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  • Christine Chumbler
    Poor Zambia postpones polls Local elections in Zambia have been postponed because the government cannot afford to hold them. The polls had been due in November
    Message 1 of 6 , Aug 27, 2004
      Poor Zambia postpones polls

      Local elections in Zambia have been postponed because the government cannot afford to hold them.
      The polls had been due in November but have been put back by two years.

      Local Government Minister Sylvia Masebo said the $64m it would cost to stage the elections would be better spent on roads and hospitals.

      Local councillors will now be elected in 2006, at the same time as the president and MPs, after parliament voted to approve the postponement.

      Holding elections together would save money, Ms Masebo said.

      The main opposition United Party for National Development voted against the postponement, saying it was done in "bad faith".

      The last local elections were held in 2001, at the same time as parliamentary and presidential elections, won by President Levy Mwanawasa.


      Zimbabwe police arrest six white farmers

      Harare, Zimbabwe

      27 August 2004 12:12

      advertisementZimbabwe police have arrested six white commercial farmers in the northern tobacco growing district of Karoi, about 260km north of Harare.

      Police said the farmers had defied government orders to leave their farms with immediate effect.

      "Most of these farmers own more than one farm and they have been asked to surrender the other farms and remain with only one," said a police statement.

      Meanwhile, the country's Commercial Farmers' Union (CFU), which represents most white farmers, said it did not know if its members had been arrested.

      "All I know is that one of them, Jan Kageler, was barricaded into his home twice last week by war veterans," said CFU regional director Ben Kaschula.

      "He has an expired order to leave his farm, but now has permission to farm 250ha and surrender the rest," Kaschula added.

      The CFU said attacks against the few remaining white farmers in the district had been coordinated by one self-styled war veteran, despite orders from senior government officials to allow the farmers to continue farming.

      Efforts to contact the arrested farmers and their families were fruitless. -- Sapa


      Zimbabwe 'monitors' foreign embassies

      Harare, Zimbabwe

      26 August 2004 13:29

      advertisementZimbabwean intelligence agencies are "monitoring" cash flows to some foreign embassies in the country, according to a newspaper report on Thursday.

      Speaking to Zimbabwe's weekly Financial Gazette newspaper, the ruling Zanu-PF secretary for external affairs, Didymus Mutasa, said: "Our intelligence arms are taking care of the situation on the ground. We are keeping our eyes open."

      According to the newspaper, the monitoring is to identify diplomatic missions suspected of funding the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC).

      "Embassies must remember that they are here because we want to strengthen our friendship. We do not go to their countries to meddle. It is better for the Americans to concentrate on regime change in their own country, which is the worst, than to come here and talk about regime change," Mutasa was quoted as saying.

      The newspaper said that the investigation came after the government decided that the opposition should be bankrupt after all the legal challenges it has mounted to contest the elections that it claims were rigged.

      However, it still appears to have money in its coffers.

      MDC spokesperson Paul Themba Nyathi said: "No money is given to us by foreigners. This is a fact and Zanu-PF knows it ... We get our money from local supporters and from the Political Parties Finance Act."

      On Wednesday, British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw -- who is visiting Cape Town -- dismissed claims that his government supports the MDC.

      "We don't support any particular political party in Zimbabwe ... We don't support any political party anywhere in the world," he said.

      Straw said a total of £45-million (about R539-million) is available to fund land reform in Zimbabwe should a solution be found to the political and economic crisis in that country. -- Sapa


      Promises, promises...

      Loughty Dube | Harare

      27 August 2004 11:03

      advertisementWith the 2005 parliamentary election in Zimbabwe beckoning, never has the Matabeleland region witnessed so many promises of development from President Robert Mugabe's government.

      Development projects worth about a trillion-Zimbabwean dollars have been promised. The Matabeleland region, that seems to have been forgotten by the government in the past 24 years, has suddenly been rediscovered as President Mugabe's Zanu-PF party goes on a massive drive to win votes.

      The sleepy town of Lupane, the proposed capital of Matabeleland North, is a hive of activity. The town was recently was accorded provincial capital status after former governor Welshman Mabhena opted for Hwange as the provincial capital.

      Just a stone's throw from the home of the late Movement for Democratic Change member of Parliament for Lupane, David Mpala, bulldozers and earthmovers are tearing at the earth in preparation for the construction of a dam to supply the town with drinking water.

      The dam is expected to cost over Z$300-million.

      According to the government, Matabeleland will soon realise the fruits of the long-promised Matabeleland Zambezi Water Project (MZWP) and the upgrading of Tsholotsho and the Kezi roads, while Lupane will boast a fully-fledged university, a state-of-the-art provincial hospital, a provincial police headquarters, recreational facilities, a bank and an upmarket hotel.

      The MZWP has been on the drawing board since 1912 and is expected to cost about Z$150-billion to complete.

      Mugabe was in Lupane last week to launch the site where hundreds of homes for civil servants will be constructed.

      The government is expected to fork out Z$250-million in infrastructural development for the centre.

      The ambitious water project has remained rooted in the planning stages and the Zanu-PF government has used it as an electioneering tool for a long time.

      The government has promised to spend Z$150-billion on the proposed Lupane state university which is to have its first intake in September.

      "The people of Matabeleland will always remain sceptical about the intentions behind these development projects," said Gorden Moyo, a commentator from the Bulawayo Dialogue institute.

      "If the government is genuine then we should see the projects going on even when Zanu-PF loses the election next year."

      Moyo said the Matabeleland water project had always been Zanu-PF's election trump card.

      "Similarly, the government has been using the land issue for the last 20 years but would shelve the idea once the elections were over. Zanu-PF history tells us that we should be sceptical of them."

      Other projects in the offing include the construction of a hotel in Tsholotsho.

      A hotel group says it was invited by Information Minister Jonathan Moyo to construct the hotel. Moyo has been donating generously in the area where he wants to stand as a member of Parliament next year.

      In July, Moyo poured more than Z$100-million in the space of one week into Tsholotsho. He also donated Z$125-million to various institutions.

      In the second week of July, Moyo donated more than 700 blankets worth Z$90-million to several health institutions and a day later donated two computers and a printer worth Z$22,1-million to Tsholotsho hospital. A few days later the minister donated a computer and printer worth Z$13-million to Tsholotsho police.

      Moyo has also donated medical equipment worth Z$28-million and 1 000 bags of cement worth Z$40-million to various institutions in the constituency. - Zimbabwe Independent


      Jonathan Moyo in farm row

      Dumisani Muleya and Gift Phiri | Harare

      27 August 2004 13:30

      advertisementControversy surrounding Zimbabwean Information Minister Jonathan Moyo's purchase of the Patterson farm in the Mazowe district has deepened amid disclosures that he violated government policy and set a bad precedent for land reform.

      Moyo is also entangled in a row over the subdivision of a farm in Hwange where illegal poaching is reported to be rampant.

      Sources said Moyo's acquisition of the Patterson had caused ructions in government circles and fuelled current tussles over land among top ruling Zanu PF officials.

      Moyo's move was "fundamentally improper", sources said, because it breached government policy. The Cabinet has taken a decision to ban the sale of state land.

      Lands, Land Reform and Resettlement Permanent Secretary Simon Pazvakavambwa said state land could not be sold or bought.

      "As a matter of policy nobody can buy or sell state land," he said.

      However, official records show that Moyo bought the Patterson farm, described in Agriculture minister Joseph Made's offer letter dated November 30 2001 as state land, for a mere Z$6-million.

      Documents show that Moyo wrote a Jewel Bank cheque at the Westgate branch on July 22, 2002 as payment for the farm.

      The payment followed a letter written by agriculture permanent secretary Ngoni Masoka on April 29 2002 to Moyo informing him about the cost of the land and improvements.

      Sources said the Z$6-million which Moyo paid to Made's ministry was still in the government's suspense account because "it had no verifiable destination".

      The sources said it could not have been possible for Moyo to buy the farm given that he has no lease agreement and that the property's acquisition had not, in any case, been confirmed by the administrative court.

      As a result, the title deeds for the farm -* which Moyo initially wanted to buy for a paltry Z$1,8 million -* are still with the farm's legal owner, a company run by a trust.

      Meanwhile, official documents show Lot 2 of Dete -* where widespread poaching has been reported -* was offered to Moyo by Made on July 19 2002 although a company called Eternity Trading is said to be operating there now. While the firm has been linked to Moyo, he has denied any interest in the farm saying it was owned by his cousin, a Jackie Meyers. But government recently withdrew the farm from Moyo whom it said owned it.

      The farm has a 32 bedroomed top-of-the-range lodge, Sikumi Tree Lodge, which is an ecotourism facility that offers upmarket accommodation and photographic safaris to tourists.

      The farm, which is the subject of a legal wrangle, is owned by Lions Den Enterprises which was run by Buck de Fries and his family. The lodge was leased by the Rainbow Tourism Group (RTG), which has tried to prevent Moyo from taking it over.

      RTG, in which the government has a 17% stake, wanted Lot 2 occupiers out as it claimed they were disrupting tourism activities. Moyo, who has threatened to sue the Zimbabwe Independent over his farm interests, has been linked to other farms but he has denied any connection. - Zimbabwe Independent
    • Christine Chumbler
      Antibiotic hope for children with Aids 19 November 2004 07:13 Deaths among children infected with HIV in Africa could be almost halved if all those with
      Message 2 of 6 , Nov 19, 2004
        Antibiotic hope for children with Aids

        19 November 2004 07:13

        Deaths among children infected with HIV in Africa could be almost halved if all those with symptoms were put on a simple, cheap and readily available antibiotic, new research has established.

        The positive results of a study of children in Zambia, carried out by the British Medical Research Council (MRC) and funded by the Department for International Development, are a rare breath of hope in the pandemic.

        While the antibiotic, called co-trimoxazole, will not prevent children eventually developing Aids, it could give many of them extra years of healthy life before they need the powerful and toxic anti-retroviral drugs that suppress HIV in the blood.

        "This is a breakthrough in medical research which can help to save children's lives all over the world," Hilary Benn, the international development secretary, said on Thursday.

        "Each day as many as 1 300 children die from HIV and Aids-related illnesses globally. The trial ... has shown how this widely available, affordable antibiotic drug can almost halve child deaths by warding off potentially fatal illnesses in children whose immune systems are weakened because of HIV."

        The results of the trial, published in this week's Lancet medical journal, have persuaded the World Health Organisation and Unicef to change their policies and recommend the use of co-trimoxazole in all children with HIV.

        In the study, 541 children aged between one and 14 were given the antibiotic or a placebo. The trial was stopped early when it became clear that substantially fewer children on the antibiotic were dying. After 19 months, 74 (28%) children on co-trimoxazole had died, compared with 112 (42%) of those on the placebo.

        All those who took part are now taking co-trimoxazole.

        People infected with HIV usually die of the infections that the body cannot fight off because the virus has destroyed their immune system. The antibiotic appears to keep the infections at bay.

        Di Gibb of the MRC, who led the trial, said the drug was cheap and widely available -- the researchers had got their supplies from a local generics company in Lusaka.

        "It could be dispensed right down at the grassroots level," Dr Gibb said. "Any child we think has HIV and has symptoms should go on it."

        She said the children suffered no ill-effects from the antibiotic. "I think they could take it really for quite a long time." - Guardian Unlimited © Guardian Newspapers Limited 2004


        Mozambique: Elections Overshadowed By Memories of War

        UN Integrated Regional Information Networks

        November 18, 2004
        Posted to the web November 18, 2004


        Joaquim Chissano, president of Mozambique since 1986, is to step down following presidential and parliamentary elections that are still overshadowed by memories of the civil war between the FRELIMO government and the former rebel movement, RENAMO.

        Due to the two-term limit imposed on the presidency by the post-war constitution, the ruling FRELIMO candidacy passes to Armando Guebuza, who was the party's chief negotiator at the 1990 Rome peace talks that ended the 16-year war. Afonso Dhlakama, a veteran leader of RENAMO, will be contesting his third presidential poll on 1-2 December.

        "Party dynamics are very slow - it can take 15 or 20 years to find a new leader," said Inacio Chire, a political analyst at Eduardo Mondlane University.

        "The war factor is still significant in the collective consciousness, but this is the last opportunity that this generation has. Without having anything against them, it's time for some new tendencies, new philosophies, within the parties."

        On the streets of the capital Maputo, too, people still cite memories of the war as the main factor influencing which party they will vote for.

        "We spent a long time in the war, and FRELIMO survived," said 31-year-old secretary Fatima Paruque. "FRELIMO didn't make war - it was RENAMO that wanted war and not dialogue. FRELIMO has continued the policy of a minimum wage, built houses, and helped the victims of the floods and the war."

        Others pointed to corruption. "The government is stealing, and only a few people are benefiting from the country's growth," said Chinho, a 27-year-old unemployed graduate in Chamanculo, a run-down neighbourhood adjacent to central Maputo.

        "We need international observers," Chinho added. "As things are at the moment, the government can alter the final result, and they don't want to hand over [power] to another party."

        A total of eight presidential candidates and 25 parties and coalitions are standing for election.

        Considered to have the best prospects of breaking the bipartisan pattern of post-war politics is the Peace, Democracy and Development Party (PDD), which also has links to the war era: its leader and presidential candidate is Raul Domingos, who was formerly RENAMO's number two, and Guebuza's opposite number at the Rome peace talks.

        Most analysts believe the PDD has a realistic chance of breaking through the threshold of 5 percent of the parliamentary vote needed to send a representative to the national assembly, and predict that the PDD's showing is likely to be strongest in RENAMO's traditional north-central stronghold. Domingos commands the same ethnic and regional loyalties as RENAMO, but is widely thought of as a more able and charismatic politician than his former boss, Dhlakama.

        A Guebuza victory is likely to result in changes in the style rather than the substance of leadership.

        "Every presidential candidate makes promises to the party, so it is the party which determines policy," said Manuel Tome, who heads FRELIMO's parliamentary bench. "But there may be changes in style - Guebuza is very quick to make things happen and to take decisions; Chissano was unbelievably patient."

        Eight million Mozambicans are registered to vote, including unknown numbers of dead citizens who have not been removed from the voters' roll. But National Electoral Commission (CNE) spokesman Felipe Mandlate dismissed the possibility that this could lead to electoral fraud.

        "Voters' cards are issued to individuals to provide security. Each person has to identify himself, and an ink mark on the finger prevents people from voting more than once," he said.

        Those who are eligible will vote at 60,000 polling stations spread throughout a vast country with limited road infrastructure. Local and foreign observers may monitor every stage of the vote counting, from the opening of the ballot boxes to the delivery of results to the counting centres in the provincial capitals.

        Former US president Jimmy Carter will lead a delegation of observers from his Atlanta-based Carter Center. The European Union, which is contributing -12 million (US $15.6 million) to funding the election, is also sending a team, while a coalition called the Electoral Observatory will coordinate monitoring by Mozambican civil society groups.

        Controversy continues over the CNE's refusal to allow monitoring of the final process of tabulation and verification of the results from polling stations, which takes place in the provincial capitals and then in Maputo.

        Mandlate told IRIN that the CNE's position reflected current national legislation and was not negotiable, but all the observer groups insist that dialogue is continuing, and have expressed confidence that an acceptable solution will be found.


        Reaping profits from hard ground
        Orla Ryan
        BBC News in Nampula

        A few cents more a kilo doesn't sound very much, but to farmers in rural Mozambique it can be life changing.

        Since joining a farmers' association in 1996, Antonio Guillerme has made enough money to buy a radio, a bicycle, clothes for his wife and to send his children to school.

        While his house does not have a steel roof, it is better than the one he had before.

        Farmers in rural Africa frequently complain of being ripped off by middlemen, and their small plots, a few acres each, mean it is difficult to have a voice with buyers who want both volume and quality. But Mr Guillerme is one of thousands of farmers in northern Mozambique to have benefited from an aid project called Clusa which put them in associations, increasing their bargaining power and linking them with buyers.

        United in strength

        Clusa began work in 1995 in Nampula, one of the country's poorest provinces, where there are few formal job opportunities. There are now some 800 associations, with 25 to 30 farmers each, and anecdotal evidence and surveys suggest that association members have seen their incomes rise.

        Billions of dollars are spent on aid projects every year, most of it Western taxpayers' money, and critics argue that there is often little to show for it. If Clusa is a success, how has it done it?

        Its donors include USAID, Oxfam, the European Union, the Japanese government, the Mozambican government and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation.

        It has attracted close to $7m (£3.7m) since 2001, the bulk of which was from USAID, a reminder of the fact that aid does not come cheap and that one high-profile donor can lead to the cooperation of another.

        Crucially, Clusa started to plan a handover almost as soon as it began.


        In a small office behind the Clusa building is Ikuru, an organisation partly-owned by the farmers.

        In time, this farmer-run organisation will carry out much of Clusa's work, Ikuru's manager Clusa Raposo says.

        If this transition does work, then it will signal the project's success, as it will have continued after the original backers have ended their involvement.

        One of the biggest challenges facing the aid industry is to create sustainable projects which can thrive without outsider financial support.

        Trainers came from within the community and set up demonstration plots to show farmers how it was done.

        Effort was made to ensure all farmers got involved in the association, to the extent of teaching members to read and write.

        High levels of illiteracy meant control of the association's finances and administration could have been concentrated in the hands of a few, Alvara da Graca da Fonseca Veloso, the deputy director of the project, said.

        The farmers signed the contract, saw the produce weighed and got the agreed money. The end result was that - in stark contrast to unsuccessful aid projects elsewhere - the farmers controlled the associations, Mr Raposo says.

        Cutting out the middleman

        And the buyers are happy too.

        Antonio Filipe Miranda buys about 10% of the cashew nuts he needs for his processing factory from these farmers' associations.

        "It is no good to negotiate with someone who is weak and has poor quality, the intention is to negotiate with someone who has quality, volume and who can understand business," he says.

        The farmers' associations borrow money from microfinance institutions and much of this flows through Gapi, a development finance institution.

        Gapi's regional director Gilberto da Silva Miranda says that about 98% of the money has been paid back. Under this system of solidarity credit, if one farmer cannot meet his share, then the others have to cough up.

        "Even without guarantees, they managed to pay much better than people with ties and shoes," he says.

        Future growth?

        There is still plenty of work to be done.

        The farmers want to make more money and buyer Mr Miranda wants to be able to buy in bulk.

        Most small holdings are scattered, with farmers owning half an acre here and half an acre there - a difficult environment in which to increase output.

        Gapi says it is risky to lend money to farmers to increase production, preferring to lend money to hire a truck to deliver their produce or employ workers instead.

        Taking Nampula's farmers to the next step will not be easy, but a foundation has been put in place.

        What happens next will testify to the strength of that foundation.


        Tsvangirai branded 'state enemy number one'

        President Robert Mugabe's government has labelled opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai as state enemy number one, the official Zimbabwe media reported on Thursday.

        Justice minister Patrick Chinamasa also issued a veiled threat of unspecified action to be taken against Tsvangirai, the head of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), when he returns from a lengthy international tour.

        Chinamasa was quoted in the state-controlled daily Herald newspaper as telling Parliament on Wednesday that Tsvangirai was the government's worst enemy for lobbying for sanctions on his fellow countrymen.

        "I can't think of any other description other than to say state enemy number one," he said.

        "If Mr Tsvangirai called for sanctions, I don't expect he would want to return to this country," he added, without elaborating.

        The former national trade union leader has been on an international tour for nearly three weeks. Government officials returned his passport after his acquittal on treason charges last month.

        A campaign of smart sanctions against Mugabe and his political inner circle began in 2001 in retaliation against the Zimbabwe government's violent repression of its opponents and the lawless seizure of white-owned farm land.

        The United States, the European Union, Australia, New Zealand and Switzerland banned Mugabe and senior ruling party and government officials from travelling to their countries, and from holding bank accounts there. There are also bans on arms supplies to Zimbabwe.

        Tsvangirai was banned from travelling for two years when he was forced to surrender his passport for the length of the treason trial in which he was accused of plotting to assassinate 80-year-old Mugabe. The judge said the state had provided no evidence to support the charges.

        He left Harare on October 23 for talks with Southern African leaders, flew on to West Africa where he met the leaders of Nigeria, Senegal, Ghana and Burkina Faso, and then to Europe. He was reported on Wednesday to be in Sweden from where he will go on to Denmark, Norway and The Netherlands. He was also due to meet European Union leaders and the EU secretariat.

        In London, he would address members of the estimated 1,2-million Zimbabwean diaspora who had fled economic collapse and political repression to live in Britain.

        MDC deputy Secretary General Gift Chimanikire said the party wanted to explain their view of the democratisation of Zimbabwe and the need for the restoration of the rule of law.

        Tsvangirai has also been urging international leaders to force Mugabe to stick to internationally accepted guidelines for parliamentary elections set for March next year.

        Tsvangirai was widely regarded as the winner of presidential elections in 2002, but Mugabe won with 1,5-million votes against Tsvangirai's 1,1-million. Independent observers, including the Commonwealth, dismissed Mugabe's win as the result of violent intimidation. - Sapa-DPA
      • Christine Chumbler
        MDC cries foul after counting votes Terry Leonard | Johannesburg, South Africa 06 April 2005 12:26 Zimbabwe s main opposition party said on Wednesday an
        Message 3 of 6 , Apr 6, 2005
          MDC cries foul after counting votes

          Terry Leonard | Johannesburg, South Africa

          06 April 2005 12:26

          Zimbabwe's main opposition party said on Wednesday an investigation
          into last week's parliamentary election indicates massive electoral
          fraud in at least 30 seats won by the ruling Zanu-PF party.

          The main opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) said in 11
          races the winning Zanu-PF candidate got more votes in the official
          returns than the government's own electoral commission said were cast in
          those races.

          In each case, the MDC said its candidate had an unassailable lead,
          polling more than half the official total of votes cast.

          However, the official returns showed 183 000 more votes than the
          electoral commission said were cast.

          "This election was stolen. The results are in no way an accurate
          reflection of the sovereign wishes of the people of Zimbabwe," MDC
          spokesperson Paul Themba Nyathi said in a statement.

          President Robert Mugabe's Zanu-PF party was declared the winner of 78
          of Parliament's 120 elected seats. The MDC got 41 seats and one seat
          went to an independent candidate, former information minister Jonathan
          Moyo. Under Zimbabwe law, Mugabe appoints another 30 MPs.

          Nyathi said the MDC limited its analysis to the 30 seats because the
          electoral commission refused to release figures for other races, a
          decision he said "indicates widespread irregularities" in those other

          In races in urban areas where the MDC was widely expected to hold its
          seats, Nyathi said very few discrepancies were identified.

          "This raises further suspicions that there was a calculated plan to
          ensure that the MDC won a sufficient number of seats to provide the
          electoral process, and the end result, with a veneer of legitimacy,"
          said Nyathi.

          The MDC comparison of official final returns in the 30 races with the
          Zimbabwe Electoral Commission's official numbers for votes cast found
          what Nyathi called "serious and unaccountable gaps" between the two
          figures. In the 30 races alone, if found it could not account for more
          than 183 000 ballots.

          Nyathi said the preliminary findings have been submitted to observer
          missions from South Africa and the Southern African Development

          "Regrettably, these observer missions have so far shown a chronic lack
          of interest in such compelling statistics and instead have maintained
          their respective positions that the elections reflected the 'will of the
          people'," said Nyathi.

          South Africa's mission endorsed the election despite serious objections
          of some mission members. South African President Thabo Mbeki, government
          officials and some observers had said ahead of the poll they saw no
          reason why it would not be free and fair.

          The United States and Britain, which were not among the observers
          hand-picked by Mugabe to assess the election, condemned the vote and
          said the process had been tilted heavily in favour of the ruling party.
          Both countries participated in the diplomatic observer mission in

          British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw said the elections "were
          fundamentally flawed and further weaken Mugabe's legitimacy".

          "Some say this is about Africa versus the West. It is not," said Straw.
          "It is about democracy versus dictatorship. Other Africans, too, have
          been saying enough is enough." -- Sapa-AP


          Zanu-PF threatens to seize companies

          Michael Hartnack | Harare, Zimbabwe

          06 April 2005 02:26

          President Robert Mugabe's ruling Zanu-PF party has threatened to seize
          commercial companies it says are trying to provoke food riots in the
          wake of last week's parliamentary elections.

          "Some of the manufacturers could have unilaterally increased prices
          with the ulterior motive of inducing people to blame the government and
          trigger food riots," the head of the party's women's league, Nyasha
          Chikwinya, said in an article published on Wednesday in the state-owned
          daily newspaper, The Herald.

          Trade Minister Samuel Mumbengegwi issued a statement saying
          manufacturers and retailers who had raised prices of staples such as
          sugar, salt, soap and cooking oil by up to 25% since the March 31 poll
          "should revert to previous levels because the increases were not

          "We have been understudying the running of the companies from the days
          of [1998] food riots and shortages. Enough is enough. This cannot go on
          any longer," said Chikwinya.

          In 2002, reacting to foreign pressure, the government stopped militants
          from invading companies after the seizure of 5 000 white-owned farms.
          Some of the invaded premises belonged to South African subsidiaries,
          protected by international investment agreements.

          The government has been failing for months to set new maximum prices in
          the face of hyperinflation, which reached 620% last year before falling
          back to an official 127% in March -- a figure many economists question.

          Despite the country's chronic economic problems, with 70% unemployment
          and 3,8-million of Zimbabwe's 11,6-million population now living abroad,
          Zanu-PF claimed 78 parliamentary seats in last week's elections,
          compared to 41 for the main opposition Movement for Democratic Change.
          With Mugabe nominating a further 30 in the 150-seat parliament, he may
          now amend the constitution at will.

          Chikwinya said that under Zanu-PF management of the seized companies,
          "we will produce good results and shame our detractors".

          Appealing for an end to panic buying and hoarding, Mumbengegwi said
          temporary absence of maize meal from stores was a result of temporary
          "logistical problems" and "millers were now bringing the situation under

          Mugabe (81), in power since the country won independence from Britain
          in 1980, alleges Zimbabwe's economic problems stem from British
          reprisals for his "fast track" redistribution of former white farms. But
          critics say he has undermined production and exports, using agitation
          for land reform as a smoke screen to intimidating opposition.

          On the eve of the elections, his government raised the national
          statutory minimum wage tenfold to Z$950,000 (about R128) a month, a move
          unions predicted would lead to increased unemployment and illicit use of
          child labour. -- Sapa-AP


          Political violence shakes up Zanzibar


          06 April 2005 11:11

          Arsonists set fire to a Zanzibari opposition leader's home and
          protesters attempted to raid a voter registration centre, as violence
          flared months ahead of elections in the semi-autonomous archipelago.

          The Zanzibar Electoral Commission suspended a voter registration drive
          on Monday in Zanzibar town, the Indian Ocean archipelago's biggest town,
          to try to calm rising tensions between ruling and opposition party
          loyalists. The drive had begun on Sunday.

          General elections in predominantly Muslim Zanzibar are scheduled for
          October 23, and the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi, or Revolutionary Party,
          is expected to face a stiff challenge from the opposition Civic United
          Front. The ruling party labels opposition supporters Muslim
          secessionists, while the opposition says the ruling party represents
          only the interests of the mainland, which is largely Christian and

          But suspending the registration drive appeared to do little to ease
          tensions, and early on Tuesday, attackers used gasoline to set fire to
          the home of Civic United Front leader Abbas Muhunzi, said George
          Kizugutu, a senior police officer.

          Muhunzi, his wife and five children escaped unhurt, although his
          elderly father was beaten by assailants with iron bars. Neighbours said
          the attackers were youths who wore red T-shirts and black trousers.

          "It seems now Zanzibar is experiencing a kind of political bonfire,"
          said Muhunzi, a member of Zanzibar's House of Representatives. He
          appealed to the government to intervene and end "political thuggery" in
          Zanzibar before "things get out of control".

          Later on Tuesday, more than 400 people attempted to invade a suburban
          registration centre, but were beaten back by police, said Rashid Ali
          Suluhu, an election officer.

          Police were investigating the attempted arson and remained on "alert"
          on Tuesday night, setting up roadblocks in some areas.

          Zanzibar, which united with the mainland to form the United Republic of
          Tanzania in 1964, elects its own president and legislature.

          The last vote, in 2000, was marred by irregularities, voter
          intimidation and politically motivated violence.

          Ruling and opposition party supporters have since become decidedly more
          militant, with the government creating paramilitary militias to ensure
          order and the opposition reportedly establishing "self-defence forces."

          In recent months, six people have been killed in political violence.

          Riot police have taken to marching through Zanzibar town, singing
          martial songs in a show of force they say is meant to deter political
          violence, but opposition leaders see as an attempt to intimidate their

          The police were recently deployed from mainland Tanzania, where most
          people are Christian. -- Sapa-AP


          Mozambique: New Cholera Vaccine Shows Promise

          UN Integrated Regional Information Networks

          April 5, 2005
          Posted to the web April 5, 2005


          The success of the first mass immunisation campaign against cholera in
          Mozambique's port city of Beira has prompted calls for greater access to
          the oral vaccine.

          From December 2003 to January 2004 about 50,000 residents in the poor
          district of Esturro received two successive weekly doses of the oral
          cholera vaccine, rBS-WC.

          Researchers then assessed the effectiveness of the vaccine during an
          outbreak in Beira between January and May 2004 and found that it was
          highly effective, protecting between 78 and 84 percent of the recipients
          from cholera for six months, with 50 percent being protected for three

          Needle-administered cholera vaccines have generally provided about 50
          percent protection for just two months. None of the 20 people who died
          during the outbreak had received the vaccine.

          Cholera is endemic in Mozambique and during the rainy season the cities
          of Maputo and Beira are usually worst affected.

          Researchers noted that while similar studies carried out in Bangladesh
          and Peru had shown promise, the Mozambique trial was the first to target
          a population with high HIV prevalence - around 30 percent. They inferred
          from their findings that the vaccine could be effective in people with
          the HI virus.

          The high cost of the vaccine - US $2 per dose - and a lack of evidence
          that it would work in people whose immune systems were compromised by
          HIV had previously deterred researchers from using the new vaccine in
          sub-Saharan Africa.

          "The oral cholera vaccine could be an important tool for Mozambique in
          the next two to three years, particularly in areas where populations are
          at high risk of cholera, and where there is a high prevalence of people
          living with HIV/AIDS. It can give these people new hope," coordinator of
          the trials Marcelino Lucas told IRIN.

          However, Lucas pointed out the study had not included HIV testing and
          further research and monitoring was needed to assess the safety of the
          vaccine among HIV-positive people.

          Although cholera awareness campaigns are instrumental in preventing the
          spread of the disease, they have had a limited impact because of poor
          access to proper sanitation facilities and clean water.

          The cholera bacterium, spread mainly through contaminated water or
          food, causes severe diarrhoea and dehydration. Epidemics are linked to
          poor hygiene, overcrowding, inadequate sanitation and unsafe water.

          Despite government efforts, around 74 percent of Mozambique's rural
          population does not have access to safe drinking water; access to
          potable water in urban areas is slightly better, but more than half the
          people living in towns and cities are without adequate sanitation.

          Lucas said financing a sustainable supply of the vaccine was critical,
          as the success of oral vaccines in Mozambique meant that much-needed
          resources, previously spent on caring for the sick, could instead be
          used for strengthening cholera prevention measures.
        • Christine Chumbler
          Reports deepen doubt over Zim election Harare, Zimbabwe 07 April 2005 08:10 Two reports issued on Wednesday reinforced concern that Zimbabwe President Robert
          Message 4 of 6 , Apr 7, 2005
            Reports deepen doubt over Zim election

            Harare, Zimbabwe

            07 April 2005 08:10

            Two reports issued on Wednesday reinforced concern that Zimbabwe
            President Robert Mugabe's ruling Zanu-PF party won last week's
            parliamentary election through fraud.

            Opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai's Movement for Democratic Change
            gave evidence of what it said was "serious and unaccountable gaps" with
            more than 200 000 votes unaccounted for in the announcement of official
            results before and after counting ballots last week.

            Another report by 35 teams of observers from the United States embassy
            said there were "several patterns of irregularities" that raised concern
            about the freeness and fairness of the process.

            It spoke of the "improper role" of uniformed police and ruling-party
            polling agents in the supervision and conduct of polling stations,
            taking control from officials of the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission
            (ZEC), which was supposed to run the elections.

            Police and Zanu-PF polling agents were counting votes in polling
            stations and communicating results to regional centres, and presiding
            officers confiscated notes from MDC polling agents and independent
            observers, it said.

            Some polling stations were "associated with the distribution of food",
            it said.

            Zanu-PF was given 78 seats in Parliament, while 41 went to the MDC. An
            independent, former information minister Jonathan Moyo, got one seat.
            With another unelected 30 seats appointed by Mugabe through a
            constitutional provision, the ruling party received a landslide of more
            than two-thirds of the 150-seat Parliament.

            The poll has been condemned by United Nations Secretary General Kofi
            Annan as well as the United States, British and Australian governments,
            but it was pronounced "the legitimate expression of the will of the
            people of Zimbabwe" by observer delegations from South Africa and the
            14-nation Southern African Development Community.

            Also on Wednesday, the MDC said "scores of party supporters had been
            injured, some of whom were in hospital, after winning Zanu-PF led their
            supporters in attacks of retribution around the country".

            Nyathi said in a statement that MDC supporters had been attacked in at
            least five constituencies, in one of which a Zanu-PF MP opened fire with
            a pistol on a group, several people had their property destroyed by mobs
            and at least one had his home burnt down.

            MDC secretary general Welshman Ncube said copies of the MDC's
            preliminary report on the discrepancies in voting numbers, as well of
            videotapes of official election announcements on state television and in
            copies of a local newspaper, were given on Wednesday morning to the ZEC,
            which is appointed by Mugabe.

            Late on Thursday night while votes were still being counted, a senior
            ZEC official broadcast the total number of ballots cast in 72
            constituencies. The announcements stopped at about midnight without

            The next morning, however, the ZEC began broadcasting the results of
            the count. Immediately, discrepancies emerged when the number of votes
            for each candidate were added together and compared with the figures of
            a few hours earlier.

            "The MDC and the people know full well who the real winners are," said
            MDC spokesperson Paul Nyathi. "This election was stolen." -- Sapa-DPA


            Illegal Gun Manufacture Flourishing in Tanzania

            The East African (Nairobi)

            April 4, 2005
            Posted to the web April 6, 2005

            Wairagala Wakabi

            In spite of the restriction put on the manufacture of firearms in
            Tanzania, authorities said last week that they have established that
            illegal manufacturing, especially of handmade "Gobore guns" has been
            going on.

            The EastAfrican learnt that, up to 1967, muzzle-loading guns commonly
            known as Gobore were being legally manufactured. Currently, Tanzania
            does not manufacture firearms and does not provide firearms
            manufacturing licenses, but it produces ammunition at Mzinga, in

            "But the situation has changed in that, illicit manufacturing has been
            going on and the quality of the Gobore gun has improved to a standard
            that it can now use modern types of ammunition, said Dominic Hayuma,
            senior assistant commissioner of police and also the co-ordinator of
            Tanzania's national focal point on Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW).
            He however did not say in which parts of the country these guns were
            being manufactured or how many were in the country.

            Authorities have, however, recovered some Gobores.

            Experts say Tanzania needs to change legislation relating to Gobores to
            conform to international conventions, and to transfer administrative
            procedures of handling and controlling muzzle-loading guns from local
            governments, which have failed to keep records and control the illicit
            circulation of the guns to the police.

            Tanzania has since 2001 destroyed 5,773 firearms recovered in five
            locations across the country. The destruction includes burning the
            firearms and cutting the metal part into pieces using a gun cruncher.

            "In future, we intend to destroy the firearms in the region where we
            find them," said Mr Hayuma, adding, "We will be visiting all regions and
            destroying all confiscated guns there, because we are now equipped with
            the necessary facilities."

            Between 1995 and 2000, the Tanzania police was recovering an average of
            400 firearms annually. But after the establishment of a national action
            plan in 2001 to fight illicit arms - a plan that involved security
            agencies, civil society and the public - recoveries have risen to as
            high as 1,743 arms. Mbeya, Rukwa, Kagera and Kigoma are among the most
            affected areas.

            "Most of the illicit firearms that have been recovered are suspected to
            have been brought into the country by refugees from Congo, Burundi and
            Rwanda but some guns were brought in during the war with Idi Amin and
            during the Mozambique liberation war," said Mr Hayuma.

            Some firearms have been reportedly recovered from Somali poachers in
            national parks in the north of the country.

            In 2003, a non-governmental organisation Foundation Help issued a
            report saying there was noticeable growth in the number of small arms
            around Lake Victoria, especially on the Tanzanian side, "but these are
            frequently in the wrong hands".

            The report says that,in the Lake Victoria region of Tanzania, 75 per
            cent of the illegal firearms come from the Democratic Republic of the
            Congo, Burundi and Rwanda. "Most of the weapons come through Mwanza
            airport, which acts as a conduit of arms. The planes that collect fish
            for export in places like Russia, Ukraine and South Africa also bring in
            small firearms on board," said the report, quoting an International
            Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA) participants' survey in the

            Mwanza acting Police Commander Goodluck Mongi was not available for
            comment. However, a senior police officer in Mwanza disputed the claims.
            He said the main source of firearms in Tanzania were the war-torn
            countries of DRC and Burundi.

            Mwanza airport manager Deogratius Malongo disputed the allegations.
            "They need to substantiate their claims, because we have never come
            across any plane from Russia, Ukraine or South Africa with arms on
            board," he said.

            IANSA is a UK-based NGO that is addressing small arms trafficking and
            related problems around the world.
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