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Re: All-Night Vigil Beginnings

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  • stephen_r1937
    The substitution of lesser-chant formulary or phrasal melodies for the proper great-chant (or probably better called middle-chant ) melodies for stichera
    Message 1 of 13 , Feb 18 10:40 AM
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      The substitution of lesser-chant formulary or phrasal melodies for
      the proper great-chant (or probably better called "middle-chant")
      melodies for stichera doxastica & theotokia is paralleled in SW
      Rus'. In manuscript Irmologia written in the early nineteenth
      century for parishes, the proper Znamenny melodies are still found.
      By 1906, when the Bokshai Prostopinije was published, they had
      fallen out of use, the Znamenny chant was pretty much restricted to
      irmosy (and, as Dn Sloan Rolando has pointed out, the Znamenny
      versions in Bokshai are not the best, either). The printed
      Irmologion of L'viv still contained the stichera melodies up to the
      last edition, that of 1904, so they may have been preserved in some
      places (unlike Bokshai, the Khoma Prostopinije of 1930 was intended
      as a supplement to the printed Irmologion, parallel to the
      Dol'nyts'kyi Hlasopisnets' and similar books).

      It's one of the joys of membership in a traditional Greek parish
      that we hear the proper melodies for the doxastica & theotokia.

      Stephen


      --- In ustav@yahoogroups.com, "Nikita Simmons" <starina77@...> wrote:
      >
      > --- In ustav@yahoogroups.com, graham woolfenden <monkgreg@> wrote:
      > >
      > > A small point, but it should be noted that Old
      > > Believers in Moscow (Rogozhsky cathedral, personal
      > > experience) and Kostroma (so I am told), do not read
      > > the prescribed lessons - in Erie, PA, they do. Also,
      > > in my experience, none of these read the biblical
      > > canticles of the canon.
      > >
      > > So some abbreviations appear to be regarded as
      > > acceptable even in the old rite. This is not pointed
      > > out as a piece of carping criticism, but as a reminder
      > > that we had best not idealize any particular practice.
      > >
      > > Hegumen Gregory.
      >
      > Dear Hegumen Gregory,
      >
      > While I am in full agreement with you regarding the point you make
      > about not idealizing any particular practice, even the Old Rite,
      and
      > while I agree with your point that even the Old Believers accept a
      > certain degree of "cutting corners" to keep the length of services
      at
      > a manageable level, I do not agree with your two examples as
      methods
      > of how we abbreviate the services.
      >
      > 1) The lessons (pouchenii) which are mentioned in the service books
      > are NOT considered as mandatory in either parishes or monasteries.
      > They are suggested and highly recommended to be read, but they are
      > left to the direction of the rector: "ashche izvolit natoiatel'"
      (if
      > the rector wishes it). Omitting these readings is not considered an
      > abbreviation of the services. The only exceptions to this are the
      > Synaxarion readings which are appointed to be read after the 6th
      Ode
      > of the Canon during the Triodia period.
      >
      > In general practice of the priested Old Believer jurisdictions, you
      > will find that Old Rite parishes usually omit the recommended
      readings
      > during Matins, and instead they are read immediately after the
      > Liturgy, while clergy are finishing up their business inside the
      > altar. (So, when all is said and done, you see that we don't
      actually
      > skip these readings after all.) Following the reading, the priest
      > comes out and give a sermon of his own, often drawing upon ideas
      > mentioned in the patristic sermon.
      >
      > 2) Your point about not doing the Biblical Canticles doesn't make
      > sense to me. The Sabbaitic Typicon is fairly clear in its rubrics
      (and
      > even says somewhere explicitly) that the Biblical Canticles are not
      > read on Saturdays, Sundays and any day where the service is [I
      > believe] Polieleos rank or higher. (It might be Great Doxology
      rank,
      > but whatever the actual detail, you get my point.) The Biblical
      > Canticles are reserved for non-festal services, particularly during
      > the weekdays of the four fasting periods (although outside of these
      > fasting periods it is a matter which is open to interpretation).
      >
      > As for concrete examples of how Old Believers actually abbreviate
      the
      > services, I can provide you with some actual details:
      >
      > 1) Small Compline is appointed (in the Typicon) to be read without
      the
      > Canon on Saturday evenings, ending with the Creed. This sets a bad
      > example, and when Small Compline is served at other times of the
      week,
      > people are so accustomed to the short form that they frequently
      omit
      > the appointed Canon out of habit. This is an abuse that should be
      > corrected.
      >
      > 2) Idiomela stichera are generally sung quickly, using the Small
      > Znamenny Chant melodies, when instead they should be sung with the
      > appointed Great Chant melodies. These are frequently quite
      challenging
      > and certainly they are time-consuming, but some effort should be
      made
      > to sing *some* of them, if only the Theotokia. However, many
      chanters
      > claim that the melodies are too difficult and won't even make the
      > effort to learn some of the easier ones. In my opinion this is a
      > complete cop-out, and these chanters do our culture a great dis-
      service.
      >
      > 3) In many parishes the Psalms and Canons are read too fast. I
      realize
      > that people get tired of standing through such long services, and
      we
      > want to do everything without omitting portions of the services,
      but
      > to be realistic, if the readings are done at a speed that is more
      > comprehensible and prayerful, the added time is perhaps 10-15
      minutes
      > longer for a 5 hour vigil. (And if the prayers are read with more
      > attention to what is being read, then in truth we shouldn't even
      > notice such insignificant details as the passage of time.)
      >
      > 4) In the Old Rite singing tradition there are special festal
      melodies
      > that are appointed for particular moments in the services that
      have an
      > emphasis on the rituals taking place (such as Put' Chant melodies
      for
      > the Velichanie and Zadostoiniki, etc.). These melodies are
      intended to
      > enhance the events taking place. But the majority of parishes don't
      > make an effort to use these festal melodies and continue singing
      the
      > same melodies as they would at any other service. In other words,
      the
      > "lowest common denominator" is being offered as our sacrifice to
      God,
      > when something much more special is available for the choir to
      sing.
      > This "celebration of mediocrity" is very disappointing for me as a
      > trained musician who wants to continually learn more and to offer
      more
      > to God. Fortunately, we have a LOT of talented singers here in
      Oregon,
      > and we attempt to sing some of these settings, but sometimes
      energy is
      > low (especially towards the ends of the services) and people give
      in
      > to the temptation to rush through the services in order to go home
      and
      > rest.
      >
      > I think that a lot of what I'm referring to in these examples is
      also
      > applicable in most New Rite parishes as well. When people start
      > experiencing fatigue they become less attentive, and this leads to
      the
      > temptation of hurrying inattentively through the services to get
      them
      > over and done with. Instead, we need to struggle to focus, and
      > remember that we are standing in the Temple of God, praying and
      > offering the service of ministry through our reading and singing.
      It's
      > not meant to be easy and convenient; it's meant to be a struggle in
      > every sense of the word.
      >
      > Nikita Simmons
      >
      > > --- stephen_r1937 <stephen_r1937@> wrote:
      > >
      > > > Quite right. Although the Sabbaite Typikon spread
      > > > gradually and
      > > > slowly in Muscovy during the 15th century, it was
      > > > universally in use
      > > > by the 17th. The Old Rite Typicon, called "The Eye
      > > > of the Church,"
      > > > is of the Sabbaite variety. The vigil is firmly
      > > > ensconced in the
      > > > practice of the Old Believers. It was not a fixed
      > > > part of *village*
      > > > practice in pre-Rev. Russia, and is pretty much
      > > > limited to
      > > > monasteries in South-Western Rus'; it is not part of
      > > > normal parish
      > > > practice in Greece. So despite its being prescribed
      > > > in the Sabbaite
      > > > typicon, its use is not universal. But the Old
      > > > Believers do it, and
      > > > do not abridge it as almost everyone else outside of
      > > > some
      > > > monasteries does.
      > > >
      > > > Once we finally get the English translation of the
      > > > (new-rite)
      > > > Russian Sabbaite Typicon, I hope someone will start
      > > > to work on the
      > > > Old-Rite Typicon.
      > > >
      > > > Stephen
      > > >
      > > >
      > > > --- In ustav@yahoogroups.com, "Dn. Sergius Miller"
      > > > <srbmillerr@>
      > > > wrote:
      > > > >
      > > > > Dear All,
      > > > >
      > > > > I'm fairly sure that the answers to these
      > > > questions are not the
      > > > most
      > > > > important issues facing Orthodoxy in America. I
      > > > do, however,
      > > > think
      > > > > that there is some need of historical perspective.
      > > > >
      > > > > At the time of the Rus' conversion there were two
      > > > Typica in use in
      > > > > Constantinople, viz, that of the Great Church &
      > > > that of the
      > > > Stoudion,
      > > > > an originally Palestinian monastic typicon. A
      > > > third, that of St.
      > > > > Sabbas, was operative in other Palestinian
      > > > monasteries. The first
      > > > > two were imported to the Russian lands. The third
      > > > went through
      > > > > extensive revisions in the 11th century. After
      > > > the fall of
      > > > > Canstantinople (1204) both that of the Great
      > > > Church & the Studite
      > > > > fell out of use there. The revised Sabbaitic
      > > > Typicon, partially
      > > > > because the services required many few people,
      > > > was taken up by
      > > > the
      > > > > City and then spread through the whole Orthodox
      > > > world. By the
      > > > 15th
      > > > > century its use was universal.
      > > > >
      > > > > Until the middle of the 15th century the Russian
      > > > lands were in
      > > > easy
      > > > > communion w/Constantinople. The Russian
      > > > metropolitan was usually
      > > > > appointed by the Ecumenical Patriarch. In the mid
      > > > 15th century
      > > > came
      > > > > the union of Florence & the fall of Constantinople
      > > > to the Turks.
      > > > By
      > > > > the 16th century we have the Moscovite state
      > > > looking upon itself
      > > > as
      > > > > the last bastion & defender of Orthodoxy. The
      > > > "third Rome" theory
      > > > > appears. Suspicion grows in Russia that neither
      > > > the Greeks nor
      > > > the
      > > > > Ukrainians are exactly Orthodox. At the end of
      > > > the century the
      > > > union
      > > > > of Brest-Litovsk betrays Orthodoxy in the
      > > > Polish-Lithuanian state
      > > > > into the Catholic camp. The result is that 17th
      > > > century Russia
      > > > > suspected anything coming from outside was
      > > > heretical. Change was
      > > > > possible in the 14-15th century without suspicion;
      > > > not so in the
      > > > 17th.
      > > > >
      > > > > I would repeat that the Ardn. Paul was there in
      > > > the very years the
      > > > > changes were being imposed; he tells us what was
      > > > going on. I
      > > > would
      > > > > also again note that both the Old Rite Sabbaitic
      > > > Typicon & that of
      > > > > the New Rite assume in their directions the use of
      > > > the Vigil.
      > > > >
      > > > > One more item -- pannychis is the not in
      > > > liturgical usage the
      > > > Greek
      > > > > name for the All-Night Vigil. That is called in
      > > > Greek, Agrypnia.
      > > > > The paanychis is a special service in the Studite
      > > > typicon served
      > > > > after Vespers on feasts of higher ranking saints
      > > > and great
      > > > feasts.
      > > > > It is the parent of our moleben (paraclesis) and
      > > > pannykhida. It
      > > > was
      > > > > never an all night service despite its name. The
      > > > surviving
      > > > example
      > > > > is the moleben served of the first Friday in the
      > > > Great Fast in
      > > > honor
      > > > > of St. Theodore following the
      > > > Vespers/Presanctified.
      > > > >
      > > > > My apologies for this very long note.
      > > > >
      > > > > In XC,
      > > > > Dn. Sergius Miller
      > > > >
      > > > >
      > > > >
      > > > > --- In ustav@yahoogroups.com, frjsilver@ wrote:
      > > > > >
      > > > > > Dear Friends --
      > > > > >
      > > > > > Please forgive me if I appear obtuse in this,
      > > > but how can it be
      > > > > known that 'Old Believer parishes served the
      > > > Vigil'?
      > > > > >
      > > > > > Were the Old Rite as conservative as we
      > > > generally like to think
      > > > it
      > > > > is, and if Russian monasteries (at least) followed
      > > > the typikon of
      > > > the
      > > > > Stoudion Monastery, how could the Old Rite
      > > > accommodate the 'vigil'
      > > > of
      > > > > the St Sabbas Monastery's typikon in place of
      > > > earlier Russian
      > > > > practice?
      > > > > >
      > > > > > Or should it be thought that 'Old Rite' vs 'New
      > > > Rite' practice
      > > > in
      > > > > Russia wasn't an issue before the reforms of
      > > > Patriarch Nikon? And
      > > > > why must it have become an issue only then and not
      > > > before? And
      > > > why
      > > > > wasn't there ever a schism over such issues in
      > > > all/any of the
      > > > other
      > > > > churches?! (The _kolyvades_ controversy isn't
      > > > under discussion
      > > > here.)
      > > > > >
      > > > > > Peace and blessings to all.
      > > > > >
      > > > > > Monk James
      > > > > >
      > > > > >
      > > > > >
      > > > >
      > > >
      > > >
      > > >
      > >
      >
    • Jopi Harri
      ... Dear Nikita, Thus far I haven t encountered instructions for omitting Biblical Canticles for matins in any NR service books that I have inspected. Can you
      Message 2 of 13 , Feb 21 11:01 AM
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        --- In ustav@yahoogroups.com, "Nikita Simmons" <starina77@...> wrote:

        > 2) Your point about not doing the Biblical Canticles doesn't make
        > sense to me. The Sabbaitic Typicon is fairly clear in its rubrics
        > (and even says somewhere explicitly) that the Biblical Canticles
        > are not read on Saturdays, Sundays and any day where the service is
        > [I believe] Polieleos rank or higher. (It might be Great Doxology
        > rank, but whatever the actual detail, you get my point.) The
        > Biblical Canticles are reserved for non-festal services,
        > particularly during the weekdays of the four fasting periods
        > (although outside of these fasting periods it is a matter which is
        > open to interpretation).


        Dear Nikita,

        Thus far I haven't encountered instructions for omitting Biblical
        Canticles for matins in any NR service books that I have inspected.
        Can you point out a reference, or might it be that one exists only
        in Old Rite sources?

        (However, the only book I know of actually explaining how to
        interpolate them is the textbook Irmologij.)

        - Jopi Harri
      • Nikita Simmons
        ... Dear Jopi (and Daniel Olson, who wrote me off-list about this subject), I am certain that I encountered this rubric somewhere, but it has been at least 20
        Message 3 of 13 , Feb 22 8:58 AM
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          --- In ustav@yahoogroups.com, "Jopi Harri" <jopi.harri@...> wrote:
          >
          > --- In ustav@yahoogroups.com, "Nikita Simmons" <starina77@> wrote:
          >
          > > 2) Your point about not doing the Biblical Canticles doesn't make
          > > sense to me. The Sabbaitic Typicon is fairly clear in its rubrics
          > > (and even says somewhere explicitly) that the Biblical Canticles
          > > are not read on Saturdays, Sundays and any day where the service is
          > > [I believe] Polieleos rank or higher. (It might be Great Doxology
          > > rank, but whatever the actual detail, you get my point.) The
          > > Biblical Canticles are reserved for non-festal services,
          > > particularly during the weekdays of the four fasting periods
          > > (although outside of these fasting periods it is a matter which is
          > > open to interpretation).
          >
          >
          > Dear Nikita,
          >
          > Thus far I haven't encountered instructions for omitting Biblical
          > Canticles for matins in any NR service books that I have inspected.
          > Can you point out a reference, or might it be that one exists only
          > in Old Rite sources?
          >
          > (However, the only book I know of actually explaining how to
          > interpolate them is the textbook Irmologij.)
          >
          > - Jopi Harri
          >

          Dear Jopi (and Daniel Olson, who wrote me off-list about this subject),

          I am certain that I encountered this rubric somewhere, but it has been
          at least 20 years ago since I found it. I could have been mistaken at
          the time and misunderstood the text (as my knowledge of Slavonic then
          was not as good as now). It is entirely possible that I encountered
          this information in a manual for the study of liturgics back in my
          seminary days. However, since I cannot for the life of me tell you
          where I encountered it, I am willing to retract the claim and sit here
          scratching my head. On the other hand, I don't think I'm wrong, so I
          will continue to look through my library and hope that I was not mistaken.

          In XC,
          Nikita
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