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  • Christine Chumbler
    SA condemns Zimbabwe military South Africa has criticised Zimbabwe s army for a thinly veiled warning that it would support only the current leadership in the
    Message 1 of 83 , Jan 11, 2002
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      SA condemns Zimbabwe
      military

      South Africa has criticised Zimbabwe's army for
      a thinly veiled warning that it would support
      only the current leadership in the forthcoming
      elections.

      President Thabo Mbeki's
      spokesman said the role
      of the army was to
      defend democracy, not
      to deliver threats.

      On Wednesday,
      Zimbabwean defence
      force commander
      General Vitalis
      Zvinavashe said he
      would only support a
      president who had fought in the liberation
      struggle.

      The general's remarks were seen as a clear
      threat to opposition candidate Morgan
      Tsvangirai, who did not fight in Zimbabwe's
      war for independence.

      Call for democracy

      The South African reaction came amid
      mounting international disapproval of President
      Robert Mugabe's campaign to quash opposition
      ahead of the March presidential poll.

      The open criticism also represents a further
      distancing from Pretoria's traditional support
      for the Zimbabwean Government coupled with
      a policy of quiet persuasion.

      President Mbeki's
      official spokesman,
      Bheki Khumalo, said
      South Africa wanted to
      see democracy and the
      rule of law prevail in its
      neighbour.

      "If indeed these
      allegations are true,
      then indeed that
      situation is not
      acceptable to us," Mr
      Khumalo told the
      French news agency AFP.

      "You cannot have a situation where in a sense
      the security forces are trying to pre-empt an
      election."

      Mr Khumalo said an official statement on
      Zimbabwe would be issued later on Friday.

      'Zimbabwean values'

      Supporters of Mr Mugabe frequently trumpet
      him as a revolutionary hero who helped liberate
      the country from white rule.

      Mr Tsvangirai, who leads the popular
      Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), has
      said he did not fight because he was
      supporting his father's large family.

      The defence chief also
      said on Wednesday
      that the country's
      security forces would
      only support a
      president who would
      "pursue Zimbabwean
      values".

      But Mr Khumalo called
      on the army to uphold
      the laws of Zimbabwe,
      whatever the
      government of the day.

      "We are actually... opposed to military coups
      and therefore, you know, we will not support
      military government," he said.

      The spokesman said South Africa had yet to
      discuss the latest developments with
      Zimbabwe but would raise them at a special
      summit of the Southern African Development
      Community in Malawi on Monday.

      The European Union is expected to tell a
      Zimbabwean Government delegation on Friday
      that the country will face sanctions if human
      rights abuses are not curbed.

      There is also widespread speculation that
      Zimbabwe faces ejection from the
      Commonwealth.

      *****

      How loyal is Zimbabwe's
      army?

      By Michael Quintana, editor of the Africa
      Defence Journal

      President Robert Mugabe came to power
      following a long and bitter guerrilla war, and 22
      years later he is relying on the military to keep
      the keys to State House and power.

      The commander of
      Zimbabwe's defence
      forces, General Vitalis
      Zvinavashe, said on
      Wednesday that the
      military will only obey a
      political leader who
      participated in the
      1970s war of
      independence.

      "We will... not accept, let alone support or
      salute, anyone with a different agenda," he
      said, flanked by the commanders of the army,
      air force, prisons and the much-feared Central
      Intelligence Organisation chief, all former
      comrades-in-arms of Mr Mugabe.

      The statement was significant because Mr
      Mugabe's main challenger in March's
      presidential election is Morgan Tsvangirai, a
      trade-union leader with broad political support,
      especially among urban Zimbabweans, but a
      man who used his free time when younger to
      further his studies rather than join the
      liberation movements.

      Rank-and-file

      But while the military top brass are Mugabe
      loyalists, he cannot necessarily count on the
      support of the rank-and-file.

      The Zimbabwe National
      Army was formed at
      independence in 1980
      by fusing the army of
      white-ruled Rhodesia
      with the two liberation
      movements - Joshua
      Nkomo's Zipra and
      Robert Mugabe's Zanla.

      Mr Mugabe's policy of
      awarding the best jobs
      in the new army to
      favoured Zanla
      personnel meant that
      discontent has always simmered among former
      members of Zipra and the former-Rhodesian
      army.

      Before a proper integration process had even
      begun, Mr Nkomo's troops rebelled and
      marched on Bulawayo, Zimbabwe's second
      largest city, in an attempted coup.

      Luckily, a few hundred black and white former
      Rhodesian soldiers stood in their way and,
      together with the air force, managed to defeat
      the 5,000-strong rebellion and prevent the
      new state from plunging into open civil war.

      Unsure of his grip on power, Mr Mugabe
      privately commissioned the creation of the
      North Korean-trained Fifth Brigade, under the
      command of Perence Shiri.

      In the early 1980s, they became notorious for
      their cruelty when they were deployed in the
      largely ethnic Ndebele areas of the country, to
      put down a suspected Ndebele and Zipra
      insurrection against Mr Mugabe.

      Within two years these "political warriors" had
      laid bare an area representing one-third of the
      country with scorched-earth policies, where
      thousands were killed, crops destroyed and
      homesteads burned.

      Insufficient reward

      More recently, as living standards have
      plummeted, urban areas have erupted into
      occasional bouts of anti-government violence.

      The army has been
      used on several
      occasions to stamp out
      the unrest and has
      been accused of using
      excessive force.

      In 1998, the army was
      sent to the Democratic
      Republic of Congo in
      support of Mr Mugabe's
      close ally, the then
      President Laurent
      Kabila.

      In the DR Congo, the graft, corruption,
      mismanagement and ill-discipline among
      Zimbabwe's soldiers was exposed by their
      involvement in diamond deals and lucrative
      joint ventures.

      There have also been many reported discipline
      problems among the soldiers, with secret
      court-martials for those unhappy at being sent
      to the DR Congo.

      Since 1993, pay and living arrangements have
      deteriorated, with up to 40% of personnel
      having to live outside barracks because of a
      lack of proper accommodation and funds to
      feed them.

      Pay of all security forces was doubled from the
      start of this year, though some soldiers may
      see through this attempt to buy their loyalty
      ahead of elections.

      If the military commanders did order their
      troops to move against a political leader who
      they did not approve of, many of those
      soldiers without decent accommodation, or
      who still bear a grudge from the divisions of
      the war of independence, would be reluctant
      to obey.

      Equally, if Mr Mugabe tried to rig the election
      results, this would quite likely lead to
      widespread unrest in the urban areas, where
      support for his opponent, Mr Tsvangirai is
      overwhelming.

      Mr Mugabe would be wise not to rely too
      heavily on the army to keep him in power if
      Zimbabwe's voters want him to go.

      *****

      Zimbabwe faces EU
      sanctions threat

      Zimbabwe is facing the threat of economic
      sanctions from the European Union, a day after
      its parliament approved measures which critics
      say will enable the government to stifle
      opposition.

      Zimbabwean ministers are meeting EU officials
      in Brussels, and they are expected to be told
      that sanctions could be imposed if President
      Robert Mugabe's government fails to curb
      alleged human rights abuses.

      But Zimbabwean Foreign Minister Stanley
      Mudenge appeared unconcerned - asked if he
      was worried, he replied: "Sanctions, what
      sanctions? We're here for a dialogue".

      Despite the new
      legislation which
      criminalises criticism of
      Mr Mugabe, opposition
      leader Morgan
      Tsvangirai said he
      would press ahead with
      his challenge to the
      president in elections in
      March.

      "I will stand as the MDC
      candidate in that
      election," the Movement for Democratic
      Change leader told reporters in Harare.

      But in a letter to the EU's Council of Ministers
      Mr Tsvangiari also warned that free and fair
      elections were impossible because of
      state-backed political violence.

      Interior minister John
      Nkomo - who is also in
      Brussels for the EU
      meeting - told the BBC
      that there were no
      human rights abuses in
      his country, and it had
      only been criticised
      when it tried to
      redistribute land from
      white farmers to
      landless black people.

      The BBC's Europe
      correspondent Jonty
      Bloom says the EU
      could end up by freezing hundreds of millions of
      pounds of aid earmarked for Zimbabwe.

      But critics say that will be too little, too late,
      and they are calling for the freezing of the
      assets of President Mugabe and other
      government ministers.

      Commonwealth speaks out

      Commonwealth countries are stepping up their
      pressure on Mr Mugabe ahead of the
      presidential elections on 9-10 March.

      Neighbouring South Africa described as
      "unacceptable" the Zimbabwean army's implicit
      warning that it would not accept an opposition
      election victory.

      Australia's Foreign Minister Alexander Downer
      said he would push for Zimbabwe's suspension
      from the Commonwealth at the heads of
      government meeting in Brisbane in March.

      "We don't want a
      country sitting around
      the table with us, or a
      president sitting around
      the table with us, who
      doesn't stand for the
      things we stand for," Mr
      Downer said.

      And New Zealand also
      called for the
      Commonwealth to
      freeze Zimbabwe's
      membership.

      The UK has already warned that it may push
      for Zimbabwe's expulsion from the body. But
      the threat was dismissed by Mr Mugabe, who
      said Britain, the former colonial power, lacked
      support on the issue.

      The Zimbabwean parliament passed a security
      bill on Thursday criminalising criticism of Mr
      Mugabe and giving the police new powers to
      disperse demonstrations, and new election
      regulations which ban foreign and local
      independent monitors.

      One of Africa's most respected human rights
      figures, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, said Mr
      Mugabe had exhausted the credit he once had
      as a champion of black African rights.

      Zimbabwe faced the
      prospect of a
      "dictatorship with the
      trimmings of a
      multi-party democracy",
      the South African Nobel
      peace prize laureate
      told the BBC.

      The Zimbabwean
      parliament stands to
      debate a third
      controversial bill - on
      control over the media
      - next week.

      Zimbabwean journalists
      say the bill would make it impossible to work,
      as they would need to get accreditation from
      the Information Ministry every year.

      Other restrictions include a possible prison
      term for writing "unauthorised" accounts of
      cabinet discussions.

      *****

      Tutu sees Mugabe
      becoming dictator

      South African Nobel peace laureate Desmond
      Tutu has warned that Zimbabwe is sliding into
      dictatorship under President Robert Mugabe.

      Speaking as the
      Zimbabwean parliament
      approved legislation
      which appears aimed at
      ensuring Mr Mugabe's
      re-election in March,
      Archbishop Tutu said he
      was saddened by
      developments in the
      neighbouring state.

      Mr Mugabe had been
      "one of the bright stars
      in the African constellation" but now he
      seemed bent on breaking the law, he told the
      BBC.

      "When you disregard
      the rule of law, I think
      you are on the slippery
      slope towards a
      dictatorship with the
      trimmings of a
      multi-party
      democracy," the
      archbishop said.

      He said that Mr
      Mugabe did not
      tolerate political
      dissent and used
      violence against his
      critics, seeking to
      "have only one political group having the upper
      hand".

      Archbishop Tutu, who won his Nobel prize for
      his peaceful struggle against apartheid in
      South Africa, said Mr Mugabe had once shone
      as a "tremendous freedom fighter" - quite,
      quite outstanding in many ways".

      He had championed
      reconciliation at a time
      when Zimbabwean
      blacks sought
      retribution for the
      wrongs inflicted on
      them by their white
      rulers when the country
      was known as Rhodesia.

      But Mr Mugabe had gone on to "blot his copy
      book", the archbishop said.

      "I am deeply saddened," he said.

      "I am disappointed. I really feel ashamed in
      many ways because he used to be such a
      splendid leader."

      *****

      What to do with
      Mugabe?

      By the BBC's world affairs correspondent
      Paul Reynolds

      Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe's attitude
      to the outside world is summed up on a new
      website set up by his government -
      zimday.com.

      His Minister for
      Information and
      Publicity, Professor
      Jonathan Moyo,
      declares that the
      European Union and
      the Commonwealth
      should hold Britain
      responsible for any
      escalation of violence
      ahead of the
      presidential elections in
      March.

      British policy, Mr Moyo
      says, is reminiscent of
      an equally "diabolic" strategy by Western
      intelligence groups which once worked with
      former Rhodesians - most of whom are now
      commercial farmers - to fuel disturbances.

      With such a background, it is hardly likely that
      President Mugabe will be swayed by diplomatic
      representations and pressure.

      Counterproductive censure

      There will be repercussions for him
      internationally if he continues his present
      course, but he probably could not care less.

      Indeed, such pressure will probably fuel his
      mistrust of outside influences and reinforce his
      determination to clamp down on any threat to
      his re-election.

      Zimbabwe could have economic sanctions
      imposed on it by the European Union and be
      suspended by the Commonwealth.

      The EU process takes some time - 60 days
      under the trade agreement with African,
      Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries.

      Against the clock

      Under the agreement, ACP countries which
      violate human rights can have economic
      benefits withdrawn, but this process cannot
      now be finished before the elections. Mr
      Mugabe could be home and dry by the time
      sanctions are put in place.

      Zimbabwe faces the
      loss of 128m euros
      ($114m) and its trade
      access to the EU, but
      many European
      governments and aid
      organisations do not
      want to impose severe
      economic sanctions as
      they would hurt the
      poorest. So it is a
      sword which is two
      edged.

      A confrontation on this
      will take place in Brussels on Friday between
      EU and Zimbabwe delegations.

      The Commonwealth conference - CHOGM, or
      Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting -
      is being held in Australia in early March, just
      before the Zimbabwe elections, and in theory
      could suspend Zimbabwe.

      It is unlikely that Mr Mugabe will attend in
      person. But a CHOGM decision requires
      consensus, which means unanimity, and this is
      by no means certain, though it could become
      more likely if the situation gets worse.

      But again, Mr Mugabe might regard suspension
      as a badge of honour. He has long ago ceased
      to be worried about what the Commonwealth
      thinks.

      How to act?

      What to do about a country heading for
      dictatorship and repression is a very common
      dilemma in the modern world.

      In the old days, people turned a blind eye
      under the principle of "non interference in
      internal affairs".

      This has now changed, but governments are
      unsure as to how far to take the process.

      On occasions, there is direct intervention
      (Bosnia, Serbia, Kosovo, Afghanistan).

      On others, there is UN action (Somalia), but at
      the end of the day, economic pressure and
      diplomatic isolation are usually all that can be
      used, and governments bent on power tend
      not to take much notice.

      This appears to be the case with Zimbabwe.
    • Christine Chumbler
      Zim police raid churches, round up displaced Harare, Zimbabwe 21 July 2005 04:25 Police raided church halls in Zimbabwe s second city of Bulawayo, rounding up
      Message 83 of 83 , Jul 22, 2005
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        Zim police raid churches, round up displaced

        Harare, Zimbabwe



        21 July 2005 04:25

        Police raided church halls in Zimbabwe's second city of Bulawayo, rounding up people who had been sheltering there since their homes were destroyed in a so-called urban renewal drive, a human rights lawyer said on Thursday.

        Wednesday's raids came just days before the release of a United Nations report on Zimbabwe's controversial Operation Murambatsvina.

        On Thursday, some of the hundreds of thousands left homeless were allowed to return to the demolished township of Hatcliffe, on the northern outskirts of the capital, Harare, state media reported.

        Police have torched and bulldozed townships, informal markets and other structures deemed illegal since launching the demolition campaign on May 19. Vendors accused of black-market dealing have also been arrested or had their goods confiscated.

        Independent estimates of the number affected range from 300 000 to more than a million.

        Only a small number of people were removed in the church raids, said attorney Jenny Coltart.

        "Many of the churches have already moved the people last week on to a farm they had negotiated for, but there were some who had not moved," she said. "The police came in late last night, loaded them on to trucks and drove off."

        Church leaders were trying to locate them on Thursday.

        An estimated 20 000 people had their homes destroyed in Hatcliffe, on the northern outskirts of the capital, in May. Many of them were given just 30 minutes to pack their belongings and were forced at gunpoint to tear down their own houses.

        Late on Wednesday, Deputy Housing Minister Morris Sakabuya told Parliament about 3 100 plots have been demarcated in the township and are being allocated to "vetted" families, the national broadcaster and state-run Herald newspaper reported.

        "Only those with lease agreements were allowed back, while those with receipts showing they had paid for their stands were also given lease agreements," Sakabuya was quoted as saying.

        Local Government Minister Ignatius Chombo told Parliament the government will help the displaced rebuild but warned that any returnees who fail to meet state building standards will be evicted again.

        Trudy Stevenson, an opposition Movement for Democratic Change lawmaker who represents the area, was not impressed.

        "How will they all find out about this when some have gone to Mozambique, Malawi or [been] chased back to their 'rural areas' by police?" she asked. "What about the seven weeks schoolchildren have missed, the people on anti-retrovirals and other medication who have been without it? How many have died? Who is going to find the orphans and tell them?"

        Many of the displaced also lost their livelihoods and do not have the means to rebuild, she added.

        President Robert Mugabe's government has promised Z$3-trillion (R2,1-billion) for the reconstruction effort, but economists question whether the funds are available at a time of economic crisis.

        The government defends the campaign as a clean-up drive in overcrowded, crime-ridden slums.

        But the opposition says it is aimed at breaking up its strongholds among the urban poor and forcing them into rural areas where they can be more easily controlled by chiefs sympathetic to the government.

        Last month, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan sent an envoy to assess the humanitarian impact of the campaign.

        Anna Tibaijuka, the Tanzanian head of UN Habitat, submitted her report earlier this week. A copy was also sent to Mugabe for review before it is made public, expected on Friday or Monday. -- Sapa-AP

        *****

        Zim defiant over loan conditions

        Nic Dawes and Rapule Tabane



        21 July 2005 11:59


        If South Africa agrees to a loan request from Zimbabwe, one of its conditions would be an end to the Murambatsvina campaign to demolish illegal structures in urban areas. (Photograph: AP)
        Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe may well choke on the tough conditions attached to any loan package offered to him by the South African government -- despite Zimbabwe's worsening foreign currency crunch.

        Mugabe's spokesperson, George Charamba, told the Mail & Guardian that Zimbabwe would not accept financial help tied to conditions, adding that South Africa was one of numerous countries Zimbabwe had approached.

        "I don't understand why the South African media is treating the loan request as unique to South Africa. We have also made representations to the Indian government," Charamba said.

        Mugabe is due to visit China this weekend and diplomatic observers believe China is the country most likely to step into the breach.

        Beijing is anxious to secure access to minerals such as platinum and chrome, which Zimbabwe has in abundance, and may provide a way for Mugabe to acquire hard currency without making political concessions.

        In the first clear sign that South Africa is prepared to use its economic leverage to break Zimbabwe's political logjam, President Thabo Mbeki's Cabinet was expected this week to discuss Mugabe's request for a $1-billion loan facility. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), meanwhile, is taking final steps in preparation to expel Zimbabwe for its persistent failure to pay a $295-million debt.

        Government officials stress that no decision has yet been taken to extend a credit line, but that any help will be based on a South African assessment of what is appropriate for Zimbabwe's needs and will entail stringent terms.

        These are understood to include the resumption of talks on constitutional reform between Zanu-PF and the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), an end to the Murambatsvina, or "drive out filth" campaign to demolish illegal structures in urban areas, and economic reforms.

        Charamba, was adamant that Zimbabwe would reject conditions, particularly a call for new talks with the MDC. "We meet the MDC on a daily basis and dialogue with them in parliament," he said.

        "Should the MDC request talks outside Parliament, it will be considered. But firstly, they would have to clarify their call for sanctions, which are now causing untold suffering to ordinary Zimbabweans. That would be our precondition."

        He added: "I don't understand why South Africans will put a condition that we end Operation Clean Up when it has already ended. We are now at the next stage, Operation Hlalani Kahle (stay and live well), which will focus on housing delivery that goes beyond people affected by Operation Clean Up."

        Nevertheless, the IMF's threatened withdrawal appears to have created a window of opportunity for the South African government to push ahead with plans for a "carrot-and-stick" package, which Finance Minister Trevor Manuel has been quietly punting for some time.

        Zimbabwe needs hard currency to buy fuel, electricity and basic commodities. With its reserves exhausted, the government has been reduced to buying dollars on the black market to fund imports.

        After a visit to Harare by Deputy President Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka and Deputy Finance Minister Jabu Moleketi, Manuel and Reserve Bank governor Tito Mboweni met officials, led by Zimbabwe Reserve Bank governor Gideon Gono, last Friday.

        South African sources said that while the Zimbabwean delegation "painted a picture" of their currency crisis, any funding would be shaped by their own assessment of the situation. The credit facility was unlikely to amount to the reported $1-billion.

        "It is far from a done deal," one official said. "The conditionalities will be tough and Mugabe isn't going to like them at all."

        China is seen as Zimbabwe's most likely benefactor, as it makes no pretence of using aid to promote democracy and good governance.

        Western and African diplomats are worried that the link between economic assistance and good governance, established by initiatives such as the New Partnership for Africa's Development (Nepad), may be undermined in China's drive for resource security.

        In 2004 it agreed to a $2-billion line of credit for Angola after an IMF loan fell through when the MPLA government would not agree to anti- corruption conditions. The loan is backed by oil guarantees and commitments to employ Chinese construction firms in the rebuilding of infrastructure.

        Mugabe has already concluded agreements to buy fighter jets and riot control gear from the Chinese government. Despite these concerns, observers in Harare are buoyed by what they see as a marked difference in pace and tone from South Africa and the African Union. MDC leader Morgan Tsvangarai embarked on a hectic round of African diplomacy ahead of the G8 summit at Gleneagles, meeting, among others, current AU chairperson and Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo to insist on the importance of linking democratic reforms and economic recovery.

        Obasanjo and Mbeki, who split in 2003 over Zimbabwe's suspension from the Commonwealth, appear to have gone to Gleneagles united on that issue, even as Zimbabwe's urban demolition campaign refocused international attention on the crisis.

        Chief government spokesperson Joel Netshitenzhe was reluctant to give details of the Cabinet discussions or the recent meetings with Zimbabwean officials. "The discussions have been about how we can assist in the Zimbabwean economic recovery programme as well as the normalisation of the political situation," he said.

        "There is no agreement on a loan, but if the issue arises, it would be referred to Cabinet and a loan facility would have to be confirmed by Parliament."

        Democratic Alliance leader Tony Leon, meanwhile, questioned whether South Africa could afford the loan, saying taxpayer funds should not be used to bail out a dictator.

        In a speech in Cradock on Thursday, he said: "South Africa should not provide any assistance beyond emergency relief until the Zimbabwean government meets strict conditions, including, but not limited to: ending Operation Murambatsvina; opening formal, public negotiations with opposition parties under the supervision of the African Union and the United Nations; allowing international aid agencies to operate freely within Zimbabwe; and providing proof of all purchases made with money donated or loaned by South Africa."

        *****

        UN condemns Zimbabwe slum blitz

        A major UN report has called for an immediate end to Zimbabwe's slum clearance programme, declaring it to be in violation of international law.
        Hundreds of thousands of homes in the country's shanty towns have been torched and bulldozed in recent months.

        Zimbabwe says the demolitions aim to clean up urban areas and ensure building regulations are followed.

        But the UN report, to be released in full later on Friday, says the policy is disastrous and inhumane.

        The BBC's Susannah Price at UN headquarters in New York says the UK and US are likely to use the hard-hitting document to renew their calls for the UN to take immediate action.

        To date, the Security Council has refused to call a meeting on the clearances.

        Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe usually rejects any criticism, as coming from racists, or their stooges, opposed to his nationalist stance but correspondents say this will be more difficult with this report.

        It was compiled by Kofi Annan's special envoy Anna Tibaijuka, a respected international diplomat from Tanzania, a country with close political links to Zimbabwe.

        'Indifference'

        The report calls for an immediate halt to the slum clearances which it says have affected a total of two million people.

        "While purporting to target illegal dwellings and structures [the operation] was carried out in an indiscriminate and unjustified manner, with indifference to human suffering," it says, according to an excerpt cited by the Associated Press news agency.

        Zimbabwe says the policy - known as Operation Murambatsvina [Drive Out Rubbish] - is intended to crack down on black-market trading and other criminal activity in the slum areas.

        But the report says, whatever the motive, the result is ill-conceived and inhumane.

        Hundreds of thousands have been forced to seek shelter elsewhere as their homes are destroyed.

        The opposition says the evictions are meant to punish urban residents, who have rejected President Robert Mugabe in favour of the opposition in recent elections.

        The report has already been presented to Zimbabwe's government and will be presented to all UN members on Friday.
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