to the vicinity of Talas, and then to Syr Darya. The Oguz dialect separated from the Eastern Türkic dialect ... before the 9-th century, and by the 11-th century the Oguz language of Syr Darya differs from Eastern Türkic language in the lexicon and pronunciation".
             
            A good approach to untangling the riddle here would be to analyze the political structures of Turks versus Tiele Tribes. The Turks, after absorbing about 50,000 households of the Tiele Tribes, had certainly become a unifying force among Turkic speaking tribes. However, the Tiele Tribes frequently rebelled against the Turks. Turks had at one time invited major chieftans of the Xueyantuo clan and killed them all. The Bayegu clan of the Tiele Tribes had certainly been responsible for killing Khan Muchuo of Orchon Turks, i.e., Eastern Turks or Blue Turks. (Chinese records did not mention the word 'blue'. Blue meant for the direction of the east; however, one saying would be to claim that 'blue' came from the word 'Gok' which meant for the blue skies as exemplified by Turkic word 'tengri' or Chinese word 'tian'.) I will take the title of 'sijin' (tegin?), equivalent to governor, as a good entry. New History Of Tang Dynasty said Khitans possessed eight tribes and they were subject to the Turks. The Khitan chieftan was conferred the title of 'Sijin' by the Turks. Similarly, major clans of the Tiele Tribes all enjoyed the title of 'sijin'. In this way, Turks treated the Tiele Tribes the same way as they did to the Khitans. The relationship of a vassalage is clear: Tiele Tribes, like Khitans, were the vassals of the Turks, not the equals.
             
            Oguz and/or Ogur will be another tricky matter. My interpretation would be to treat the Oguz and/or Ogur as the successors of the Turkic Khantes. Should we pursue the restrictive definition of the Turks above, then we could tell that among the Turkic-speaking tribes, the Tiele Tribes had a majority over the royal line of Ashina Turks and their immediate tribesmen. Chinese records stated that around AD 740s, Eastern Khnanate Turks, aka Orkhon Turks under Khan Muchuo (Mo-ch'o), were defeated by the Uygurs and Karlaks. After this defeat, Chinese history said the Eastern Turks were still paying pilgrimage to Tang Dynasty regularly. But the remaining Orkhon Turks were not heard from after China's Five Dynasties time period, and the Turks must have lost their distinct identity by then.
             

            Turks/Uygurs vs Sui & Tang Chinese
             
            By the time Sui Dynasty (AD 581-618) destroyed Northern Zhou (AD 557-581), Turks, at the request of the 4-marriage-queen (previously princess of Northern Zhou), sought revenge by attacking Sui.   Northern Zhou was a puppet of the Turks and inter-marriage between Turks and Northern Zhou was the way of maintaining peace between the two.   Sui Emperor Yang Chien (Yang Jian), grandfather-in-law of Northern Zhou emperor, usurped the power by dethroning the young emperor.  
             
            Split Of Eastern Khanate and Western Khanate : Yang Chien played the strategy of sowing dissension among the Turks, the son and the nephew of ex-Turkic khan.   In AD 582, the Turkic Khaganate split into Eastern Khanate and Western Khanate.   The son of ex-Turkic khan would set up the Western Turkic Khanate, while the nephew's Eastern Khanate gave up the plan of revenge on Sui and sought peace with Sui.   Nomadic ways of succession, usually younger brother taking over the khanate from the elder brother, and occasional requittal by the younger brother in giving the khanate back to the son of his elder brother, had constantly caused internal strife in their history.   This is in addition to the nomadic way of younger brother taking over all wife and concubines of the father or elder brother at the time of succession.   After defeating the Turks via the above-mentioned 'dissension strategy', Sui pacified by promising continuous "intermarriage" with the eastern Turks.

             
            There was an attack on Sui capital Chang'an in AD 601 by Western Turkic Khan Tardu, according to Turkic accounts, before Emperor Yangdi succeeded Emperor Wendi in AD 604.   Records show Tardu was one of at least three or four rivaling Turkic khans of the time and his attack on Sui aborted before any impact was felt, and he would die of internal fights within the next few years.  
             
            The Turks had internal fights again and their khanate again collapsed in AD 603.   The eastern khan, Shabolüe, adopted the same custom by giving his khanate to his younger brother (Muohe).   Muohe's son, Ruangan, was forced into refuge inside of Sui by the son of the ex-khan Shabolüe.   Ruangan, given the title "Qimin Khan" by Sui's emperor, married with Princess Anyi and, after the death of Princess Anyi, he married with Princess Yicheng (who would also remarry 3 more times with successor Turk khans later).   Qimin Khan returned to Eastern Khanate after the death of his cousin.   At one time, Sui Emperor Yangdi travelled northward to the tent of Qimin Khan where he encountered the emissary from Koguryo (one of Korea's three kingdoms) and relayed the message of imperial bestowals should Koguryo pay tributes to Sui.  (It was said the Korean emissary was in Turk territory seeking an alliance against Sui China, but unexpectedly having an encounter with Sui emperor.)  Emperor Yangdi also sent an emissary to the Western Turk Khanate to relay a similar message and obtained the aid of the western khan in attacking the Tuyuhun who were unhappy about Sui's replacing the Tuyuhun wife of the Eastern Turk Khan with a Sui princess.   Sui Dynasty set up 4 new prefectures in the territories in and around the eastern khanate, namely,  Xihai (west sea or Qinhaihu Lake), Heyuan (origin of Yellow River), Shanshan (Loulan) and Qiemuo. 

             
            TANG DYNASTY:   When Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907) founder Li Yuan rebelled against Sui, he, in exchange for two thousand horses and five hundred Turk cavalry, would collude with the Turks by promising the Turks all the gold and women in the Sui capital.   (Hundred years later, Tang emperor would request again for aid from the Uygur Turks in quelling internal rebellion, i.e., An-Shi Rebellion).  
             
            While Sui's founder Yang Chien (Jian) was said to be the descendant of a Han Dynasty official called Yang Zheng, Tang's founder Li Yuan was said to be the 7th granson of the emperor of Western Liang
            (AD 400-421), one of the few Chinese nations among the nomadic "Sixteen Nations" preceding the North-South Dynasties (AD 386-589).   Both were said to be semi-Toba because they married Toba's Dugu women. They were relatives. Li Yuan's wife was the sister of Sui Dynasty's Empress Dugu.  Li was conferred the title of Duke Tang, and the name 'Tang' would become his dynastic name.   (The double character name Dugu means 'lonely' and 'orphaned', literally, and was a Toba tribal name, just like Murong and Yuwen.  This kind of double character name would become a kind of fashion with Japanese surnames.) 
             
            When Tang Dynasty's founder, Li Yuan, rebelled against Sui Dynasty, he would sent his minister (Liu Wenjing) to the Eastern Turks (ruled by Khan Shibi) for borrowing 2000 horses and 500 cavalry. Li Yuan, not proclaiming himself emperor at the beginning, used Yang You (the grandson of Sui emperor) as a puppet.   There were a dozen rebel leaders as a result of the dethronement of Sui Dynasty. At this time, Khan Shibi subjugated Tuyuhun in Gansu-Qinghai, Gaochang near Turpan, Khitans and Shiwei in northwestern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia. Many Sui Chinese fled to the Turks for seeking asylum. Khan Shibi assisted Li Yuan's rivals, such as Liu Wuzhou & Liang Shidu, in fighting for gaining supremacy in China. After the death of Khan Shibi, his brother, Chuluo Khan (same name as Chuluo Khan during Sui Dynasty time period), would be enthroned. Chuluo Khan assisted another Tang rival, Wang Shichong. Later, Dou Jiande was asked to send ex-empress of Sui to the Turks by Princess Yicheng who was already remarried three times to Turkic khans at the time. Chuluo Khan retrieved ex-Sui Empress Xiaohou and ex-Sui royal family from a Tang rival called Dou Jiande. Dou previously seized Sui Empress Xiaohou from Sui general Yuwen Huaji. (Yuwen Huaji, during the coup, killed Sui Emperor Yangdi in Yangzhou on the Yangtse River). Chuluo Khan erected a Sui royal member as the new Sui King. Chuluo Khan was determined to fight Tang Dynasty on behalf of dethroned Sui Dynasty, saying that he wanted to return favor to Sui descendants for Sui Dynasty's helping his ancestors in the restoration of the khan regency. Later, Chuluo Khan died and his brother, Khan Xieli, would be enthroned. A Chinese called called Zhao Deyan was hired as a counsellor by Khan Xieli.
             
            Eastern Khnanate, Koreans & Khitans   :
                    Tang's emperor Taizong, son of Li Yuan, would quell all rivals including Dou Jiande and Wang Shichong etc.   One rival at the border was aided by the eastern Turks; hence, Tang sought wars with the Turks in lieu of the old alliance with them. Khan Xieli was disuaded from an alliance with another Tang rival called Xue Ju. Khan Xieli would erect his cousin, i.e., Shibi Khan's son, as Khan Tuli (same name as Tuli during Sui Dynasty time period). Tuli was sent to the east, and Tuli would take charge of the ancient tribes of Khitans and Mojie (ancestors of Jurchens) people. Khan Xieli would take over Princess Yicheng as his wife. Khan Tuli was married with Princess Huan'nan of Sui Dynasty. Princess Yicheng's brother (Yang Sanjing) and Wang Shichong's emissary would somehow pursuade Khan Xieli into challenging Tang Dynasty on behalf of dethroned Sui Dynasty. In AD 621, Khan Xieli invaded Yanmenguan Pass and Dai Prefecture. For several years, Tang and Turks fought numerous battles across the northern border areas. By the 7th year of Tang Emperor Gaozu, in AD 626, King Qin of Tang Dynasty (i.e., Li Shimin, later Tang Emperor Taizong) would sow a dissension among Xieli Khan and Tuli Khan. Unable to call upon Tuli to fight Tang further, Xieli Khan sent Tuli Khan and Simo to Tang for sake of a peace treaty with Tang. Tuli Khan and King Qin promised to be brothers, while Tang Emperor Gaozu said to Simo that he felt he had seen Khan Xieli by meeting with Simo. In the following two years, Tang was busy building ships around the North Bend of the Yellow River for defence against Turks, while Turks broke the peace and kept attacking Tang.
             
            In AD 627, Tang Emperor Taizong got enthroned after killing two brothers and forcing Emperor Gaozu into abdication. This is called 'Xuanwumen Coup' in Tang history. Just twenty days after Taizong got enthroned, Eastern Turkic Khan Xieli attacked Tang, and his soldiers reached the Wei River, just a dozen miles away from the Tang capital.   Emperor Taizong (T'ai-tsong) sought peace with eastern Turks.  
             
            In the same year, AD 627, Tiele Tribes, including Xueyantuo, Huihe and Bayegu, rebelled against the Turks. Khan Xieli accused Khan Tuli of failing to quell the Tiele rebellion. Being attacked by Khan Xieli, Khan Tuli requested for help with Tang Emperor Taizong in AD 628. The next year, Xueyantuo tribe proclaimed themselves as a khan and sought allianace with Tang Dynasty. Other Tiele Tribes, like Bayegu, Tongluo and Pugu, also paid pilgrimage to Tang. Eastern Khanate experienced a famine and internal revolts broke out.  Khan Xieli (grandson of Qimin Khan) was dissatisfied with Tuli's performance in quelling rebellion, and had a quarrel with Tuli.   Khan Xieli arrested Tuli and did not release Tuli for a long time. Later, Tuli surrendered to Tang.  
             
            Taizong said that his father (Emperor Gaozu) had sought help and vasslage with the Turks because Tang was weak earlier after emerging from a rebellion against Sui Dynasty. In the fourth year of Taizong' reign, AD 630, Tang ordered General Li Jing on a full campaign against Khan Xieli with six columns of armies, and captured Khan Xieli by taking advantage of Turk strife. General Li Jing led 3000 cavalry into the Turk camp and defeated Khan Xieli's army via a surprise strategy, and then led 10,000 soldiers all the way to Yinshan Mountains (located in today's Inner Mongolia) in pursuit of Khan Xieli.   A Turkic chieftan called Kang Sumi surrendered with Sui Empress Xiaohou and Sui descendant (Yang Zhengdao). General Li Jing retrieved ex-empress of Sui and gave her to emperor Taizong who later took in as his mistress, and General Li Jing killed princess Yicheng for her 4-time-marriage without knowing 'shame'.   Khan Xieli, after being defeated again, sought peace with Tang. Li Jing, thinking that Turks might not be on alert while Tang emissary was in their camp, attacked Khan Xieli again. Xieli alone fled to another chieftan called Shabolue-she, but he was arrested and surrendered to Tang army by his own cousin.  Hence, the Chinese occupied Mongolia (Eastern Turkic Khanate).  
             
            Remnant eastern Turks either fled to Western Khanate or northward to the Tiele Tribe of Xueyantuo (Mandarin spelling, Turkic name unknown).   Emperor Taizong, rebutting the advice of his minister Wei Zheng (who cited the Hunnic ravaging of China during the late Jin Dynasty as a result of their dwelling south of the Yellow River, Hatao area), relocated over 100,000 eastern Turks to the border areas, all the way from Shaanxi-Shanxi to today's Beijing city. Taizong did accept the advice of Yan Shigu, Du Chuke and Li Baiyao in having the Turks settle down north of the Yellow River. Taizong set up four more prefectures, Shunzhou, Youzhou, Huazhou Changzhou along the Great Wall, and made Khan Tuli governor-general in charge of Shunzhou Prefecture. Tuli Khan was conferred the title of King of Beipingjun. Tuli died at the age of 29, and his son, Heluohu, succeeded with the same title.  
             
            Taizong subdivided the Eastern Khanate into altogether 10 "zhou" (an administartive unit larger than prefectures).   He also allowed Khan Xieli and his officials to live in Chang'an the Tang capital, and altogether close to 10,000 Turk families moved in. A Turkic chieftan called Sijie-sijin surrendered to Tang with 40,000 people. (Sijin, a title having origin in Xianbei and Ruruan eras, was a Turkic title equivalent to governorship. Among ten Turkic families, for example, Nushibi khan possesseed five sijin. Turks also conferred sijin post on Tiele Tribes and the Khitans.) One brother of Khan Xieli, who first fled to Tuyuhun, came to submit to Tang, too. The Turkic chieftan at Yiwu surrendered his 7 cities to Tang, and Tang made it into Western Yizhou Prefecture. Shabolue-she, with 50,000 people, was conferred the title of King Huaide and Shabolue-she relocated to north of Ningzhou Prefecture by vacating the land south of the desert.
             
            Tang Emperor further exchanged money and silk for 80,000 Sui Chinese who fled to Turkic chieftans for asylum during China's civil war turmoil time period. Tang allowed those Chinese to come back to China as civilians.
             
            Khan Xieli, unhappy while living in Chang'an, declined Taizong's offer to have him relocate to another place where he could go for hunting, and Khan Xieli died in AD 634. Taizong gave him the title of King Guiyi posthumously. One of Khan Xieli's ministers committed suicide when Xieli died. One more Turkic minister, Sunishi (Khan Qimin's brother), also committed suicide. Xieli's son was commented to be a filial son by Emperor Taizong for his refusal to eat bestowed meat because his birth mother did not get the allocation.
             
            During the attacks on the Eastern Turks, Emperor Taizong won over the support of eleven Tiele tribes including the Uygurs (Huihe), Bayegu, Tongluo and Pugu.   The Uygurs ranked second to Xueyantuo tribe among the eleven tribes who had helped Tang in defeating Eastern Turkic Khanate in AD 630-640.   Under the sponsorship of the Uygurs, the tribal leaders devised a name called "Tian Ke-han" (Heavenly Khan) for Emperor Taizong. 
             
            Tang's General Li Jing (a military strategist who once fled with a mistress of Sui prime minister while being invited as a guest at the home of Sui prime minister) was later sent on another expedition to Qinhai-Gansu and Tarim Basin to quell rebellion of the Tuyuhun, a group of Qiangic people mixed with the Xianbei nomads.   Tang married princess over to Tuyuhun king to pacify them.   With the help of the Uygurs and other Tiele Tribes, Tang Chinese subdued the Tarim Basin in 630-40.   During this time, AD 629-645, famous Tang Monk, Chen Hui, travelled to India and returned to Chang'an in 16 years, passing dozens of countries and nomadic tribal states in between, which include the so-called Gaochang State (near east of today's Turpan) where he was received by king Qu Wentai.   Also in year AD 640, Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo, learning of Tuyuhun's intermarriage with Tang, initiated a war against Tang and requested intermarriage with Tang princess. Tibetan Prime Minister Ludongzan was sent to Chang'an and passed imperial inquiries and tests. Princess Wencheng arrived in Tibet one year later. 
             
            King of Gaochang State, Qu Wentai, colluded with Western Turkic Khanate in subjugating small tribal states in today's Xinjjiang (New Dominion) area and rebelled against Tang.   In AD 639, with the help of Xueyantuo or Sheyanto tribe (one component of the Tiele Tribes), Tang army of 100,000 travelled 7,000 li distance to fight Gaochang State, scaring Qu Wentai to death.   Qu Wentai's son surrenderred after learning that the relief army of Western Khanate Turks had fled home half way.   Emperor Taizong renamed Gaochang to Xizhou, and made it the locality for the governor-general office in charge of Yutian, Suiye, Shule and Chouci. (Later, Xizhou or Anxi Protector_General or Marshal Presidio Office was relocated to Chouci in AD 659.)    In AD 702, Tang would set up Beiting 'Protector_General (Marshal Presidio)' office in Tingwai or Tingzhou (present-day Jimsar), a place located to the east of Suiye (Tokmok), to the south of Xizhou (Turpan), and to the west of Yizhou (Hami).
             
            By AD 648, Tang subdued the remnants of eastern Turks north of the Gobi.   Meantime, Tang defeated the Khitans in Manchuria, and controlled central and eastern Mongolia, thus stretching 9,510 li east to west and 10,918 li south to north in its territories.  The Xueyantuo tribe, differentiated in Chinese chronicle as a separate tribe from the Uygur tribe, was in charge of north Mongolia.   Non-Chinese historical accounts, including US Library of Congress website, however, stated that the Uygur vassal controlled west and north Mongolia, from Lake Alltaid to Lake Balkash.   The Uygurs would gain control of north Mongolia at a later time.  
             
            Tuli Khan's son, Heluohu, was targeted by his Turkic tribesmen for abduction back to the Turkic land. They fled to north of China and disturbed the border areas. Taizong defeated the rebellion and exiled Heluohu to southern China. Emperor Taizong decided to send Simo (the cousin? of ex-khan Xieli) back to the land of Eastern Khanate as a ruler, thus making Simo into a rival of the Tiele Tribe (Xueyantuo).   Xueyantuo tribe, an ex-ally, now rebelled against Tang for Tang's dispatchment of Simo.  Simo was commented to have looked like a 'Hu' versus the Turkic Ah'shina family. Hence, he was previously not employed for high posts. He once served as a khan north of the desert when Khan Qimin fled to Sui Dynasty. When Qimin returned, Simo relinquished the khan title. Simo was frequently sent to Tang as a peace emissary. Simo was caught together with Khan Xieli. Simo was conferred the title of King Hedejun and governor-general of Huazhou Prefecture.
             
            Hearing that Simo led the Turks (100 thousand people, 40 thousand army and 90 thousand horses) in crossing the Yellow River in AD 641, the Xueyantuo Tribe tried to fight the Turks. Xueyantuo wrote to Tang saying that the Turks did not know to keep promise and peace. Tang said to Xueyantuo that Turks would control south of the desert while Xueyantuo was to control north of the desert. Three years later, Simo, unable to harness his people, returned to Tang court, later followed Taizong in the Korean campaign (on which occasion Taizong sucked the blood from the arrow wound that Simo suffered), and later died in the Tang capital. Simo's Youxianwang (rightside virtuous king), son of the late Sunishi, would have tears everytime Tang emissary arrived at north of the desert, and he would be allowed to return to Tang court. Some of Simo's people relocated south of the Yellow River and settled in Shengzhou and Xiazhou Prefectures.
             
            Replacing Simo would be the Turkic Khan called Chebi. Chebi at first fled to Xueyantuo. When being threatened by Xueyantuo, he fled from Xueyantuo. Xueyantuo chased him all the way westward. Chebi would soom amass 30 thousand people and he would assert control over Karlaks in the west and Qigu in the north. Chebi often harassed Xueyantuo tribe thereafter.

             
            I haven't verified the unit "li" as used in Tang Dynasty. http://www.os.xaxon.ne.jp/~sinkodai/efuruta/esss.html stated that 'San-kuo-shih or Three Country Record does not use the distance unit of"li" to be 435 meters as used during the Chin or Han dynasty Period. but rather it uses the unit adopted by the Wei and Western Chin dynasties, which is that one "li" is approxinately 77 meters.'
             
            In late 630s, Tang intervened in the civil wars of Korea.   The son of the khan of Xueyantuo took advantage of emperor Taizong's first Korean expedition in attacking Tang south of the Yellow River.   Xueyantuo tribe fled when they heard of Taizong's return from Manchuria.   But, at this moment, tribes of the Huihe (Uygur), who were appointed to the Hanhai prefecture, came to the aid of Tang and attacked Xueyantuo tribe together with Tang army consisting of several columns of various nomads from Liang and Dai prefectures.   Around AD 640, the Uygurs helped Tang army in successfully quelling the rebellion of Xueyantuo.   Tribes of the Uygur killed the khan of Xueyantuo tribe and hence controlled north Mongolia where Xueyantuo once held.   Emperor Taizong re-zoned the northwestern territories into six fu (prefecture or province) and seven zhou (prefecture). 
             
            After the north was settled, in AD 639 Tang Emperor Taizong attacked the Chouci State in the west, which wavered in its loyalty between Tang Dynasty and the Western Khanate.   In AD 641-648, Tang defeated Western Khante and controlled today's New Dominion Province and areas west of the Pamir Mountains.   However, in the north, there arose, after the defeat of the Xueyantuo, a remnant eastern Turkic khan.  
             
            In AD 649, Emperor Taizong, again with help from Uygurs, campaigned against the north.   In the same year, Emperor Taizong (T'ai-tsong) died.   Altogether images of 14 khans had been inscribed on the stones and stood beside Taizong's tomb after one khan's request to be funerary object buried alive was rejected by succeeding emperor, Gaozong.   After Taizong's death, General Gao Kan, under Emperor Gaozong, would soon capture the last remnant eastern khan and the Eastern Khanate was put to rest for the time being. 

             
            Eastern and Western Turks would rebell against Tang several times thereafter.   For almost a hundred years, the Uygurs would assert control over north Mongolia in competition with the remaining Turks who re-established Eastern Khanate in AD 682/683 in Mongolia.   Tang's civil minister Fei Xingjian would be responsible for quelling the Eastern Turkic rebellion in AD 680 and in AD 681 via strategies like 'hiding soldiers inside the grain carts' and 'offering 10,000 liang (a unit of weight similar to ounce) gold for the head of the khan'.   Fei, earlier, escorted Persian Prince on his way Persia and captured the western Turkic khan who sought suzerainty from the Tibetans. Persian Prince, however, was afraid of going further to Persia. He stayed around Suiye, failed to organize any army, and then returned to Chang'an where he spent the rest of his life.   Remnant Western Turks, under Tibetan suzerainty, would set up Turkic Khanate in the Tarim Basin in AD 691, to be defeated in AD 692 by Governor-General Tang Xiujing of Xizhou prefecture who re-took the four cities of Chouci (Kuqa), Yutian (Hotan), Shule (Kashi) and Suiye (today's Tokmok in Kyrgyzstan).  
             
            The eastern Turks would ally with the Khitans in attacking Tang.   Khitans were given royla family name of Li by Emperor Taizong in early times and once followed Taizong in his Korean campaigns.   Khitans first rebelled against Tang in AD 656-661 and again in AD 696.   The eastern Turks (namely, Orkhon Turks) would ally with the Khitans in attacking Tang. Certainly, the Turks and Khitans were adversaries as well. Orchon Turks, under Khan Muchuo, would attack the Khitans as well. Tang mobilized an army of hundreds of thousands and defeated the Khitans. Hence, the Khitans fled to the Turks for protection. The Eastern Turks obtained in AD 697 from Empress Wu Zetian the old Turkic territories of six Tang prefectures, Pingzhou, Shenzhou, Lingzhou, Xiazhou, Suozhou and Dai (Daizhou), and moreover, sought for his daughter the marriage with Chinese royal family.   When Empress Wu Zetian sent her family's prince to the Turks, Khan Muchuo got angry after learning that his duaghter was not to marry the Tang royal family of Li.   Khan Muchuo held Prince Wu as a hostage and campaigned against Wu Zetian on behalf of Tang's emperors (two Li emperors, both Wu's sons, who were deprived of rights and placed in palace arrest).   Khan Muchuo killed 80-90 thousand people in two prefectures of Dingzhou and Zhaozhou and retreated.  
             
            In AD 700, two Tang nomadic generals defeated the Khitans again. In AD 712, Khitans submitted to Tang and was conferred King of Songmuo Prefecture. Heads of eight Khitan tribes were conferred general posts as well. A Tang royal family princess, Princess Yongle, was sent to Khitan khan as wife.
             
            The Turks and the Tang Chinese had seesaw warfare, till dethroned Emperor Zhongzong got restored in AD 705.   Emperor Xuanzong, in AD 712, defeated the Eastern Turkic Khan Muchuo and won over the defection of Muchuo's brother-in-law.   However, the glorious days under Emperor Taizong were gone.
             
            Orhkon Turks:   History said the Tang Chinese conspired to have the Uygurs and Karlaks attack the Orkhon Turks (i.e., Eastern Turks) under Khan Muchuo (Mo-ch'o). To check the Orkhon Turks, Tang Chinese also allied with the Western Turks called Turgesh who were situated in today's Ili, the land between the Arabs and the Chinese, from AD 716 to AD 733. After Khan Mochuo was killed by Turkic tribesmen, the Orkhon Turks came to term with Chinese, and their successors were said to have erected two stone monuments cursing the Chinese for the treachery and their tribesmen for betrayal. The Orkhon Khante would end in the hands of the Uygurs and the Karluks. Though defeated, Chinese history said the Eastern Turks were still paying pilgrimage to Tang Dynasty regularly. The remaining Orkhon Turks were not heard from after China's Five Dynasties.  

             
            The Uygur tribes had reblled with the Eastern Turks against Tang, but also fighted the Turks.   In AD 661-663. Uygurs and other Turkic tribes rebelled against Tang, but was quelled by General Heli (of nomadic background) and General Xue Rengui.   Xue did a barbaric thing by burying tens of thousands of Uygurs in a valley though the Uyguys had surrendered earlier.   (General Xue is another Tang general famous for "Three Arrows Quelling Tianshan Mountains" and "Eastern Expeditions Against Korea".)   General Xue would later die in Daizhou prefecture, while on his way to quelling the rebellion of Eastern Turks who were earlier quelled by Tang's Fei Xingjian in AD 680 and in AD 681.
             
            Turgesh Turks rebelled against Chinese in AD 739 and were defeated. In AD 741, General Kao Hsien-chih (Gao Xianzhi) led the troops into Turkistan. (Gao Xianzhi was spelled Kao-hsien-chih or Ko Son-ji in Korean. Gao was the son of Korguryo General Ko Sagye who was captured by Tang army and then served Tang Dynasty.) In AD 744/45, Uygurs defeated the Turks in Mongolia and established the first Uygur Empire and made the city of Karabalgasun on the banks of the Orkhun River as its capital. In AD 747, General Kao defeated the Tibetans near Gilgit in the Hindu Kush mountains and checked the expansion of the Arabs over the passes of the Pamirs to the upper valley of the Amu-darya. (http://pears2.lib.ohio-state.edu/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/aurel.htm has a good article about Gao's expedition at Gilgit Pass, entitled "A CHINESE EXPEDITION ACROSS THE PAMIRS AND HINDUKUSH, A.D.747.", BY SIR AUREL STEIN, K.C.I.E. It compared Gao'a accomplishment to Hannibal's expedition across the Alps with North Africa elephants.) In AD 747-749, General Kao also defeated the Karluks who had replaced the Turgesh Turks as a power in the area. In AD 748, the Chinese invaded the Ferghana Valley where Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan converge. (Turkmenistan is to the west of the Ferghana Valley). In AD 750, General Kao's crushing of the Tashkent Kingdom led to a Turkic rebellion. In AD 751, Tang Chinese army of 30 thousand, led by general Kao-hsien-chih (governor-general of the four cities of Chouci-Yutian-Shule-Suiye), were invited by locals to counter Arab invasion. But the Karluks defected to the Arabs. Kao's army were defeated by the alliance of the Arabs and the Karluks. Hence the Karluks controlled today's western China while the Uygurs controlled Mongolia and the Gobi.
             
            Among the prisoners of war, quite a few Chinese possessed special skills, like weaving expert Le Yu. They were relocated to the Arab Peninsula where they relayed the paper technology. One young man, by the name of Du Huan, had later visited North Africa, he later returned to Tang China, and he wrote a book called Jing Xing Ji, i.e., Records Of Passing Through. Du Huan's uncle, Historian Du You, included a section of the travelogue in the encyclopedia 'Tong Dian'.
             
            The Khitans would continue its developments in power, and by middle of AD 750s, they defeated the Tang army led by An Lushan. An Lushan earlier had led an army of hundreds of thousands and tried to quell Khitan rebellion with a Xi nomad guide. Tang nomadic general An Lushan's rebellion (An-Shi rebellion) broke out in Oct, AD 755. This will bring about Tang's decline. Khitans later submitted to Uygurs. It would be in AD 842 that Khitans came to submit to Tang again after the Uygurs were destroyed by the Kirghiz. Governor-general of Youzhou, Zhang Zhongwu, would replace Khitan's Uygur seal with Tang seal. In AD 860s, Khitans came to pay pilgrimages. With the demise of Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907), Khitans began to conquer Xi nomads and Shewei statelets. They began to raid into northern China again. Governor-general Liu Rengong counter-attacked them. Later Liu Shouguang defeated them again, and peace ensued for 10 years.

             
            Western Khnanate, Persians, Indians & Tibetans   :
                    The khan of Western Khnanate had once followed Sui Emperor Yangdi's call in the Korean campaign.   This same khan had come to see Tang's first emperor Gaozu, i.e., Li Yuan, but he was killed by his Turkic rivals for his obedience to Tang emperor when he returned to Western Khanate.   After several rounds of internal killings, western Turks invited a royal family member of the Eastern Khanate to be their new khan, but Western Khanate was divided into two parts, with northern court controlled by the new khan and sourthern court of Western Khanate controlled by the descendant of ex-khan of Western Khanate.   The northern court later subdued the southern court.  Western Turkic Khanate would be dispersed by the Tang's westward expansion in 651 AD. The Tibetans would compete with the Tang Chinese for the control of this area. In this area, there would be Turkic tribes like the Turgesh and the Karlaks (Qarluk).
             
            Previously, we had said that with the help of the Uygurs, Tang Emperor Taizong quelled the rebellion of the Xueyantuo Turkic tribe in north Mongolia and attacked the Chouci State in the west which wavered in its loyalty between Tang and the Western Khanate.   AD 641-648, Tang defeated Western Khante and controlled today's New Dominion Province and areas west of the Pamir Mountains. 
             
            In Western Khanate, one usurper proclaimed himself Khan Shaboluo and attacked Tang border post of Tingzhou prefecture.   Emperor Gaozong sent an army of 30 thousand led by nomadic general He Li (who was cut off an ear previously by an eastern khan for refusing to surrender to Eastern Khanate) and called upon an Uygur army of 50 thousand in campaigning against Western Khanate.   This first campaign ended prematurely when the palace struggles between Empress Wu Zetian and two other empressess erupted.   Emperor Gaozong took the rein from AD 649 to 683, but Gaozong's wife, Empress Wu Zetian, had assumed actual power over Emperor Gaozong much earlier than AD 690 when she proclaimed herself 'emperor' (empress), lasting till AD 705.   Wu later killed two of her 4 sons and by AD 690, she killed dozens of royal family members of Li and ministers and generals, including Paekche (Korean) General Heichichang-zi.
             
            Years later, Yehu the son of ex-khan of Western Khanate invited Tang army to jointly attack the usurper khan Shaboluo.   Tang sent governor-general Yuan Lichen of Fengzhou prefecture to the city of Suiye to help make Yehu into a khan.   Tang General Su Dingfang, who would, later in AD 662-666, cross the sea from Mount Chengshan to campaign in Korea and aid Shilla in defeating both Paekche/Koguryo & Japanese (whose 100 warships were burnt by General Liu Rengui during the campaign), led the Uygurs in attacking the usurper khan of Western Khanate from the north.   General Su released two Western Khanate generals in an attempt to encircle the western khan.   One of the two Western Khanate general would later kill Khan Yehu and become the new khan of the Western Khanate, and the other general was made into a khan by Tang Dynasty, too, maybe in an attempt to have the two new khans check on each other.   Around AD 657, the Western Turks were thoroughly defeated. Altogether 10 family names of western Turks surrendered to Tang.   Tang would set up two extra "Protector_General (Marshal Presidio) Offices" in the territories of Western Khanate, including Marshal-Presidio Kunling.   By AD 659, Tang Chinese forces subjugated Transoxiana (Western Turkic Khanate). Marshal-Presidio Kunling office would be in charge of about 9 kingdoms situated in and around Samarkand, Tashkent and Merv and 16 others in Kashmir, Afghanistan and Iran. Tang Chinese would retain the control of Oxus valley till the Arabs came in AD 751, with interruptions of Turkic rebellion in between.
             
            In the old territories of Chouci State, Emperor Gaozong released the son of ex-khan of Chouci from the Tang capital.   Emperor Gaozong relocated the Anxi Protector_General (Marshal Presidio) Office to Chouci Statelet from Gaochang Statelet, making the Protector_General (Marshal Presidio) Office in charge of Chouci (Kuqa), Yutian (Hotan), Shule (Kashi) and Suiye (today's Tokmok in Kyrgyzstan), and 16 other tribal states, altogether 80 fu and zhou
             
            The two new khans of Western Khanate would fight each other soon.   Khan Buzhen slandered Khan Mishe by telling Marshal-Governor Su Haizhen that Khan Mishe would rebel.   Su Haizhen, fearing that his marshal-governor office did not have enough soldiers, decided to take initiative first.   Su Haizhen cheated Khan Mishe into a party and killed him. Khan Mishe's people fled southwestward to Tibet.   Soon Khan Buzhen died, and the 10 families of Western Khanate all went to Tibet to seek the suzerainty of the Tibetans.   Tibetans were invited by the Turks in fighting the Tang Chinese.
             
            Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo, who obtained Princess Wencheng from Emperor Taizong, died in AD 650.   At the time of Songtsen Gampo, Tibetans had once helped Tang emissary in attacking middle India (one of five Indian kingdoms of the time) when the Tang emissary was assaulted by the new Indian king.   Zanpu's young grandson would be the new Tibetan king.   Tibetan prime minister Ludongzan and his four sons had the actual power over Tibet.   Ludongzan, together with 10 families of Western Khanate, would first attack Tangut, Tibet's number one rival. Tang Emperor Gaozong was asked to intervene by the Tanguts.   Emperor Gaozong rejected two Tibetan requests:   1) the land of Chisui (i.e., red water), and 2) Tibetan intermarriage with the Tanguts.   Tibetan prime minister Ludongzan hence obtained the aid of the Yutian (Hotan) people and took over 18 prefectures in western territories, including the Chouci Statelet.   General Xue Rengui, in AD 670, was ordered to quell the Tibetan rebellion, but he was defeated by Ludongzan's 400 thousand troops due to the fact that his logistics general lost all equipment and supplies to the Tibetans.   General Xue negotiated a peace treaty in which Tang would promise not to enter the Tangut territory.   When Xue returned to the capital, he was demoted into a civilian and would not be recalled till the Eastern Turks rebelled in the north in AD 680-681.   Hence, Tibet entered Tangut territory and relocated all Tanguts to the Lingzhou prefecture which was already taken over by the Tibetans.   In AD 678, Emperor Kaozong campaigned against Tibet again, but defeated by the Tibetans.
             
            Ad 681, a Western Turkic Khan by the name of Ashina (Ah'shina Duozhi), together with Tibetans, attacked Tang's Anxi Marshal Presidio. Emperor Gaozong ordered the release of Persian Prince in the attempt of having the Persians impede the Western Turks.  In early times, the Persian King died in the hands of the Arabs. The new Persian King, Beirusi, sought the help of Tang Chinese by sending his son Niniesi to Tang capital. Tang had made the city of Jiling as the marshal-governor office and designated Persian King Beirusi as the Persian Marshal.  Tang civil minister Fei Xingjian was ordered to accompany Persian prince back to Persia.  When Fei passed the land of Western Turks, he led a column of tribal leaders from Anxi Protector_General (Marshal Presidio) nomads, and captured the Turkic Khan Duozhi via a surprise strategy: Fei earlier broadcasted that he would go west after the season and the Turkic khan took Fei's words for granted and hence did not make preparations for defence. Fei asked Persian Prince to continue the trip back to his country, and he re-constructed the city of Suiye, and delegated the power of Anxi Protector_General (Marshal Presidio) to his general Wang Fangyi.  (Persian Prince never reached his homeland. After some futile attempts to rally his people, he returned to Tang capital and spent his rest of the life in China. Later, Fei Xingjian would be responsible for quelling the Eastern Turkic rebellion in AD 680 and in AD 681 via similar strategies, like hiding soldiers inside the grain carts and offering 10,000 liang(ounce?) gold for the head of the khan.  In AD 682, Western Turks rebelled again, and Fei was ordered to go west, but he died on the road at the age of 64. His general Wang Fangyi would succeed in quelling the Western Turks thereafter.
             
            In AD 692, Governor-General Tang Xiujing of Xizhou prefecture defeated Tibetans and re-took the four cities of Chouci (Kuqa), Yutian (Hotan), Shule (Kashi) and Suiye (today's Tokmok in Kyrgyzstan). In AD 696, Tibetans sought peace with Tang, requesting: i) that Tang revoke the administrations in the four cities, and ii) that Tibet & Tang divide the 10 Western Turkic families into two halves. But Tang rejected the request. Shortly therefafter, the Tibetan king killed the sons of his previous prime minister, with only one surviving son of Ludongzan fleeing to Tang with 7000 tents of Tangut people. Tang had quite some good news around that time. The Khitans in the east were also quelled by two Khitan generals who had surrendered to Tang earlier. However, in AD 712, Khitans colluded with Eastern Turks again in attacking Tang. As to Tibet, it had an internal revolt in the south of Tibetan Plateau, and Tibetan king sought peace with Tang again. When Emperor Zhongzong was restored in AD 705, he had promised to have princess Jincheng (daughter of a Tang duke-king) marry with the son of the Tibetan king.  After Tibetan king died, his seven year old son got enthroned. In AD 710, Emperor Ruizong sent Prince Jincheng to Tibet to marry the new Tibetan king who just grew up, together with a patch of land called Qiuqu (nine winding) in Hexi (west of the Yellow River) as a gift.  In AD 714, Tibetans invaded Lanwei (today's Lanzhou & Wei River) areas, using the Qiuqu land as a bridge. Tang General Wang Jun selected 700 brave soldiers to have them dress in the Tibetan clothes and sneaked into the Tibetan camp. General Wang, using the strategy, had caused Tibetan internal fights at night to the extent of almost 10,000 deaths. Tibetans, however, continued to encroach upon Tang capitals from the territories of Tangut and Qiuqu. 
             
            SIR Aurel Stein's article (http://pears2.lib.ohio-state.edu/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/aurel.htm) mentioned the precarious situations Chinese faced at that time, i.e., the allied attacks by the Arabs and Tibetans. Arabs, in AD 670, had conquered Tokharistan, the important territory on the middle Oxus of present Afghan. Between A.D. 705 and 715, Arab general Qotaiba had taken over Sogdiana, the land between Oxus and Yaxartes. In A.D. 741, Tibetans advanced to the Oxus valley and joined hands with the Arabs. The Tibetans utilized the line leading down the Indus from Ladak through Baltistan (the Great P'o-lu of the Chinese Annals) to the Hindukush territories of Gilgit and Yasin (both comprised the Little P'o-lu of the Chinese records). SIR Aurel Stein stated that "Great P'o-lu, i.e., Baltistan, had already become subject to them (Tibetans) before A.D. 722. About that time they attacked ... Little P'o-lu, declaring, as the T'ang Annals tell us, to Mo-chin-mang its king: 'It is not your kingdom which we covet, but we wish to use your route in order to attack the Four Garrisons (i.e., the Chinese in the Tarim basin).' In A.D. 722 timely military aid rendered by the Chinese enabled this king to defeat the Tibetan design. But after three changes of reign the Tibetans won over his successor Su-shih-li-chih, and inducing him to marry a Tibetan princess secured a footing in 'Little P'o-lu'... Thereupon, in the words of the T'ang shu, more than twenty kingdoms to the north-west became all subject to the Tibetans... These events occurred shortly after A.D. 741."
             
            Tang Emperor Xuanzong (Hsuan-tsang), in A.D. 747, ordered that the Deputy Protector Kao Hsien-chih command the military forces in the Tarim basin. "With a force of 10,000 cavalry and infantry, Kao Hsien-chih started in the spring of A.D. 747 from Anxi (An-hsi), then the headquarters of the Chinese administration in the Tarim basin and corresponding to the present town and oasis of Kucha. In thirty-five days he reached Su-le, or Kashgar, through Ak-su and by the great caravan road leading along the foot of the T'ien-shan. Twenty days more brought his force to the military post of the Congling (T'sung-ling) Mountains, i.e., the Pamirs, established in the position of the present Tashkurghan in Sarikol. Thence by a march of twenty days the valley of Po-mi or the Pamirs, was gained, and after another twenty days Kao Hsien-chih arrived in the kingdom of the five Shih-ni, i.e., the present Shighnan on the Oxus."
             
            In AD 750, General Kao's crushing of the Tashkent Kingdom led to a Turkic rebellion. In AD 751, Tang Chinese army of 30 thousand, led by general Kao-hsien-chih (governor-general of the four cities of Chouci-Yutian-Shule-Suiye), were invited by locals to counter Arab invasion. But the Karluks defected to the Arabs. Kao's army were defeated by the alliance of the Arabs and the Karluks. Hence the Karluks controlled today's western China while the Uygurs controlled Mongolia and the Gobi.
             
            Nationalist Uygurs, at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/1730/buh.html, stated that "In 670, 688, 692 A.D., the Uygurs, the Kok Turk and the Shato joined the Tibetan Armies in their military expeditions in capturing the Chinese invasion strongholds in north and northeast Central Asia." This is erroneous statement in saying the Uygurs were the same Turks as those, 10 families of Western Khanate, who sought refuge and suzerainty with the Tibetans. The Uygurs had always been a distinguished tribal name in Tang's records, and they had initially helped Tang in quelling the Xueyantuo Tribe rebellion in the north and hence relocated to north Mongolia where they eventually established their own kingdom in ADD 744 after defeating the Turks. In the west, the Uygurs did send troops in tens of thousands during Tang's campaign against the Western Turkic Khanate and small tribal states like Chouci.  The Uygur role was apparently that of a Tang accomplice.
             
            Later, Tang General An Lu Shan's rebellion broke out in 755 A.D. and the Uygurs were invited by Su-tsung (Suzong), the Hsuan-tsung's (Xuanzong) successor, to send armies to help the Tang Chinese. "In this event, the Uygur forces played a key(?) role in the recapture of both Chang-An (Chang'an) and Lo-yang (Luoyang) in 757. The Uygurs did not hesitate to exploit the Tang Dynastic debt owed them, by acts of appalling pillage. The Chinese emperor agreed to pay 20,000 rolls of silk as a tribute annually to the Uygurs and granted the Uygur Khagan one of his daughters in marriage. She was the first of three princesses of the Chinese imperial family to become a Uygur khatun (wife) in the period 744-840 A.D."  We will touch on this episode in the section An Shi Rebellion shortly.
             
             
            Turks, Uygurs, Arabs & Chinese
             
            AD 632 saw the death of Muhammad and beginning of the expansion of the Arab Muslim Empire. In 642, the Sassanian Shah Yazdigird was defeated by the Arabs at the Battle of Nahavand and the Sassanian Empire collapsed under the pressure of Arab raids in 642-51. c. 650, the Khazars of Khazar Khanate defeated the Alans and Bulgars, resulting in their domination of the Caucasus and the Volga region. 
             
            In 652, the Arabs first captured Khurasan. In 659, Tang Chinese forces, under Tang General Su Dingfang, penetrated into Transoxiana (Western Turkic Khanate). For one century, Tang controlled the Oxus Valley, till in 751 when the Arabs defeated the Chinese at the Battle of the Talas River. Tang would continuously fight both the Turks (who sought suzerainty with the Tibetans after Western Khanate was destroyed by Tang) and the Tibetans (who in AD 670 had taken over the Tangut territory after defeating Tang).
             
            In 667, the Arabs defeated Peroz, the last Sassanian shah, and first crossed the Oxus River (Amu Darya). In 673/74-704, the Arabs raided across the Oxus in an attempt to capture Bukhara and Soghd. In AD 682/83, the Turks revolted against the Chinese and re-established the Turkic Khanate in Mongolia, but were defeated by Tang's Fei Xingjian. In AD 689, the Arab occupied Termez. AD 691, Turks, under Tibetan suzerainty, re-established the Turkic Khanate in the Tarim Basin, but in AD 692, Governor-General Tang Xiujing of Xizhou prefecture defeated Tibetans and re-took the four cities of Chouci, Yutian, Shule and Suiye.
             
            In AD 705, the Arabs, under Qutayba ibn Muslim, launched a war against Transoxiana from Merv. In AD 709, the Arabs captured Bukhara and Samarkand. In AD 711, they captured Khiva and in AD 712 subdued Khwarezm and recaptured Samarkand. In AD 713, they sacked Kashgar.
             
            Western Turkic Khanate was dispersed by the Tang's westward expansion in 651 AD. It would be the Tibetans who competed with the Chinese for the control of this area. In this area, there would be Turkic tribes like the Turgesh and the Karlaks (Qarluk). In AD 714, the Chinese, under emperor Xuanzong, defeated the Turks at Lake Issuk-kul. In the fights with the Tibetans (with whom the Turks sought protection and suzerainty), Tang General Wang Jun selected 700 brave soldiers to have them dress in the Tibetan clothes and sneak into the Tibetan camp. General Wang, using the strategy, had led Tibetans into internal fights at night to the extent of almost 10,000 deaths. For the Turks, they were by that time under a precarious situations as they had to fight on two fronts, the Arabs to the south and the Chinese to the east. 
             
            In AD 715, the end of the Arab conquest of Transoxiana as a result of the death of Qutaiba. The Eastern Turkic Khanate continued its expansion under Khan Muchuo (Mo-ch'o or Motcho) by subjugating tribes such as the Kirghiz and the Karlak before his death in AD 716. Eastern Turkic Khanate would fall in AD 744 following the rebellion of the Basmil, Karlak and Uygur tribes. In AD 728, Arab attempted to forcibly convert Transoxiana to Islam, resulting in general revolt.
             
            In AD 744/45, the Uygurs defeated the Orkhon Turks in Mongolia and established the Uygur Empire. Uygurs, considered a vassal of Tang, would now controll north and west Mongolia, from Lake Balkash to Lake Baykal, till AD 840, almost a whole century. History said the Tang Chinese conspired to have the Uygurs and Karlaks attack the Orkhon Turks under Khan Muchuo (Mo-ch'o). To check the Orkhon Turks, Tang Chinese also allied with the Western Turks called Turgesh who were situated in today's Ili, between the Arabs and the Chinese, from AD 716 to AD 733. Chinese history said that the Or

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            • huseyin bayqara
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              • huseyin bayqara
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