[Iraq] From London to Iraq: Peacekeeping Lessons Learned the Hard Way (Frankel,)
From London to Iraq: Peacekeeping Lessons Learned the Hard Way
By Glenn Frankel
Washington Post Foreign Service
Friday, April 4, 2003; Page A30
LONDON, April 3 -- It was Royal Marines versus Iraqi civilians on the
soccer field in Zubair south of Basra. The referee was a local
community leader, and the crowd of onlookers included armed British
riflemen who kept a nervous eye on the proceedings. The final score:
9 to 3 for the Iraqis.
The game, as described in today's London Evening Standard newspaper,
was the latest example of a military legend being forged in southern
Iraq with the help of the media and transmitted home: British
soldiers as civic-minded peacekeepers, struggling to win the hearts
and minds of Iraqi civilians and deliver the message that the United
States and the United Kingdom have come to Iraq not as conquerors but
It's a legend built on national pride and years of military training.
But there's a flip side to the portrait: While British troops are
seen as sensitive and concerned, their American counterparts are
often depicted as inflexible and wary warriors who mistreat,
humiliate and, even occasionally, slaughter civilians.
"A lot of this is stage-managed and done for public relations," said
Ellie Goldsworthy, a former major in British military intelligence
who now works for the Royal United Services Institute, a defense
research organization. "But a lot of it is for real. British troops
are trained to come across as very forthcoming, very friendly and
open and ready to take risks in dealing with the civilian population."
"First, we have football matches, then we have tea parties, and then
somehow our soldiers go out and meet the local ladies," said Philip
Wilkinson, a retired British army colonel who teaches at the Center
for Defense Studies at King's College. "It's amazing how quickly they
do that. You can't go into a single military base back in Britain and
not meet wives who have been brought back from the countries we've
From the beginning of the war, British soldiers in Iraq have appeared
more willing to run risks when it comes to civilians. The first
British soldier to die from enemy fire, Sgt. Steven Roberts, 33, was
shot last week after he stepped down from his armored vehicle in
Zubair to tend to an agitated group of civilians.
Still, last Tuesday, Lt. Col. Mike Riddell-Webster of the Black Watch
regiment traded his helmet for a tam-o'-shanter, ditched his
sunglasses and took his men to patrol the streets of Zubair on foot.
It was, reported the Daily Telegraph, "a quintessentially British
"You can't win hearts and minds from the back of an armored vehicle,"
Goldsworthy said. "You've got to get down, take off your helmet and
deal with people on their own level."
The British say the lessons they have learned come from hard
experience during the waning days of the British Empire and in
Northern Ireland. British forces used brutal tactics to suppress
rebellions in Malaya and Kenya in the 1950s. Three decades ago,
British troops mowed down 13 unarmed demonstrators in Londonderry on
the day known as "Bloody Sunday."
British analysts contend U.S. forces have much to learn. Some British
officers disparagingly refer to Americans as "Ninja Turtles" because
they are covered in body armor, helmets and Ray-Bans. "There's a
warrior-wimp syndrome in the U.S. Army," Wilkinson said. "The
Americans treat civil affairs [relations with local civilians] as a
specialization, and you have specialized civil affairs battalions to
do the touchy-feely stuff. Your warriors stay as warriors and
perceive themselves as warriors.
"We don't have those kind of resources. Every single soldier has to
become an agent of the civil affairs program. . . . We teach our
young officers and soldiers all of this touchy-feely stuff right from
American troops have been carefully briefed on protecting Iraqi
civilians, U.S. officials say. But often they have been surprised by
the hostility they have encountered in southern Iraq. Last Saturday,
a suicide bomber driving a taxi filled with explosives killed four
soldiers of the 3rd Infantry Division at a checkpoint near the city
of Najaf. The driver had slowed down and waved for help, according to
one officer's account. When soldiers approached the car, it exploded.
Since then, U.S. troops have adopted a much more wary posture toward
civilian vehicles. The British press gave heavy coverage to
Washington Post reporter William Branigin's account of an incident
Monday in which U.S. troops fired on a van full of Iraqi civilians at
a checkpoint outside Najaf, killing 10.
British military experts contend both incidents would be less likely
at a British checkpoint. Under their military procedure, checkpoints
are manned by only one soldier, with others covering him at a
distance, to limit the potential human toll from a car bomb. The
British also say they signpost their checkpoints in Arabic and place
physical barriers well ahead of the stopping point to slow vehicles
before they are deemed a threat.
U.S. officials tend to treat the British viewpoint skeptically. "They
like to think of themselves as Athens to our Rome," one official
said. "The idea is that they bring quality and character to a rougher-
hewn America. It's not quite a myth, more like an ideal."
But some American military leaders have acknowledged that in some
areas the British have an edge. Gen. Richard B. Myers, chairman of
the Joint Chiefs of Staff, told a BBC program last Sunday that
British operations around Basra were "absolutely magnificent."
"I can assure you that U.S. forces have leaned heavily on our British
counterparts, who have a lot of experience in this area," he said.
Britons who have served alongside American forces say U.S. troops
tend to stay in fortified bases, surrounded by high walls of barbed
wire, holding local populations at bay. "With the United States,
force protection is all about body armor, helmets and moving at speed
in closed armored vehicles," said Garth Whitty, a retired 25-year
veteran officer who also works at the services institute. "With us,
it's more about engaging with the local population to get them on-
side and minimize hostility and casualties."
"I love Americans -- they're wonderful to work with," said
Goldsworthy, who served alongside U.S. forces in Turkey and
Bosnia. "But I'm afraid the American attitude of today is like the
British attitude of 120 years ago during the Empire. We thought
everyone wanted to be an Englishman and live an English life,
celebrate the queen and have cream tea. Americans seem to believe
that everyone is envious and wants to be part of America. It's as
though they haven't learned the lessons we've learned in a very hard
Goldsworthy cites photographs showing American soldiers ordering
Iraqi civilians to lie face down in the dirt while they are checked
for weapons. "For Arabs, to be spread-eagled with your face in the
dust is a hugely shameful thing," she said.
What the Iraqis want more than anything is respect, and to feel
valued and feel treated as human beings," she said. "What our troops
show is a willingness to be humble, to lose a football match 9 to 3.
If the Americans had played, I'm afraid they would have wanted to
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