- Trouble with new Zambian constitution
20 November 2003 14:43
Zambia's Roman Catholic bishops on Thursday launched a scathing attack
on President Levy Mwanawasa's government over the way the country's new
constitution is being developed.
In a strongly worded letter signed by nine bishops, the church demanded
that the new constitution be adopted by a conference rather than by
"Constitution-making requires that the method used to adopt and enact
the constitution is above suspicion of manipulation by the party in
government," the statement said.
Mwanawasa has indicated that he is opposed to holding a national
constitutional conference as it would be expensive. Such a
constitutional conference would have been expected to be followed by a
But Mwanawasa insists that Parliament is the most appropriate body to
adopt the new constitution.
The Catholic bishops and civic groups fear that if the constitution
goes through Parliament, it risks being manipulated by Mwanawasa, who
has great influence on his party's lawmakers.
"Democracy is not cheap. A badly drafted constitution that might lack
popular support will probably have to be revisited in yet another
constitutional review -- and that will surely be even more expensive,"
the bishops said.
Mwanawasa appointed a 41-member constitutional review commission in
April to collect views from Zambians and draft a new democratic
But some leading civic groups have refused to participate in the
process, saying they needed a commitment from Mwanawasa that he would
not tamper with the recommendations made by the commission.
"We, therefore, equally recommend that the final report from the
constitutional review commission be submitted to a popularly constituted
and representative body," the bishops said.
This is the fourth time in 39 years that Zambia is trying to develop a
new constitution that will be acceptable to all Zambians.
Previous attempts failed because the government manipulated the
recommendations from the constitutional review commission. -- Sapa-AFP
Zimbabwe suspension all 'lies'
20 November 2003 08:05
Zimbabwe's foreign minister on Wednesday insisted that the southern
African country is entitled to attend next month's Commonwealth Heads of
Government Meeting (CHOGM).
The minister, Stan Mudenge, maintained that Zimbabwe was back as a full
member of the 54-nation organisation, saying its 12-month suspension
from the Commonwealth council had lapsed on March 19 despite an
announcement by Commonwealth Secretary General Don McKinnon on March 16
that it had been extended for a further nine months.
Mudenge told parliament that the troika -- Australia, Nigeria and South
Africa -- which slapped the country with the year-long suspension had
not renewed it.
Zimbabwe was suspended from the Commonwealth councils after
presidential elections in March last year were declared neither free nor
fair by many international monitors.
"Zimbabwe is now back as a full member and is therefore entitled to
attend the (Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting) CHOGM in Abuja in
December 2003," Mudenge declared.
He said Zimbabwe's suspension need not be reviewed because it was for a
specified period and when that expired, the country automatically became
a full member again.
"The suspension was finite. To continue with it required a fresh
decision. Such a fresh decision was never made," he said in a special
statement to lawmakers, just two days after Nigeria's president and this
year's host of the CHOGM, Olusegun Obasanjo, visited Zimbabwe for talks
with President Robert Mugabe on the issue.
Mudenge said McKinnon's statement on March 16 was "based on falsehood
and therefore without effect" because South Africa and Nigeria had
rebutted his claims.
"Put blatantly the secretary general lied," said Mudenge, accusing
Australian Prime Minister John Howard and McKinnon of "breathtaking
arrogance" and of being "consumed by racist emotionalism".
"There are many who regard Mr Howard as a notorious international
outlaw who was recently involved in the illegal invasion of Iraq,
murdered innocent women and children and effected unauthorised regime
"In fact they believe that he should be told clearly and firmly that
'regime change' is not a Commonwealth policy or principle and that he
must stand trial at the Rome International Criminal Court for his
crimes," said Mudenge.
Obasanjo, after talks with Mugabe on Monday, said he was still
"consulting" on whether to issue an invitation to Mugabe.
Howard, McKinnon and Britain do not want to see Mugabe at the summit
while most black Commonwealth countries support Zimbabwe.
It is feared that continued disagreement over Zimbabwe could widen the
rift between African Commonwealth members, led by Nigeria and South
Africa, and the so-called "white Commonwealth". - Sapa-AFP
Patchy start to Zimbabwe strike
A two-day general strike has not shut down Zimbabwe, as unions had
Reports say that the centre of the capital, Harare, is as normal,
although some factories and industries are closed in the second city,
There is a heavy police presence in both cities. The strike was called
after the arrest of more than 80 people during protests on Tuesday.
Unions are upset about the economic crisis and called the strike to
coincide with Thursday's budget.
The BBC's Themba Nkosi in Bulawayo says the slow start to the strike
illustrates the trouble non-government bodies have in reaching the
The government controls all radio and TV stations and has shut the only
privately-owned daily newspaper.
He also says the people of Zimbabwe do not seem ready to confront the
full force of the government.
Among those arrested on Tuesday are the chairman of the Zimbabwe
Congress of Trade Unions, Lovemore Matombo, as well known reform
activists Brian Raftopoulos, John Makumbe and Lovemore Madhuku.
"We demand the immediate release of ZCTU and other civic society
leaders," ZCTU Secretary General Collen Gwiyo said in a statement.
Unemployment stands at 70% and inflation is running at 526%. The union
protesters are urging the finance minister not to increase taxes or
raise prices in the budget.
President Robert Mugabe's opponents accuse him of economic
They blame the country's woes partly on the seizures of white-owned
Mr Mugabe says his land reforms are designed to redress an injustice of
British colonial rule, and accuses opponents at home and abroad of
sabotaging the economy.
About 50 people arrested in Harare on Tuesday have been charged under
the country's public order and security act.
Some are accused of organising an unlawful demonstration and others
with hindering traffic in the streets.
Under tough security laws, the police must give permission for all
demonstrations and protests by groups not allied to the ruling Zanu-PF
party are rarely authorised.
On a similar day of protest last month, police arrested some 41 trade
union leaders in Harare, and more than 100 in the eastern town of
- 'Voting doesn't fill the belly'
12 December 2004 23:59
Mozambique's ruling party, Frelimo, surged ahead last week in unofficial results from the country's recent election, puzzling analysts who had expected a neck-and-neck finish with the opposition Renamo. At the same time, evidence of ballot-stuffing in some remote districts cast a shadow over the clean bill of health that international observers gave the elections.
Projections suggest that Frelimo's presidential candidate, Armando Guebuza, will get 60% of the vote, as compared with 35% for Renamo's Afonso Dhlakama, who in 1999 collected nearly 48% of the vote. These projections are based on results posted by individual polling stations and collected by Radio Mozambique correspondents around the country.
The sharp drop in Renamo support was accompanied by an equally dramatic fall in voter turnout, with numbers expected to be between three million and 3,5-million: less than half of the eligible voters. Turnout in the 1994 and 1999 general elections was 5,4-million and 4,9-million respectively.
Analysts agreed that abstention had been highest among Renamo's traditional supporters in the largely agricultural centre and north of the country, who felt that the government had let them down, and the opposition had failed to provide a viable alternative.
"People chose to stay in the fields -- voting doesn't fill the belly," said independent journalist Marcelo Mosse.
"In the cities, the absence might have been a criticism not only of [outgoing president Joaquim] Chissano, but also of Guebuza -- he is not someone who inspires support."
The political weekly Savana described the low turnout as "a red card to the political class", which it accused of being out of touch with voters' interests.
Reports of irregularities were concentrated in Tete province in western Mozambique.
"In Tete there was clearly fraud, though not enough to affect the final result," said Luís de Brito of the Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (Eisa).
He said two voting stations in the province's Changara district had reported turnout of close to 100%, with most of these votes going to Frelimo. De Brito said the high turnout for the province as a whole gave reason for suspicion.
"In Tete, we have an average of 400 voters turning out at each voting table, compared with fewer than 300 per table in all the other provinces."
De Brito said Renamo activists had been forced to leave certain areas of Tete province early in the election campaign, which had prevented them from sending monitors to polling in those areas. Elsewhere in the country, the presence of party representatives during voting and counting was hailed as Mozambique's best safeguards against fraud.
The Mozambican Political Process Bulletin -- an independent newsletter with a wide network of correspondents -- also cited evidence of ballot-stuffing in Tsangano district of Tete province, as well as in Chicono in northern Niassa province. In the latter, 996 out of 1 000 voters registered at one station appeared to have voted, with Guebuza gaining more than 900 of the votes.
Such reports contradicted the positive assessment of international observation teams, who praised Mozambique's strong legal framework for elections, the professionalism of polling station staff, and balanced coverage both in state and private media. Asked why the international teams had not picked up the incidents of fraud cited by Eisa, De Brito said these incidents had occurred mostly at remote and inaccessible polling stations.
The international teams, including Southern African Development Community parliamentarians and representatives of the Commonwealth, the Carter Center and the European Union, were however concerned at the low electoral turnout. Several of the observer teams also mentioned the mistrust that had been created by the party-political structure of the National Electoral Commission, where Frelimo is able to force through decisions by majority vote.
Elderly pay the price for raising Aids orphans
14 December 2004 08:21
Until a week ago, elderly Hannah Dube and her five grandchildren living in the dusty village of Kezi in soutwestern Zimbabwe had been surviving on small portions of dried white melon.
Then Zimbabwe's social services stepped in, handing the 75-year-old Dube emergency aid of the staple corn grain to feed her family, caught in the grip of an HIV/Aids pandemic and a crippling drought.
Her face worn by grief and stress, the aging grandmother's plight in this remote and rural corner of Zimbabwe tells the story of the burden of many other pensioners in this southern African country where HIV/Aids has turned a million children into orphans.
The UN children's organisation Unicef estimates that more than one in five children will be orphaned in Zimbabwe by 2010, with more than 80% of those orphaned by HIV/Aids, which kills about 3 000 people per week on average.
Nine of her grandchildren are orphaned -- she is looking after five children between the ages of five and 13.
Three successive years of drought in this naturally dry region some 600km southwest of the capital, characterised by unproductive soils, and a political and economic crisis have exacerbated food shortages.
"We only eat one meal a day," said Dube, who lives in a hut next to a dusty road, where her cooking fire has long since gone out.
"We are used to it now and there is nothing unusual about it," she said.
While food is available in the shops, people like Dube and her family, who have no source of income whatsoever, cannot even dream of buying any.
Driving up to Dube's home along a narrow dust road, hundreds of people, dangling empty sacks, were seen walking back home, looking tired, hungry and dejected.
They are coming from the local business centre where they had gone to register their names for food aid to be handed out three days later.
"We were told [by an international aid organisation] to come and register our names for food coming next week. But now they say only those on the old list will be given food," Dube said.
The Zimbabwean government this year turned away foreign food aid, saying the country produced enough to feed its people.
But Harare has recently allowed the United Nations World Food Programme to undertake a one-off free food distribution to get rid of its stock left over from April when the government stopped general food aid.
Volunteer workers confirm the hunger in the area.
"It is depressing to go out there visiting the sick, handing out a few bars of soap, diapers, some antiseptic solutions -- but seeing that what is urgently needed is food," said volunteer Georgina Tshabalala.
Dube is not only struggling to provide food for her orphaned grandchildren, but also shelter.
She cleans up grass that fell while she was thatching the roof of her new mud and pole hut in this remote rural area of Zimbabwe.
With nobody to help her build or maintain their home, Dube has to risk climbing onto the roof to patch it up before the rains bring it down.
Inside, the fire has gone out.
Dube said besides the fact that their one meal has already been cooked, she could not afford to keep the fire going because she does not have the energy to regularly go to the bush to cut down firewood.
The elderly woman -- old and weak enough to be a dependent herself -- said she had no choice but to look after her some of her grandchildren.
Those who are not under her wing are probably involved in illegal gold mining, rife in the area.
"I don't really know how they are surviving, but no one helps me with anything. The chickens and the goats you see outside I sell to send these children to school," she said.
Despite the difficult living conditions and lack of food, one of her grandchildren, Dan, (7), passed his year-end school examinations with A grades. - Sapa-AFP
Improved Zim inflation still world's highest
14 December 2004 15:15
Zimbabwe's official inflation rate dropped to 149,3% last month, down from 209% in October, the state Central Statistical Office said on Tuesday. The new rate still leaves Zimbabwe with the highest inflation in the world.
The troubled Southern African country is in the midst of its worst economic crisis since independence from Britain in 1980, with inflation peaking at more than 600% last year.
With the local currency plummeting, sending a Christmas card to Europe by air mail now costs Z$40 000 (about R41) -- twice as much as a one-bedroom apartment did shortly after independence.
A dollar was equivalent to Z$2 at the time, compared with the current official rate of Z$5 600, or Z$8 000 on the black market.
The Reserve Bank attributes the recent drop to tighter fiscal policies aimed at reining in rampant profiteering and a lucrative black market in scarce commodities and hard currency.
However, the official inflation rate excludes prices on a wide range of services and imports that have continued to soar throughout the year.
The cost of medicines, vehicle repairs and health, agriculture and mining equipment has risen by more than 600%. The state telephone and postal companies have increased their fees by 1 000%.
The agriculture-based economy has collapsed in the four years since the government began seizing thousands of white-owned commercial farms for redistribution to black Zimbabweans.
The country routinely faces acute shortages of food, gasoline, hard currency and other imports. -- Sapa-AP