- Mozambique plans new
Mozambique has approached investors to fund
a $1.3bn hydro-electric dam on the Zambezi
River, both to supply domestic power needs
and to provide a surplus to sell to neighbouring
The state-owned daily
reported that the
the Mepanda Uncua
dam project to
potential investors on
Thursday 30 May.
Mepanda Uncua, 61km
downstream from the
existing Cabora Bassa
dam, would have a
capacity to generate
megawatts of power, equivalent to the output
of around four large power stations.
The new dam would end South African power
company ESKOM's monopoly over electricity
supply in Mozambique.
About 80% of the of electricity generated by
3,750 megawatt Cahora Bassa, Africa's second
largest dam covering 2,700-square kilometres,
is contracted out to ESKOM and exported to
Former colonial ruler Portugal, which built and
owns the 25-year-old dam, is still paying off
the debt for its construction.
Electricity utility Electricidade de Moçambique
(EDM) supplies the south of the country with
power re-purchased from ESKOM.
A preliminary environmental and social impact
assessment last year by the government's
Technical Unit for the Implementation of
Hydroelectric Projects (UTIP) found the new
dam would submerge about 100 square
The report estimated little arable land would be
lost and about 1,000 people be resettled.
Environmentalists have criticised the building of
another dam on the Zambezi, arguing recent
flooding was exacerbated by the existing dams
along the river.
They claim the government is more interested
in generating foreign exchange earnings rather
than coordinated water policy.
Zambia 'must diversify'
Zambia's finance minister is pushing for the
country to move away from its dependence on
mineral exports in the wake of the collapse of
its copper mining industry.
"We certainly have to diversify from copper
production to agriculture and other areas that
will bring about economic growth," said Finance
Minister Emmanuel Kasonde.
"We can no longer depend on copper."
Export earnings from copper and cobalt now
bring in about 75% of Zambia's foreign
currency earnings, but copper prices in
particular have fallen steeply in recent months.
Zambia's copper industry has also suffered a
blow from mining giant Anglo-American's
decision to withdraw from the huge Konkola
mine on the grounds that production is no
Copper from Konkola accounts for 67% of the
country's metal exports.
Mr Kasonde was speaking ahead of a
three-day conference on diversifying the
country's economy in the town of Kitwe, about
400 miles north of the capital, Lusaka.
However, diversification is unlikely to be
straightforward, according to Chileshe
Mulenga, the director of the Institute for
Economic and Social Research (IESR) in
"It is one thing to say you want to diversify
and another to actually diversify," said Mr
"Zambia must first put in place infrastructure
that would have to support small and
medium-scale businesses and even
agriculture," he warned.
He also called for land allocation reforms.
Zambia is suffering from acute food shortages
and has received emergency aid from the
International Monetary Fund (IMF).
The Zambian government has been holding
talks with Anglo-American over the future of
the Konkola mine, which is the country's
Zambia wants up to $200m in exit payments
from Anglo-American, including short-term
financing, and an agreement to keep its
management team at Konkola for at least 12
However, the copper industry got a boost on
Monday as Australian firm Equinox said it would
invest $450m (£309m) in the open-cast
Lumwama mine in tandem with its US partner
The Lumwana mine is expected to produce
106,000 tonnes of copper a year from 2006,
said Equinox managing director Craig Williams.
Top lawyers arrested in
Two of Zimbabwe's most senior lawyers have
been arrested on suspicion of agitating for
The president of the
Law Society, Sternford
Moyo and the group's
Mapombere were picked
up on Monday evening,
released at midnight and
re-arrested at 0130 am
(2330GMT) on Tuesday, a legal source in
Harare told BBC News Online.
They are due to appear in court later on
A police spokesman said the men are being
questioned over two letters they are alleged to
have written to the British High Commission
and the opposition Movement for Democratic
Police say the letters called for the suspension
of talks between the governing Zanu-PF and
the MDC in order to encourage public protests.
Nigeria and South Africa are trying to mediate
between the two sides but the talks collapsed
after the MDC filed a legal challenge to
President Robert Mugabe's controversial
re-election in March.
The poll was condemned as fraudulent by
many Western nations and the Commonwealth
observer mission, although some African
nations backed Mr Mugabe's victory.
"We are still
interviewing them and
they are likely to be
later charged under
POSA (Public Order
and Security Act),"
Reuters news agency.
Mr Moyo and Mr
Mapombere were the
first lawyers arrested
in a continuing
Mr Moyo has led protests against government
attempts to intimidate judges who have ruled
against the authorities.
"The government thinks it has dealt with
journalists - and it's now coming for the
lawyers," the legal source said.
Several opposition activists have been
arrested for alleged subversion under the
Public Order and Security Act since the
And 12 independent journalists have been
arrested under harsh new media laws since the
Ten have been
charged with allegedly
to the state.
MDC leader, Morgan
Tsvangirai and two of
his associates have
also been charged
with treason. The new
media and security
laws have been widely
condemned by human
pro-democracy activists as an effort by Mr
Mugabe to crush dissent and curb
constitutional rights of free expression.
Correspondents say subversion under strict
new security laws carries a penalty of up to 20
years in jail.
- 'Voting doesn't fill the belly'
12 December 2004 23:59
Mozambique's ruling party, Frelimo, surged ahead last week in unofficial results from the country's recent election, puzzling analysts who had expected a neck-and-neck finish with the opposition Renamo. At the same time, evidence of ballot-stuffing in some remote districts cast a shadow over the clean bill of health that international observers gave the elections.
Projections suggest that Frelimo's presidential candidate, Armando Guebuza, will get 60% of the vote, as compared with 35% for Renamo's Afonso Dhlakama, who in 1999 collected nearly 48% of the vote. These projections are based on results posted by individual polling stations and collected by Radio Mozambique correspondents around the country.
The sharp drop in Renamo support was accompanied by an equally dramatic fall in voter turnout, with numbers expected to be between three million and 3,5-million: less than half of the eligible voters. Turnout in the 1994 and 1999 general elections was 5,4-million and 4,9-million respectively.
Analysts agreed that abstention had been highest among Renamo's traditional supporters in the largely agricultural centre and north of the country, who felt that the government had let them down, and the opposition had failed to provide a viable alternative.
"People chose to stay in the fields -- voting doesn't fill the belly," said independent journalist Marcelo Mosse.
"In the cities, the absence might have been a criticism not only of [outgoing president Joaquim] Chissano, but also of Guebuza -- he is not someone who inspires support."
The political weekly Savana described the low turnout as "a red card to the political class", which it accused of being out of touch with voters' interests.
Reports of irregularities were concentrated in Tete province in western Mozambique.
"In Tete there was clearly fraud, though not enough to affect the final result," said Luís de Brito of the Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (Eisa).
He said two voting stations in the province's Changara district had reported turnout of close to 100%, with most of these votes going to Frelimo. De Brito said the high turnout for the province as a whole gave reason for suspicion.
"In Tete, we have an average of 400 voters turning out at each voting table, compared with fewer than 300 per table in all the other provinces."
De Brito said Renamo activists had been forced to leave certain areas of Tete province early in the election campaign, which had prevented them from sending monitors to polling in those areas. Elsewhere in the country, the presence of party representatives during voting and counting was hailed as Mozambique's best safeguards against fraud.
The Mozambican Political Process Bulletin -- an independent newsletter with a wide network of correspondents -- also cited evidence of ballot-stuffing in Tsangano district of Tete province, as well as in Chicono in northern Niassa province. In the latter, 996 out of 1 000 voters registered at one station appeared to have voted, with Guebuza gaining more than 900 of the votes.
Such reports contradicted the positive assessment of international observation teams, who praised Mozambique's strong legal framework for elections, the professionalism of polling station staff, and balanced coverage both in state and private media. Asked why the international teams had not picked up the incidents of fraud cited by Eisa, De Brito said these incidents had occurred mostly at remote and inaccessible polling stations.
The international teams, including Southern African Development Community parliamentarians and representatives of the Commonwealth, the Carter Center and the European Union, were however concerned at the low electoral turnout. Several of the observer teams also mentioned the mistrust that had been created by the party-political structure of the National Electoral Commission, where Frelimo is able to force through decisions by majority vote.
Elderly pay the price for raising Aids orphans
14 December 2004 08:21
Until a week ago, elderly Hannah Dube and her five grandchildren living in the dusty village of Kezi in soutwestern Zimbabwe had been surviving on small portions of dried white melon.
Then Zimbabwe's social services stepped in, handing the 75-year-old Dube emergency aid of the staple corn grain to feed her family, caught in the grip of an HIV/Aids pandemic and a crippling drought.
Her face worn by grief and stress, the aging grandmother's plight in this remote and rural corner of Zimbabwe tells the story of the burden of many other pensioners in this southern African country where HIV/Aids has turned a million children into orphans.
The UN children's organisation Unicef estimates that more than one in five children will be orphaned in Zimbabwe by 2010, with more than 80% of those orphaned by HIV/Aids, which kills about 3 000 people per week on average.
Nine of her grandchildren are orphaned -- she is looking after five children between the ages of five and 13.
Three successive years of drought in this naturally dry region some 600km southwest of the capital, characterised by unproductive soils, and a political and economic crisis have exacerbated food shortages.
"We only eat one meal a day," said Dube, who lives in a hut next to a dusty road, where her cooking fire has long since gone out.
"We are used to it now and there is nothing unusual about it," she said.
While food is available in the shops, people like Dube and her family, who have no source of income whatsoever, cannot even dream of buying any.
Driving up to Dube's home along a narrow dust road, hundreds of people, dangling empty sacks, were seen walking back home, looking tired, hungry and dejected.
They are coming from the local business centre where they had gone to register their names for food aid to be handed out three days later.
"We were told [by an international aid organisation] to come and register our names for food coming next week. But now they say only those on the old list will be given food," Dube said.
The Zimbabwean government this year turned away foreign food aid, saying the country produced enough to feed its people.
But Harare has recently allowed the United Nations World Food Programme to undertake a one-off free food distribution to get rid of its stock left over from April when the government stopped general food aid.
Volunteer workers confirm the hunger in the area.
"It is depressing to go out there visiting the sick, handing out a few bars of soap, diapers, some antiseptic solutions -- but seeing that what is urgently needed is food," said volunteer Georgina Tshabalala.
Dube is not only struggling to provide food for her orphaned grandchildren, but also shelter.
She cleans up grass that fell while she was thatching the roof of her new mud and pole hut in this remote rural area of Zimbabwe.
With nobody to help her build or maintain their home, Dube has to risk climbing onto the roof to patch it up before the rains bring it down.
Inside, the fire has gone out.
Dube said besides the fact that their one meal has already been cooked, she could not afford to keep the fire going because she does not have the energy to regularly go to the bush to cut down firewood.
The elderly woman -- old and weak enough to be a dependent herself -- said she had no choice but to look after her some of her grandchildren.
Those who are not under her wing are probably involved in illegal gold mining, rife in the area.
"I don't really know how they are surviving, but no one helps me with anything. The chickens and the goats you see outside I sell to send these children to school," she said.
Despite the difficult living conditions and lack of food, one of her grandchildren, Dan, (7), passed his year-end school examinations with A grades. - Sapa-AFP
Improved Zim inflation still world's highest
14 December 2004 15:15
Zimbabwe's official inflation rate dropped to 149,3% last month, down from 209% in October, the state Central Statistical Office said on Tuesday. The new rate still leaves Zimbabwe with the highest inflation in the world.
The troubled Southern African country is in the midst of its worst economic crisis since independence from Britain in 1980, with inflation peaking at more than 600% last year.
With the local currency plummeting, sending a Christmas card to Europe by air mail now costs Z$40 000 (about R41) -- twice as much as a one-bedroom apartment did shortly after independence.
A dollar was equivalent to Z$2 at the time, compared with the current official rate of Z$5 600, or Z$8 000 on the black market.
The Reserve Bank attributes the recent drop to tighter fiscal policies aimed at reining in rampant profiteering and a lucrative black market in scarce commodities and hard currency.
However, the official inflation rate excludes prices on a wide range of services and imports that have continued to soar throughout the year.
The cost of medicines, vehicle repairs and health, agriculture and mining equipment has risen by more than 600%. The state telephone and postal companies have increased their fees by 1 000%.
The agriculture-based economy has collapsed in the four years since the government began seizing thousands of white-owned commercial farms for redistribution to black Zimbabweans.
The country routinely faces acute shortages of food, gasoline, hard currency and other imports. -- Sapa-AP