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[ustav] Clerical Rank

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  • John E. Dean
    From: Daniel Olson In the current practice of the Russian Church, the clergy are divided into the following rankings: 1. Deacons: a. Deacon (non-monastic);
    Message 1 of 17 , Jan 4, 1999
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      From: Daniel Olson

      In the current practice of the Russian Church, the clergy are divided into
      the following rankings:

      1. Deacons:

      a. Deacon (non-monastic); hierodeacon (monastic). A further distinction is
      that a deacon or hierodeacon may be awarded the right to wear the double
      orarion.

      b. Protodeacon (non-monastic); archdeacon (monastic). A further
      distinction is that a protodeacon may be awarded the right to wear the
      kamilavka (this does not apply to an archdeacon).

      2. Presbyters

      a. Priest (non-monastic); hieromonk (monk) (a priest or hieromonk is given
      a plain silver cross at ordination). Further distinctions are (in order of
      award from lowest to highest): the nabedrinik, the skufia, the kamilavka
      and the gold pectoral cross.

      b. Protopriest (non-monastic) (sometimes incorrectly called an
      archpriest); hegoumen (sometimes spelled "igumen") (monastic) (sometimes
      also called an abbot). Further distinctions are (in order of award from
      lowest to highest): the palitsa and the jeweled pectoral cross. A
      protopriest may also be awarded the miter; the miter is not usually awarded
      to a hegoumen.

      c. Protopresbyter (non-monastic); archimandrite (monastic). Further
      awards that may be given are: the miter (to an archimandrite), the right to
      serve with the Royal Gates open and a second pectoral cross. Some
      archimandrites are also allowed certain episcopal acoutrements such as the
      dikiri and trikiri and the ripidi.

      3. Bishops (all are monastics)

      a. Bishop

      b. Archbishop. A further distinction is the right to wear a diamond cross
      on the klobuk.

      c. Metropolitan. A further distinction is the right to wear a second
      panagia.

      d. Patriarch.

      The following are some comments on the above information:

      a. Generally, "priest" is used to translate "svjashchenik" or "ierej"
      (equivalent of the Greek "iereus").

      b. There is no agreement about how to translate "protoierej." Some use
      "protopriest" while others use "archpriest". It would seem that
      "protopriest" is a more accurate translation. "Archpriest" is more correct
      as a translation of "archierej" (Greek "archiereus"), which is used
      exclusively to refer to a bishop.

      c. The origin of the word "priest" in English complicates things somewhat.
      The word "priest" is derived from the Latin "presbyter" (Greek
      "presbuteros"). However, the word "priest" eventually lost its meaning of
      "elder" and became more associated with the meaning of the Latin "sacerdos"
      (Greek "iereus"). Only later did the word "presbyter" enter the English
      language as such.

      d. The title "protopresbyter" in the Greek Church is apparently the same as
      the title "protopriest" in the Russian Church. The use of the title
      "protopresbyter" in the Russian Church as the highest title for married
      clergy is of rather recent introduction and of very limited usage. In the
      pre-revolutionary Russian Church there were only four positions that
      merited this title.

      e. Originally, the titles "hegoumen" and "archimandrite" were titles
      appropriate to the heads of monastic communities. Today, though, they are
      bestowed on monastic clergy solely as honorifics. In English terminology,
      sometimes "abbot" is used instead of "hegoumen." My personal feeling is
      that since "hegoumen" and "archimandrite" have become honorifics, it is
      better to use them as such and let the title "abbot" be used solely as a
      title for the actual head a monastic community. Thus, a hieromonk,
      hegoumen or archimandrite could also be the "abbot" of a particular
      monastic community (in theory, even a non-priest could be an "abbot," which
      was common in early monasticism).

      f. It appears that the Greek "epigonation" is the same vestment as the
      Russian "palitsa"; however, in the Russian usage it has nothing to do with
      the hearing confessions. In the Russian Church all priests may hear
      confessions.

      g. Apparently, in the Russian Empire all the ranks of the clergy had
      equivalent grades in the military and the civil service with corresponding
      titles as well.

      Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive source available on this subject.
      If anyone can provide additional information or correct any errors in the
      information provided above, I would be grateful.




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    • M�re Ottilia
      Actually there are some modifications concerning the clerical rank. For exemple, in the Russian Orthodox Church (Patriarcate of Moscow): 1. The titles of
      Message 2 of 17 , Jan 5, 1999
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        Actually there are some modifications concerning the clerical rank.
        For exemple, in the Russian Orthodox Church (Patriarcate of Moscow):

        1. The titles of metropolitan and archbishop are more conceded as it was
        in the past (especially since the Patriarch Pimen period), 20
        metropolitans and 52 archbishops (145 bishops for the whole episcopate).

        2. The "mantiya" (monastic cope) is black for all the monks but violet
        for bishops and archbishops, blue for metropolitan and green for the
        Patriarch. The one of archimandrit is black with violet or red
        "skrijals" as it is for the bishop but with a shorter dragging.

        Archimandrit Martin

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      • Rev. John R. Shaw
        Of course, we say the same phrase in the Russian Church, though the word, again, is not the one used to refer to an archpriest --the bishop is archierey ,
        Message 3 of 17 , Jan 5, 1999
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          Of course, we say the same phrase in the Russian Church, though the word,
          again, is not the one used to refer to an "archpriest"--the bishop is
          "archierey", the archpriest is "protoierey". The confusion of terms is
          only in English.

          On Mon, 4 Jan 1999, Fr. John Morris wrote:

          >
          >
          > Askfrjohn@... wrote:
          >
          > > As an interesting side note to this discussion... as I understand it, in
          > > Greek, the Bishop is called "Archpriest" (arche-heiros). The ranking then is
          > > Priest, Economos and Protopresbyter (or Archimandrite for celibate clergy).
          >
          > In the Antiochian tradition, when we bring the gifts to the bishop during the
          > Great Entrance, the priest, says, "Thy Archpriesthood, May the Lord God remember
          > in His heavenly kingdom, now and ever and unto ages of ages."
          >
          > Archpriest John W. Morris
          >
          >
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        • Rev. John R. Shaw
          Of course, all these details about clerical rank in the Russian Church could be extended further, since even the altar boys are included. The lowest rank is
          Message 4 of 17 , Jan 5, 1999
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            Of course, all these details about clerical rank in the Russian Church
            could be extended further, since even the altar boys are included. The
            lowest rank is that of "reader"; readers are evident because they read and
            receive Holy Communion in a sticharion. But some readers have a special
            decoration in the form of an orarion, such as is worn by subdeacons--I was
            one of those, long ago... Then subdeacons, aside from reading and
            communicating wearing their orarion, have the special privilege of taking
            objects from the Holy Table, though in most cases these are only the
            objects relating to the bishop--his mitre, cross, panagia. But there are
            some subdeacons who have a blessing to go through the Royal Gates
            (normally only the deacons can do this) but again, they may do this only
            with the bishop, at certain points in the service.
            In the seminary at Jordanville, all of these details of seniority
            were evident in the order in which seminarians would file up to venerate
            the icons and receive a blessing at the end of compline, and at some other
            times. Those who were not readers were ranked in seniority according to
            when they received a blessing to wear a podriasnik (cassock).


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          • Serge Keleher
            Daniel Olson writes that Further awards that may be given are: the miter (to an archimandrite), the right to serve with the Royal Gates open and a second
            Message 5 of 17 , Jan 5, 1999
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              Daniel Olson writes that "Further awards that may be given are: the
              miter (to an archimandrite), the right to serve with the Royal Gates open
              and a second pectoral cross. Some archimandrites are also allowed certain
              episcopal acoutrements such as the dikiri and trikiri and the ripidi."

              I was unaware that anyone was "awarding" the ripidia to
              archimandrites. Anything is possible, but such an award seems inexplicable.
              When a subdeacon is ordained to the diaconate, the ordaining hierarch
              presents the new deacon with the orarion (as worn by the deacon), the
              epimanikia (cuffs), and the ripidion. At each of these presentations, the
              hierarch proclaims the deacon "Axios" and all respond with the same
              acclamation. [Cf. "Chin Byvaemyj na xirotoniiu diakona", Chinovnik
              Arxiierejskago Sviashchennosluzheniia, Jordanville 1965, pp. 119 verso -
              123 recto, passage cited on p. 123 recto).
              In practice, if the number of deacons is insufficient, the
              subdeacons or even the acolytes may carry the ripidia in the Entrances and
              other processions, hold them during the reading of the Gospel, and during
              the Anaphora. These uses of the ripidia are permitted whether the celebrant
              of the Divine Liturgy is a bishop or a presbyter. However, presbyters
              never touch the ripidia during the divine services, so "awarding" the
              ripidia to an archimandrite would seem a pointless exercise. I possess a
              beautiful set of ripidia, but I certainly don't use them myself; the
              acolytes use them.
              Nevertheless, if there are any details on the awarding of the
              ripidia to archimandrites, I would very much appreciate the information.

              On a different point,, Daniel is quite correct in reporting that
              the "privilege" of serving Divine Liturgy with open Royal Doors is
              sometimes given as an award. Whether such an award is justifiable,
              laudable,or deplorable is another matter, and one which the Ustav group
              (ourselves, that is) could profitably discuss.
              To offer my own trenchant view: the opening and closing of the
              Royal Doors as prescribed by the Niconian service books (the order is
              slightly different in the Greek books, and different also in the
              pre-Niconian books) is by no means arbitrary, nor is it "demeaning" (?) to
              the priest. The strong pressure which would insist that Divine Liturgy be
              served with open Royal Doors seeks to deprive us of an element in the
              liturgical experience which has solid reasons, and which can reveal to us
              aspects of the Divine Liturgy which, in turn, will edify us and bring us
              closer to union with God in the Heavenly Kingdom. If the faithful complain
              that the closed Royal Doors make them feel "cut off" from the Altar, the
              solution is not to open the Royal Doors, but rather to provide a deacon.
              An ecclesiastical award to a cleric normally adds something: a
              kalymavkion, an epigonation, a gold or jewelled Cross, a mitre. To *remove*
              a liturgical element from a cleric and call this deprivation an *award* is
              nonsense, and could be treated with reductio ad absurdum only too easily.
              Nobody would suggest that a priest should receive an *award* entitling him
              to serve Divine Liturgy without vestments, for example. Nobody would
              suggest that a cleric should receive an *award* exempting him from the
              veneration of icons.
              The "awarding" of the right to serve Divine Liturgy with open Royal
              Doors to certain archimandrites (and even, occasionally, to certain
              Mitrophoric Archpriests) is an imitation of the Hierarchal Divine Liturgy,
              but lacks the reasons which obtain for the Hierarchal Liturgy in which, for
              example, the Royal Doors are kept open during the Enarxis because otherwise
              they would appear to be closed "in the bishop's face", so to speak, at a
              moment when that would not be appropriate. This consideration does not at
              all obtain for an archimandrite or a mitred archpriest, neither of whom
              would stand on the kathedra in the center of the temple when serving as
              main celebrant at the Divine Liturgy.
              Instead, the *awarding* of this dubious privilege can only increase
              the pressure on all priests to serve with open Royal Doors throughout the
              Liturgy. For this excellent reason, it would be well for such an *award* to
              cease, and for anyone offered such an award to express respectful gratitude
              but respond that he is unable to accept this particular distinction.
              On a positive note, it will be well for all concerned to develop a
              heightened awareness of the importance of the Royal Doors, and to encourage
              the service of the deacons.
              (Archimandrite) Serge

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            • David James
              Daniel: If a priest is awarded, for example, the purple skufia and the next award he receives is the gold cross, does the awarding of the gold cross include
              Message 6 of 17 , Jan 5, 1999
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                Daniel:

                If a priest is awarded, for example, the purple skufia and the next award he
                receives is the gold cross, does the awarding of the gold cross include the
                right to wear the kamilavka? Or may awards be given "out of turn," so to
                speak, and each honor must be awarded specifically? In the latest issue of
                Orthodox Life, it appears from the minutes of the Bishops' Council that one
                priest was recently ordained as an Archpriest and, less than a year later,
                raised to the rank of Protopriest. In this case, what is the difference
                between an archpriest and a protopriest?

                David James

                > -----Original Message-----
                > From: John E. Dean [SMTP:73631.1671@...]
                > Sent: Monday, January 04, 1999 5:30 PM
                > To: Ustav
                > Subject: [ustav] Clerical Rank
                >
                > From: Daniel Olson
                >
                > In the current practice of the Russian Church, the clergy are divided into
                > the following rankings:
                >
                > 1. Deacons:
                >
                > a. Deacon (non-monastic); hierodeacon (monastic). A further distinction
                > is
                > that a deacon or hierodeacon may be awarded the right to wear the double
                > orarion.
                >
                > b. Protodeacon (non-monastic); archdeacon (monastic). A further
                > distinction is that a protodeacon may be awarded the right to wear the
                > kamilavka (this does not apply to an archdeacon).
                >
                > 2. Presbyters
                >
                > a. Priest (non-monastic); hieromonk (monk) (a priest or hieromonk is
                > given
                > a plain silver cross at ordination). Further distinctions are (in order
                > of
                > award from lowest to highest): the nabedrinik, the skufia, the kamilavka
                > and the gold pectoral cross.
                >
                > b. Protopriest (non-monastic) (sometimes incorrectly called an
                > archpriest); hegoumen (sometimes spelled "igumen") (monastic) (sometimes
                > also called an abbot). Further distinctions are (in order of award from
                > lowest to highest): the palitsa and the jeweled pectoral cross. A
                > protopriest may also be awarded the miter; the miter is not usually
                > awarded
                > to a hegoumen.
                >
                > c. Protopresbyter (non-monastic); archimandrite (monastic). Further
                > awards that may be given are: the miter (to an archimandrite), the right
                > to
                > serve with the Royal Gates open and a second pectoral cross. Some
                > archimandrites are also allowed certain episcopal acoutrements such as the
                > dikiri and trikiri and the ripidi.
                >
                > 3. Bishops (all are monastics)
                >
                > a. Bishop
                >
                > b. Archbishop. A further distinction is the right to wear a diamond
                > cross
                > on the klobuk.
                >
                > c. Metropolitan. A further distinction is the right to wear a second
                > panagia.
                >
                > d. Patriarch.
                >
                > The following are some comments on the above information:
                >
                > a. Generally, "priest" is used to translate "svjashchenik" or "ierej"
                > (equivalent of the Greek "iereus").
                >
                > b. There is no agreement about how to translate "protoierej." Some use
                > "protopriest" while others use "archpriest". It would seem that
                > "protopriest" is a more accurate translation. "Archpriest" is more
                > correct
                > as a translation of "archierej" (Greek "archiereus"), which is used
                > exclusively to refer to a bishop.
                >
                > c. The origin of the word "priest" in English complicates things
                > somewhat.
                > The word "priest" is derived from the Latin "presbyter" (Greek
                > "presbuteros"). However, the word "priest" eventually lost its meaning of
                > "elder" and became more associated with the meaning of the Latin
                > "sacerdos"
                > (Greek "iereus"). Only later did the word "presbyter" enter the English
                > language as such.
                >
                > d. The title "protopresbyter" in the Greek Church is apparently the same
                > as
                > the title "protopriest" in the Russian Church. The use of the title
                > "protopresbyter" in the Russian Church as the highest title for married
                > clergy is of rather recent introduction and of very limited usage. In the
                > pre-revolutionary Russian Church there were only four positions that
                > merited this title.
                >
                > e. Originally, the titles "hegoumen" and "archimandrite" were titles
                > appropriate to the heads of monastic communities. Today, though, they are
                > bestowed on monastic clergy solely as honorifics. In English terminology,
                > sometimes "abbot" is used instead of "hegoumen." My personal feeling is
                > that since "hegoumen" and "archimandrite" have become honorifics, it is
                > better to use them as such and let the title "abbot" be used solely as a
                > title for the actual head a monastic community. Thus, a hieromonk,
                > hegoumen or archimandrite could also be the "abbot" of a particular
                > monastic community (in theory, even a non-priest could be an "abbot,"
                > which
                > was common in early monasticism).
                >
                > f. It appears that the Greek "epigonation" is the same vestment as the
                > Russian "palitsa"; however, in the Russian usage it has nothing to do with
                > the hearing confessions. In the Russian Church all priests may hear
                > confessions.
                >
                > g. Apparently, in the Russian Empire all the ranks of the clergy had
                > equivalent grades in the military and the civil service with corresponding
                > titles as well.
                >
                > Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive source available on this subject.
                > If anyone can provide additional information or correct any errors in the
                > information provided above, I would be grateful.
                >
                >
                >
                >
                > ------------------------------------------------------------------------
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                > We are there. Join us...
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                >
                >
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              • Fekula, Peter
                Without getting too mired in details on this subject, I seem to recall instances of people who had been protodeacons for a many, many years who were ordained
                Message 7 of 17 , Jan 5, 1999
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                  Without getting too mired in details on this subject, I seem to recall
                  instances of people who had been protodeacons for a many, many years who
                  were ordained to the priesthood as protopriests immediately (I suppose it's
                  possible they were ordained as priests (ierei), then elevated to protopriest
                  at the next Liturgy, but I don't recall that as having been the case). I
                  believe they went straight from protodeacon to protopriest.

                  I'm also familiar with an instance in which a protodeacon with a kamilavka
                  was ordained to the priesthood (as a priest, not a protopriest) with the
                  right to continue wearing his kamilavka -- that is, he wore it on the day of
                  his ordination to the priesthood. And since that award comes after the
                  nabedrennik, he had the right to wear the nabedrennik by default, although
                  it was never officially given to him.

                  It can get confusing.

                  Peter Fekula
                  ----------
                  From: ustav
                  To: ustav
                  Subject: [ustav] Re: Clerical Rank
                  Date: Tuesday, January 05, 1999 3:54PM

                  I think in this case there must be some error somewhere. An archpriest is
                  the same as a proto-priest, and no one is ever ordained directly to have
                  either title.
                  Normally the sequence would be nabedrennik-skufia-kamilavka, then
                  either the gold cross OR protopriest, as those two may be in either order.

                  On Tue, 5 Jan 1999, David James wrote:

                  > Daniel:
                  >
                  > If a priest is awarded, for example, the purple skufia and the next award
                  he
                  > receives is the gold cross, does the awarding of the gold cross include
                  the
                  > right to wear the kamilavka? Or may awards be given "out of turn," so to
                  > speak, and each honor must be awarded specifically? In the latest issue of
                  > Orthodox Life, it appears from the minutes of the Bishops' Council that
                  one
                  > priest was recently ordained as an Archpriest and, less than a year later,
                  > raised to the rank of Protopriest. In this case, what is the difference
                  > between an archpriest and a protopriest?
                  >
                  > David James
                  >
                  > > -----Original Message-----
                  > > From: John E. Dean [SMTP:73631.1671@...]
                  > > Sent: Monday, January 04, 1999 5:30 PM
                  > > To: Ustav
                  > > Subject: [ustav] Clerical Rank
                  > >
                  > > From: Daniel Olson
                  > >
                  > > In the current practice of the Russian Church, the clergy are divided
                  into
                  > > the following rankings:
                  > >
                  > > 1. Deacons:
                  > >
                  > > a. Deacon (non-monastic); hierodeacon (monastic). A further distinction
                  > > is
                  > > that a deacon or hierodeacon may be awarded the right to wear the double
                  > > orarion.
                  > >
                  > > b. Protodeacon (non-monastic); archdeacon (monastic). A further
                  > > distinction is that a protodeacon may be awarded the right to wear the
                  > > kamilavka (this does not apply to an archdeacon).
                  > >
                  > > 2. Presbyters
                  > >
                  > > a. Priest (non-monastic); hieromonk (monk) (a priest or hieromonk is
                  > > given
                  > > a plain silver cross at ordination). Further distinctions are (in order
                  > > of
                  > > award from lowest to highest): the nabedrinik, the skufia, the kamilavka
                  > > and the gold pectoral cross.
                  > >
                  > > b. Protopriest (non-monastic) (sometimes incorrectly called an
                  > > archpriest); hegoumen (sometimes spelled "igumen") (monastic) (sometimes
                  > > also called an abbot). Further distinctions are (in order of award from
                  > > lowest to highest): the palitsa and the jeweled pectoral cross. A
                  > > protopriest may also be awarded the miter; the miter is not usually
                  > > awarded
                  > > to a hegoumen.
                  > >
                  > > c. Protopresbyter (non-monastic); archimandrite (monastic). Further
                  > > awards that may be given are: the miter (to an archimandrite), the right
                  > > to
                  > > serve with the Royal Gates open and a second pectoral cross. Some
                  > > archimandrites are also allowed certain episcopal acoutrements such as
                  the
                  > > dikiri and trikiri and the ripidi.
                  > >
                  > > 3. Bishops (all are monastics)
                  > >
                  > > a. Bishop
                  > >
                  > > b. Archbishop. A further distinction is the right to wear a diamond
                  > > cross
                  > > on the klobuk.
                  > >
                  > > c. Metropolitan. A further distinction is the right to wear a second
                  > > panagia.
                  > >
                  > > d. Patriarch.
                  > >
                  > > The following are some comments on the above information:
                  > >
                  > > a. Generally, "priest" is used to translate "svjashchenik" or "ierej"
                  > > (equivalent of the Greek "iereus").
                  > >
                  > > b. There is no agreement about how to translate "protoierej." Some use
                  > > "protopriest" while others use "archpriest". It would seem that
                  > > "protopriest" is a more accurate translation. "Archpriest" is more
                  > > correct
                  > > as a translation of "archierej" (Greek "archiereus"), which is used
                  > > exclusively to refer to a bishop.
                  > >
                  > > c. The origin of the word "priest" in English complicates things
                  > > somewhat.
                  > > The word "priest" is derived from the Latin "presbyter" (Greek
                  > > "presbuteros"). However, the word "priest" eventually lost its meaning
                  of
                  > > "elder" and became more associated with the meaning of the Latin
                  > > "sacerdos"
                  > > (Greek "iereus"). Only later did the word "presbyter" enter the English
                  > > language as such.
                  > >
                  > > d. The title "protopresbyter" in the Greek Church is apparently the same
                  > > as
                  > > the title "protopriest" in the Russian Church. The use of the title
                  > > "protopresbyter" in the Russian Church as the highest title for married
                  > > clergy is of rather recent introduction and of very limited usage. In
                  the
                  > > pre-revolutionary Russian Church there were only four positions that
                  > > merited this title.
                  > >
                  > > e. Originally, the titles "hegoumen" and "archimandrite" were titles
                  > > appropriate to the heads of monastic communities. Today, though, they
                  are
                  > > bestowed on monastic clergy solely as honorifics. In English
                  terminology,
                  > > sometimes "abbot" is used instead of "hegoumen." My personal feeling is
                  > > that since "hegoumen" and "archimandrite" have become honorifics, it is
                  > > better to use them as such and let the title "abbot" be used solely as a
                  > > title for the actual head a monastic community. Thus, a hieromonk,
                  > > hegoumen or archimandrite could also be the "abbot" of a particular
                  > > monastic community (in theory, even a non-priest could be an "abbot,"
                  > > which
                  > > was common in early monasticism).
                  > >
                  > > f. It appears that the Greek "epigonation" is the same vestment as the
                  > > Russian "palitsa"; however, in the Russian usage it has nothing to do
                  with
                  > > the hearing confessions. In the Russian Church all priests may hear
                  > > confessions.
                  > >
                  > > g. Apparently, in the Russian Empire all the ranks of the clergy had
                  > > equivalent grades in the military and the civil service with
                  corresponding
                  > > titles as well.
                  > >
                  > > Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive source available on this
                  subject.
                  > > If anyone can provide additional information or correct any errors in
                  the
                  > > information provided above, I would be grateful.
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
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                • Rev. John R. Shaw
                  I think in this case there must be some error somewhere. An archpriest is the same as a proto-priest, and no one is ever ordained directly to have either
                  Message 8 of 17 , Jan 5, 1999
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                    I think in this case there must be some error somewhere. An archpriest is
                    the same as a proto-priest, and no one is ever ordained directly to have
                    either title.
                    Normally the sequence would be nabedrennik-skufia-kamilavka, then
                    either the gold cross OR protopriest, as those two may be in either order.

                    On Tue, 5 Jan 1999, David James wrote:

                    > Daniel:
                    >
                    > If a priest is awarded, for example, the purple skufia and the next award he
                    > receives is the gold cross, does the awarding of the gold cross include the
                    > right to wear the kamilavka? Or may awards be given "out of turn," so to
                    > speak, and each honor must be awarded specifically? In the latest issue of
                    > Orthodox Life, it appears from the minutes of the Bishops' Council that one
                    > priest was recently ordained as an Archpriest and, less than a year later,
                    > raised to the rank of Protopriest. In this case, what is the difference
                    > between an archpriest and a protopriest?
                    >
                    > David James
                    >
                    > > -----Original Message-----
                    > > From: John E. Dean [SMTP:73631.1671@...]
                    > > Sent: Monday, January 04, 1999 5:30 PM
                    > > To: Ustav
                    > > Subject: [ustav] Clerical Rank
                    > >
                    > > From: Daniel Olson
                    > >
                    > > In the current practice of the Russian Church, the clergy are divided into
                    > > the following rankings:
                    > >
                    > > 1. Deacons:
                    > >
                    > > a. Deacon (non-monastic); hierodeacon (monastic). A further distinction
                    > > is
                    > > that a deacon or hierodeacon may be awarded the right to wear the double
                    > > orarion.
                    > >
                    > > b. Protodeacon (non-monastic); archdeacon (monastic). A further
                    > > distinction is that a protodeacon may be awarded the right to wear the
                    > > kamilavka (this does not apply to an archdeacon).
                    > >
                    > > 2. Presbyters
                    > >
                    > > a. Priest (non-monastic); hieromonk (monk) (a priest or hieromonk is
                    > > given
                    > > a plain silver cross at ordination). Further distinctions are (in order
                    > > of
                    > > award from lowest to highest): the nabedrinik, the skufia, the kamilavka
                    > > and the gold pectoral cross.
                    > >
                    > > b. Protopriest (non-monastic) (sometimes incorrectly called an
                    > > archpriest); hegoumen (sometimes spelled "igumen") (monastic) (sometimes
                    > > also called an abbot). Further distinctions are (in order of award from
                    > > lowest to highest): the palitsa and the jeweled pectoral cross. A
                    > > protopriest may also be awarded the miter; the miter is not usually
                    > > awarded
                    > > to a hegoumen.
                    > >
                    > > c. Protopresbyter (non-monastic); archimandrite (monastic). Further
                    > > awards that may be given are: the miter (to an archimandrite), the right
                    > > to
                    > > serve with the Royal Gates open and a second pectoral cross. Some
                    > > archimandrites are also allowed certain episcopal acoutrements such as the
                    > > dikiri and trikiri and the ripidi.
                    > >
                    > > 3. Bishops (all are monastics)
                    > >
                    > > a. Bishop
                    > >
                    > > b. Archbishop. A further distinction is the right to wear a diamond
                    > > cross
                    > > on the klobuk.
                    > >
                    > > c. Metropolitan. A further distinction is the right to wear a second
                    > > panagia.
                    > >
                    > > d. Patriarch.
                    > >
                    > > The following are some comments on the above information:
                    > >
                    > > a. Generally, "priest" is used to translate "svjashchenik" or "ierej"
                    > > (equivalent of the Greek "iereus").
                    > >
                    > > b. There is no agreement about how to translate "protoierej." Some use
                    > > "protopriest" while others use "archpriest". It would seem that
                    > > "protopriest" is a more accurate translation. "Archpriest" is more
                    > > correct
                    > > as a translation of "archierej" (Greek "archiereus"), which is used
                    > > exclusively to refer to a bishop.
                    > >
                    > > c. The origin of the word "priest" in English complicates things
                    > > somewhat.
                    > > The word "priest" is derived from the Latin "presbyter" (Greek
                    > > "presbuteros"). However, the word "priest" eventually lost its meaning of
                    > > "elder" and became more associated with the meaning of the Latin
                    > > "sacerdos"
                    > > (Greek "iereus"). Only later did the word "presbyter" enter the English
                    > > language as such.
                    > >
                    > > d. The title "protopresbyter" in the Greek Church is apparently the same
                    > > as
                    > > the title "protopriest" in the Russian Church. The use of the title
                    > > "protopresbyter" in the Russian Church as the highest title for married
                    > > clergy is of rather recent introduction and of very limited usage. In the
                    > > pre-revolutionary Russian Church there were only four positions that
                    > > merited this title.
                    > >
                    > > e. Originally, the titles "hegoumen" and "archimandrite" were titles
                    > > appropriate to the heads of monastic communities. Today, though, they are
                    > > bestowed on monastic clergy solely as honorifics. In English terminology,
                    > > sometimes "abbot" is used instead of "hegoumen." My personal feeling is
                    > > that since "hegoumen" and "archimandrite" have become honorifics, it is
                    > > better to use them as such and let the title "abbot" be used solely as a
                    > > title for the actual head a monastic community. Thus, a hieromonk,
                    > > hegoumen or archimandrite could also be the "abbot" of a particular
                    > > monastic community (in theory, even a non-priest could be an "abbot,"
                    > > which
                    > > was common in early monasticism).
                    > >
                    > > f. It appears that the Greek "epigonation" is the same vestment as the
                    > > Russian "palitsa"; however, in the Russian usage it has nothing to do with
                    > > the hearing confessions. In the Russian Church all priests may hear
                    > > confessions.
                    > >
                    > > g. Apparently, in the Russian Empire all the ranks of the clergy had
                    > > equivalent grades in the military and the civil service with corresponding
                    > > titles as well.
                    > >
                    > > Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive source available on this subject.
                    > > If anyone can provide additional information or correct any errors in the
                    > > information provided above, I would be grateful.
                    > >
                    > >
                    > >
                    > >
                    > > ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    > > The Bowl Championship Series on ESPN.com.
                    > > We are there. Join us...
                    > > http://offers.egroups.com/click/186/0
                    > >
                    > >
                    > > eGroup home: http://www.eGroups.com/list/ustav
                    > > Free Web-based e-mail groups by eGroups.com
                    >
                    > ------------------------------------------------------------------------
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                    > We are there. Join us...
                    > http://offers.egroups.com/click/187/0
                    >
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                  • John E. Dean
                    From: Daniel Olson ... As far as I am aware, each award should be given in turn. However, sometimes more than one award is given at the same time. For
                    Message 9 of 17 , Jan 5, 1999
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                      From: Daniel Olson

                      On 5 Jan 99, David James wrote:

                      >If a priest is awarded, for example, the purple skufia and the next award
                      >he receives is the gold cross, does the awarding of the gold cross
                      >include the right to wear the kamilavka? Or may awards be given "out of
                      >turn," so to speak, and each honor must be awarded specifically? In the
                      >latest issue of Orthodox Life, it appears from the minutes of the
                      >Bishops' Council that one priest was recently ordained as an Archpriest
                      >and, less than a year later, raised to the rank of Protopriest. In this
                      >case, what is the difference between an archpriest and a protopriest?

                      As far as I am aware, each award should be given in turn. However,
                      sometimes more than one award is given at the same time. For instance, I
                      was just talking about this yesterday with a priest who told me that he had
                      been awarded the kamilavka and gold cross at the same time.

                      As titles for presbyters, "protopriest" and "archpriest" are equivalent.
                      Both are used to translate "protoierej". My personal preference is
                      "protopriest" since the prefix "proto" is the same in both the Russian and
                      English. The use of "archpriest" is more ambiguous because there also
                      exists the word "archierej" which refers only to bishops.

                      As for the clergyman "recently ordained as an Archpriest and, less than a
                      year later, raised to the rank of Protopriest", I am unable to determine to
                      whom you are referring. If you can provide me with some particulars, I
                      will be glad to check it out.

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                    • John E. Dean
                      From: Daniel Olson ... Nikol sky (page 19) indicates that ripidi are used at hierarchal services (the Complete Orthodox Theological Encyclopedic Dictionary
                      Message 10 of 17 , Jan 5, 1999
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                        From: Daniel Olson

                        On 5 Jan 99, Fr. Serge wrote:

                        >I was unaware that anyone was "awarding" the ripidia to
                        >archimandrites.

                        Nikol'sky (page 19) indicates that ripidi are "used at hierarchal services"
                        (the "Complete Orthodox Theological Encyclopedic Dictionary" says the
                        same). Nikol'sky also avers that "in certain monasteries, the ripidi are
                        also permitted (dozvoleno) to be used when an archimandrite serves."
                        Whether this is a privilege that belongs to the monastery or the individual
                        seems unclear.

                        If you read my original posting, you will see that I didn't say ripidi were
                        "awarded" to archimandrites, but that archimandrites were "allowed certain
                        episcopal acoutrements." In any case, my point was that the use of ripidi,
                        being episcopal acoutrements (at least in the Russian Church), may be
                        permitted during the serving of an archimandrite as a special distinction,
                        in a similar way as the use of dikiri and trikiri by an archimandrite is
                        also a special distinction. If I was not exactly precise in my
                        formulation, forgive me.

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                      • Fr. John Morris
                        ... This is very interesting. I have often wondered why I did not see fans in the Russian or OCA parishes that I have visited. In the Antiochian tradition the
                        Message 11 of 17 , Jan 5, 1999
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                          >
                          > Nikol'sky (page 19) indicates that ripidi are "used at hierarchal services"
                          > (the "Complete Orthodox Theological Encyclopedic Dictionary" says the
                          > same). Nikol'sky also avers that "in certain monasteries, the ripidi are
                          > also permitted (dozvoleno) to be used when an archimandrite serves."
                          > Whether this is a privilege that belongs to the monastery or the individual
                          > seems unclear.
                          >

                          This is very interesting. I have often wondered why I did not see fans in the
                          Russian or OCA parishes that I have visited. In the Antiochian tradition the
                          fans are used during the Great Entrance at every Divine Liturgy regardless of
                          who the celibrant is.

                          Archpriest John W. Morris


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                        • Rev. John R. Shaw
                          Same is true of the Greeks. You can, however, see the ripidi or fans used in a few Russian [Abroad] parishes, for example, in Lakewood NJ or I think Nyack NY,
                          Message 12 of 17 , Jan 5, 1999
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                            Same is true of the Greeks. You can, however, see the ripidi or fans used
                            in a few Russian [Abroad] parishes, for example, in Lakewood NJ or I think
                            Nyack NY, even if the celebrant is a priest.

                            On Tue, 5 Jan 1999, Fr. John Morris wrote:

                            > >
                            > > Nikol'sky (page 19) indicates that ripidi are "used at hierarchal services"
                            > > (the "Complete Orthodox Theological Encyclopedic Dictionary" says the
                            > > same). Nikol'sky also avers that "in certain monasteries, the ripidi are
                            > > also permitted (dozvoleno) to be used when an archimandrite serves."
                            > > Whether this is a privilege that belongs to the monastery or the individual
                            > > seems unclear.
                            > >
                            >
                            > This is very interesting. I have often wondered why I did not see fans in the
                            > Russian or OCA parishes that I have visited. In the Antiochian tradition the
                            > fans are used during the Great Entrance at every Divine Liturgy regardless of
                            > who the celibrant is.
                            >
                            > Archpriest John W. Morris
                            >
                            >
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