[ustav] Re: Studite Typicon in Russia
- It is not a problem of "opening" the attachment. The problem is that
the attachment you sent is of some unknown fomat, with a DOS extension
of ".dat" You need to either send the attachments in .txt format or
perhaps .doc format (Microsoft Word). Then we can open and read
your attachment... :-)
----- Original Message -----
From: Isaac E. Lambertsen <ilector@...>
Sent: Saturday, October 02, 1999 12:48 PM
Subject: [ustav] Studite Typicon in Russia
> Dear Ustavniki,
> Here is another excerpt from Skaballanovich, this time concerning the
> Studite Typicon and how it came to Russia. This was a question raised on
> the list some time ago, but I have only recently found the time to
> this passage.
> I am appending it to this message as an attachment. Since my recent
> transmission on the all-night vigil service performed in Kiev in 1911, His
> Grace, Bishop Tikhon has posted a suggestion as to how to conveniently
> attachments. For those who have difficulty with this procedure, I refer
> to his directions.
> Hope some of you find this translation interesting.
> Isaac Lambertsen.
> MyPoints-Free Rewards When You're Online.
> Start with up to 150 Points for joining!
> See Ustav information at http://www.orthodox.net/ustav
- Dear Deacon Daniel,
I am attaching the translation to this message in "text only" form. That's
the best I can do. Hope it works for at least some of you.
>From: "Dn. Daniel Swires" <dnswires@...>
>Subject: [ustav] Re: Studite Typicon in Russia
>Date: Sun, Oct 3, 1999, 8:36 PM
> It is not a problem of "opening" the attachment. The problem is that
> the attachment you sent is of some unknown fomat, with a DOS extension
> of ".dat" You need to either send the attachments in .txt format or
> perhaps .doc format (Microsoft Word). Then we can open and read
> your attachment... :-)
> Dn. Daniel
- At 08:36 PM 10/3/1999 -0400, Daniel wrote:
>It is not a problem of "opening" the attachment. The problem is thatI believe that Isaac originally sent the Skaballanovich Vigil in a document
>the attachment you sent is of some unknown fomat, with a DOS extension
>of ".dat" You need to either send the attachments in .txt format or
>perhaps .doc format (Microsoft Word). Then we can open and read
>your attachment... :-)
with the extension *.rtf (rich text format)
In MS Word, you may open documents with the following extensions:
*.doc, *.dot, *.rtf, *txt, *.wk1, *.wk2, *wk3, *.xls, *.xlw, *.asc, *.scd,
*.ans, *.wri, *.mcw, *.WP5, *.WP6, *.wps, etc., and, if you have Word97 or
Word2000, you should be able to open docs with *.html, and *.url
extensions. There is some problem with formatting between different
versions of MS Word, but none that prevent opening a document.
If you have MS Word, but when you click on File-Open you don't have such
possibilities listed in the box, then you can obtain the filters for any of
the above, and more, from the MS site.
The most recent document from Isaac was about the Studite Typikon. It came
in my email with this extension: *.doc. What is the problem? I find it
difficult to comprehend if anyone has a word-processing program so old that
it can't recognize and read a document in rich text formatting (*.rtf) or
in (*.doc) as the attachments originally sent were. I must be missing something.
- For those of us (or is it just me?) that cannot receive attachments, is
an alternative for getting this information? Perhaps someone could send
in an email message (unless it is too long) or post it on their website.
Thanks in advance,
-- Subdeacon Mark Seidel
On Sun, 03 Oct 1999 21:42:32 -0400 "Isaac E. Lambertsen"
>Dear Deacon Daniel,That's
>I am attaching the translation to this message in "text only" form.
>the best I can do. Hope it works for at least some of you.___________________________________________________________________
>>From: "Dn. Daniel Swires" <dnswires@...>
>>Subject: [ustav] Re: Studite Typicon in Russia
>>Date: Sun, Oct 3, 1999, 8:36 PM
>> It is not a problem of "opening" the attachment. The problem is that
>> the attachment you sent is of some unknown fomat, with a DOS extension
>> of ".dat" You need to either send the attachments in .txt format or
>> perhaps .doc format (Microsoft Word). Then we can open and read
>> your attachment... :-)
>> Dn. Daniel
>See Ustav information at http://www.orthodox.net/ustav
Get the Internet just the way you want it.
Free software, free e-mail, and free Internet access for a month!
Try Juno Web: http://dl.www.juno.com/dynoget/tagj.
- That worked just fine!
----- Original Message -----
From: Isaac E. Lambertsen <ilector@...>
Sent: Sunday, October 03, 1999 9:42 PM
Subject: [ustav] Re: Studite Typicon in Russia
> Dear Deacon Daniel,
> I am attaching the translation to this message in "text only" form.
> the best I can do. Hope it works for at least some of you.
> Isaac Lambertsen
- Bp. Tikhon wrote:
> The most recent document from Isaac was about the Studite Typikon. It came
> in my email with this extension: *.doc. What is the problem? I find it
> difficult to comprehend if anyone has a word-processing program so old
> it can't recognize and read a document in rich text formatting (*.rtf) orsomething.
> in (*.doc) as the attachments originally sent were. I must be missing
Forgive me, Your Grace, but just because you receive and can open an
attachment does not mean that others can. There are too many variables.
It might have something to do with differing e-mail programs or perhaps
differing ISP's. It came to me (and probably others) not with the extension
".doc" or ".rtf" but with the extension ".dat", which Microsoft Word 97
I have) does not recognize, nor does Conversions Plus (which I have)...
But the subsequent ".txt" version that he sent worked just fine!
unworthy Dn. Daniel
- Mark Seidel wrote:
> For those of us (or is it just me?) that cannot receive attachments, isOk, here is the text version that we received simply pasted into this
> an alternative for getting this information? Perhaps someone could send
> in an email message (unless it is too long) or post it on their website.
> Thanks in advance,
> -- Subdeacon Mark Seidel
which is simple enough, but I notice there are some characters that do not
translate into the ASCII character set of e-mail and the margins will be
On Free or Asymmetrical Rhythm
by Prince Alexis F. L'vov
I. Regarding Singing in General
Devoted to music from my very childhood, due to my innate inclination
toward this art I always nurtured a particular sympathy for the ancient
chants of the Orthodox Church. Later, this sympathy brought me to the
desire to investigate the basic principles of our ecclesiastical chant.
In 1836, I was appointed Director of the Court Chapel Singers; and
thenceforth, due to the very essence of my official pursuits, there formed
for me the obligation to investigate thoroughly the chants used at the
Imperial Court. Examining them, I naturally found that they fall into two
categories: 1) ancient chants, and 2) chants of recent times. Both differ
entirely from one another in the composition and character of their
melodies, as well as by rhythm, and in general as to the laws on the basis
of which they are composed.
The first of them were in part transmitted to us, along with Christianity,
from Greece, and were in part composed by by the hymnographers of our
ancient Russia, prior to the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th
century, i.e. before that period when, at the behest of Peter the Great,
Russia moved into the circle of European realms and began, in the sciences
and the arts, to adapt itself to Western conditions: all those chants which
were originally written in hook notation were transcribed, during the reign
of Tsar Alexis Mikhailovich, into the generally used notes, written on a
single staff with alto clef, and in this form were printed in 1762. The
diamond system if the ancient ecclesiastical or medieval tones serves as
their basis, and for this reason we find in them neither sharps nor flats
(except b-flat, which is rarely encountered). The so-called regular, i.e.
symmetrically-measured, quadratic rhythm did not exist anywhere in those
medieval times when these melodies were set down in Greece or in Russia,
which is why it is understandable why in the ancient melodies of our Church
we also fail to find such rhythm. These chants have come down to us in the
form of melodies, because the laws of harmony, the formation of which began
in Europe only in the 12th and 13th centuries, became known to us in Russian
only at the end of the 17th century, i.e. when these melodies had long been
set down, and when long-standing habit, as one must presuppose, demanded
that only monodic, unison chanting exist in church.
The second chants are of more recent derivation, i.e. they were composed in
the 18th or 19th centuries by composers already familiar with the learning
of the West and with the new musical system which exists to the present.
From their composition they are no longer in a mere melodic form, but in a
form which unites within itself melody, and the harmony and rhythm of a new
time and a new musical system. The diatonic system of the ancient
ecclesiastical (or medieval) tones is no longer present in them and has been
replaced by a system of tones divided mathematically, definitely, in
relation to time; sharps and flats have come into use, the former free
rhythm has been supplanted by a rhythm which is quadratic, symmetrical,
mathematically regular. In a word, a vast distance separates the chants
composed on the basis of the former system from the chants composed on the
basis of the new system.
Examining the difference between the former and the latter, I was compelled
to turn my particular attention to the rhythm, postponing an investigation
into the other laws which bring about the existence of our ancient
ecclesiastical hymnody; here I will deal primarily with an examination of
laws strictly of rhythm.
The study of this subject has led me to the question: Can music in our time
not exist otherwise than with the immutable, inescapable predominance of
quadracity, or some other monotonous periodicity of rhythm? Is rhythm which
is free in its movement, which is not subject to the condition of
mathematical symmetry, only an appurtenance of the infantile era of both
peoples and the musical art? Should free rhythm no longer exist either in
our contemporary art or in the music of future times?
My inner aesthetic sense told me loudly that in music free rhythm-so-called
irregular, i.e. symmetrically unmeasured rhythm,-has precisely the same
right of citizenship as so-called regular, i.e. symmetrical rhythm; yet for
a long time I was unable to give myself a full and clear account of those
laws which govern the existence of this or that fact; I could not find
tangible proofs to lend credence to my aesthetic feeling, and especially to
that supposition that in many instances free, asymmetrical rhythm must be
preferred to quadratic, mathematically symmetrical rhythm.
The labors, reflections and researches of many years have led me finally to
the desired goal and to a conviction of the possibility and licitness of
introducing free, asymmetrical rhythm into (primarily Church) music.
Convinced that this introduction is justified not only theoretically by the
laws of rhythm, but also by practice itself, I applied the theory and
observations to compositions in church style which, if I am not mistaken, in
this way received special, characteristic qualities.
It is well known that every correct melody follows those laws on which
versification is based, i.e. it must have meter, pulse, quadratic rhythm,
hard and soft beats, masculine and feminine endings, etc. A musical piece
appears in our inner conception with the character peculiar to it only when
all these conditions are met in it: otherwise, we find no point to it.
Though it is not my intention to explain in detail the laws of quadratic
rhythm, yet do I not consider it superfluous to say a few words about it.
Let us imagine beats of 2, 3 or 4 quarter notes: in the first two cases, the
hard beat falls on the first quarter note, and in the latter, on the first
and the third. A period consists of an even or odd number of beats. A
period of an even number can exist on its own, but that of an odd number
requires an assistant of the same number of beats, and in conjunction with
this assistant is made an even period. In this manner, a period of three
beats must have as an assistant a period also of three beats, a period of
five beats must have a five-beat assistant, a period of seven beats a
similar assistant, and so forth. Let us take examples:
musical examples on p. 4
Similarly, periods of 5 or 7 beats require assistants. A greater number of
beats are rarely used in a period, for in such a case the period, being
dragged out, loses it determinacy.
On these principal rules, set forth here in brief, is based what they
usually call musical rhythm. Yet these very rules are something
conditional, and for this reason the understanding and ability to carry them
out are only acquired by experience. The simple people do not know these
musical rules. Listen to the artless singing of an uneducated man who has
not studied music, even though by nature he has a complete aptitude for it,
and you will notice that he is singing without being inhibited by either
beats or rhythm, which are inaccessible to him. The difference between
artful singing and artless singing is almost the same as that between
metered speech and ordinary, prosodic speech.
On more the one occasion I happened to hear how choral singers sang Russian
songs, and how the same songs were performed by chanters. The former sang
by ear and, so to speak, by a natural flair; the latter, according to the
rules of art. I could not but award pre'minence to the choral singers. In
their execution, which was not hindered by conditional rules, there was
manifest a power, a fire, sometimes an upsurge of inspiration; on the other
hand, although the singers sang correctly, they did so weakly, limply: it
was obvious that the conditions of music hindered them. In a word, the
difference between the singing of the former and the latter was such that
the choral singers would hardly have recognized their own songs in those
performed by the singers.
When speaking of the absence of strict meter in the singing of the songs of
the simple folk, we must, however, exclude dance songs: in them the keeping
of a beat is essential for the dancing itself. (footnote: In the Caucasus,
during dances, the mountaineers clap their hands in meter instead of using
music or singing.) Consequently, music which accompanies dancing
subordinates itself to the subject for which it is appointed, and conforms
to its conditions.
The latter circumstance is extraordinarily important: it is nearly the key
to resolving our question. In actual fact, if dance songs are in their own
rhythm subordinate to the conditions of the dance, then in precisely the
same way music which accompanies words must subordinate itself not only to
the meaning of the words, but to their rhythm, especially where the speech
comprises the principal subject, requiring of those who listen to it a
primary, if not exclusive attention.
II. Regarding Church Singing
I would be superfluous here to expatiate on the fact that all the power,
all the importance in church singing is contained in the words of the
prayer. The objective of chant is to impart to the words of the prayer a
clearer expression. It is evident that such singing not only must conform
totally with the meaning of the prayer which it accompanies and subordinate
itself to its meaning; but the notational signs themselves must be
completely subordinate to the rhythm of the words, in nowise distorting
Examining our ancient chants from this point of view, I became convinced
that in them the notes possess their own true significance, because they are
unconditionally bound to the speech and conform to its structure. At the
same time I became convinced that quadratic rhythm and uniform beats (the
conditions of versification) can in a highly unsatisfactory way accompany
speech written in prose, and subject the words to inevitable changes in
accent, to permutations, repetitions, as a result of which not only the
power, but even the very sense of the speech can be distorted.
For greater clarity let us cite an example. We will take two simple
phrases composed of an identical number of syllables:
We hymn the celestial King
We hymn the heavenly Kingdom
The whole difference between these examples lies in the fact that in the
final words-King and Kingdom-the accents are different. But if we wish to
set both to notes, the difference in the accents presents us with a great
difficulty; it forces us, because of the rules accepted by us, either to
alter the melody, or to give the word itself a greater duration, without any
prosodic reason, solely to satisfy the conditions of quadratic rhythm. One
can depict he words "We hymn the celestial King with the following notes:
@@@@ page 6 @@@@
These notes obviously do no serve to depict the phrase "We hymn the
heavenly Kingdom", because in the word "kingdom" the strong accept falls on
the first syllable, and not on the second, as in the word "@@@@".
@@@@ page 6 @@@@
To help with this, one might write thus:
@@@@ page 7 @@@@
or, what might be even more satisfactory with regard to rhythm, thus:
@@@@ page 7 @@@@
If it were absolutely necessary to sing these words according to the notes
written for the words "We hymn the celestial King", we would need to do
nothing more than to invert the phrase thus: "The kingdom of heaven we
hymn"; but this would be a positive alteration of the wording, which we
cannot and must not do.
From this example one may conclude with what difficulty the composer is
confronted when composing for prosodic speech music based on a system of
uniform beats and quadratic rhythms, and with what twistings of the words
themselves he must try to satisfy the requirement of the ordinary rules of
rhythm. Of course, the composer of notes has the power to make all manner
of changes in them according to his own discretion, for which he answers to
himself alone; but what right does he have to decide to make appropriate or
inappropriate twistings in the words provided him, to satisfy the
conventional rules of music? How often he is forced to cover up, by various
ruses, anomalies which inevitably come to light when setting speech to notes
with rhythmic division. To convince ourselves of this, let us cite as an
example the first four beats of the music composed for the prayer Our Father
by the famous and beloved composer Bortnyansky.* (footnote: We are taking
this example because it was composed by a man of profound knowledge and high
talent, though one must note that here we are not discussing the merit of a
musical composition-(Bortnyansky has been esteemed by Russia for
generations)-but rather the rules to which he considered himself obliged to
submit.) Here they are:
@@@@ page 8 @@@@
On the basis of the accepted rules of music, one should say "Our Father",
and in its assistant, "Who art in the heavens". In the first, there are
three syllables, while in the assistant there are eight. Thus, the famous
composer, desiring to use an even period, stretched out the first three
syllables, and hastened the last eight, and thus preserved the correct
correlation between the first period and its assistant. But this was done
only on the basis of the conventional rules of music, without any prosodic
reason. Moreover, in the words "Who art" and "heavens", there appear
incorrect strong accents, viz., instead of Izhe, the notes force us to sing
Izhe; and instead of nebesekh, nebesekh. Let us now see how in the same
prayer the measure of the beat forces the composer to to depict the words:
"da priidet tsarstvie Tvoe, da budet volya Tvoya. To depict both phrases,
in accordance with the demands of the words, one must write thus:
@@@@ page 8 @@@@
We see that the first of these phrases is in 4/4 time, and the second in
3/4. How are they written by the famous composer, so as to preserve uniform
meter? And the main thing we see: Do the words guide the notes, or do the
notes guide the words?
@@@@ page 8 @@@@
A simple glance suffices to convince one that the word da is extended
without any prosodic reason; and on the contrary, the simple, uneducated man
praying in church cannot fail to be struck by the strangeness of such an
extension in relation to the words-an extension which is out of place, and
done solely to maintain the 4/4 beat and the regular accent of the words
with the hard and soft accents accepted in this beat. If Bortnyansky was
forced to permit such anomalies, what must we expect from composers who know
less and are not as gifted?
This example and thousands of similar ones completely convinced me of the
simple truth, that when composing music for words written, as are all our
prayers, in prose, the notes of the music must follow the rhythm of the
words in their prosodic combination, just as as when composing music for the
words of poems, the music must follow the rhythm of the words, conforming to
the requirements of the poetic meter. If we can read verse in one way and
prose in another way, there is no reason to think that it is impossible to
sing verse while preserving the accents which depend upon the poetic meter,
and prose with the preservation the accents which occur in prosodic speech.
Thus, I propose that our ancient chants were written without regular beats
and quadratic rhythm for no other reason than that the ancient fathers
subordinated the musical notes to the words, and not the words to the notes,
and for this had profound reasons.
Despite my complete conviction that ecclesiastical chant must never move
away from these reasons, I entered into communication on this subject with
the most prominent music critics of Europe, and from all of them received
the most satisfactory opinions. They all agreed with me on the main
principles, although naturally they did not go into the development of our
local details, which cannot have been fully accessible to them.
Viewing this important subject from all sides, I asked myself: do we not
accompany these chants with harmony who laws we have studied, and the idea
of which has been established in our imagination, like beats and rhythms,
only as a consequence of the efforts of our instructors? But mature
reflection and different experiences can convince anyone that if harmony is
based on the laws of nature, the rules for setting it on paper must be
general for all types of music.
I did not want to be content with mere theoretical assumptions which, in my
opinion, have opened a vast field to human imagination and have formed a
path free and in no way constrained, a path which leads straight to its
objective. I decided to test in action the proposal of my theory in
practice, and therefore wrote several compositions, religious and secular,
where the musical rhythm was subordinate to a rhythm which was not poetic,
but prosodic speech; it is not for me to judge their musical quality, but I
permit myself to note that they produced the most pleasing impression in
particular on those who listened to them who, having been gifted with an
aptitude for the art of music, were themselves trained, though not by means
of the musical rules now generally accepted, i.e. they were accustomed from
childhood to sing simple prose.
If I am not mistaken, a clearing was made in the forest. He who made this
clearing knows what this cost him; but the life of one man does not suffice
to level a new road, to sprinkle it with sand, to plant it around with
flowers; and if such a man is not found who might undertake this, the
clearing will naturally grow over, go to seed, and it will perhaps be taken
in hand only when the roads which exist now lose their usefulness and are
Let us say a few words concerning the mechanism itself of setting notes
down in accordance with prosodic rhythm. We will take several phrases and
set them to notes, taking the following as indispensable conditions:
1) that the words be uttered by all singers simultaneously;
2) that the difference in duration of the notes be maintained quite
definitely, i.e. that a whole note equal two half notes, a half note, two
quarter-notes, etc; and
3) that the beats and rhythm not be uniform, or quadratic, but might
correspond to the natural accents of the words.
Let us indicate the following example: "My wounded and humble soul do Thou
visit, O Lord, Physician of the ailing and the desperate, Haven untouched by
storms." It is not difficult to see that here the narrative consists of
three parts, of which the first two are each subdivided into two sections,
Part one: My woonded and homble s-ul do Thou v'sit, O L-rd.
Part two: Phys'cian of the a'ling and the dZsperate.
Part three: H?ven untooched by st-rms.
It is in accordance with this that we must also dispose the parts of our
melody, determining from the beginning which syllables of the given phrases
must receive a strong accent. In our example, these strong accents are
indicated by letters-in Part One by the letter a; in Part Two by the letter
b; and in Part Three by the letter c.
We must make our divisions into sections so that the first division
presupposes the need for the second, and that together they may form a
single whole; moreover, we must delve into the meaning of the words so that
the very character of the melody may correspond to them. We see that Part
One must depict the prayer of a man who suffers in humility; the second
section of the Part Two is a cry of despair; and in Part Three, the "Haven
untouched by storms" is the calming hope of the sufferer.
According to the measure of my abilities, I have written thus:
@@@@ p. 11 @@@@
Examining what meter of beats the chant we have cited consists of, we find
@@@@ p. 12 @@@@
The meaning of these divisions would present singers only with
difficulties, and for this reason I propose that it is best vertically to
place divisions marking the parts and sections both of the words and of the
notes in their combinations, which will also serve as points of rest for the
Regarding the harmony which accompanies both this and the other examples we
have cited I do not find it necessary to speak, assuming that the reader is
sufficiently knowledgeable in this and has a precise knowledge of the full,
half and quarter cadences.
To this work other examples are appended, viz.:
1) My wounded soulÉ
2) Wherefore, despairingÉ
3) Standing before the CrossÉ
4) Let all flesh be silentÉ
5) Thee Who art clothedÉ
6) Let my prayer be set forthÉ
7) Children's choir-Adagio
8) Our Father
9) Behold my sorrow and painÉ
Having explained why uniform beats and rhythms are not suited for our
ancient chants, and set forth the main bases on which prosodic speech, and
prayers in particular, must be set to notes, I do not consider it
superfluous to say a few words about our ancient ecclesiastical chant, which
possesses a special character peculiar to itself.
For one who does not understand the objective of the singing of prayers and
who turns most of his attention to the singing itself, the simple, ancient
chants appear unsatisfying, because he does not find in them the essential
conditions which we are accustomed to consider a necessity, i.e. uniform
meter and rhythm. On the other hand, he who understands the importance of
prayer and attentively follows its words while they are being sung, cannot
fail to derive great delight, hearing it accompanied by a simple and
pleasing harmony, during the execution of which all the voices pronounce the
speech at the same time-consequently clearly-and conform the meter of the
beats to the essential accents of the words. No trills, runs, or any other
intricate figures must adorn church singing, in whose simple and pure tones
prayer is upborne with the incense to the throne of the Most High! The
language of our prayers has a special character: and the character of the
singing must correspond to it. Many composers have desired to subordinate
certain ancient chants to correct meter and definite beats; of course, as a
result of this the singing turns out satisfying the customary rules of
musical rhythm, but the singing is disengaged from the prayer, and the close
bond between the words and the singing is destroyed. To fulfil the
conditions of music, composers have had to resort to various strained
interpretations, have permitted the unnecessary repetition of words,
dragging them out inappropriately, and what is worst of all, not having the
singers utter them simultaneously, which results in the speech being
obscured: it has not only lost its power, but frequently its very sense
disappears, and those who pray are deprived of the possibility of
understanding what words are being sung. Thus, those were in error who
thought that to bring the ancient chants of our church into uniform beat,
and their labor could further the belittling of the beauty of both the
speech and the singing. Furthermore, how much was needed to overcome
difficulties even to achieve these paltry results; how much was required to
to commit irregularities in the accents of the words; and finally, what
strained interpretations did thy have to resort to, that the laws of
symmetrical musical rhythm might be brought into agreement with prosodic
speech? Without irregularities, without strained interpretations, one
cannot compose music subordinate to the conditions of quadratic rhythm for
prayers written in prose.
Deviations from well known rules by people who have achieved a certain
reputation and trust are dangers. They are dangerous not for these people
themselves, because the gifted man will always manage adroitly and
successful to escape difficulties; rather they are dangerous as examples for
weak imitators, who immediately allow themselves to make the crudest of
mistakes, citing the former as authorities. But fallibility of talented
people is still tolerable; on the other hand, imitation of mistakes always
leads to absurdities.
* * *