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Fwd = Scientific studies "confirm crop circles are made by balls of light" -

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  • Frits Westra
    Forwarded by: fwestra@hetnet.nl (Frits Westra) URL: http://www.swirlednews.com/article.asp?artID=185 Original Date: 2 Aug 2001 13:18:32
    Message 1 of 1 , Aug 2 1:23 PM
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      Forwarded by: fwestra@... (Frits Westra)
      URL: http://www.swirlednews.com/article.asp?artID=185
      Original Date: 2 Aug 2001 13:18:32 -0000

      ========================== Forwarded message begins ======================

      [Pictures at above URL]

      SCIENTIFIC STUDIES "CONFIRM CROP CIRCLES ARE MADE BY BALLS OF LIGHT" -
      31/07/2001

      DR ELTJO HASELHOFF is one of the few people on planet Earth to have
      had a paper published on crop circles in a peer-reviewed scientific
      journal (`Physiologa Plantarum'). His paper asserts that the
      long-recognised connection of crop circles to balls of light may be
      even stronger than many think. Here, in layman's terms, Dr Haselhoff
      outlines the important findings of his paper...
      Over the years, numerous people have claimed that they have seen how a
      crop circle was created by one or more "balls of light".
      Recent scientific studies have confirmed these statements:
      Circumstantial evidence has shown that crop circles may very well be
      made by `balls of light' indeed! This article explains the essential
      elements of these studies in simple terms.

      NODE LENGTHENING

      The stems of corn-type plants are characterised by little `knuckles',
      at several positions along the stems (see Figure 1). These nodes act
      as a kind of ligament. They allow the plants to bend towards the
      light, even after they have grown to their full length.
      In the early 1990s, the American biophysicist William Levengood
      discovered that plants inside crop circles often had much longer nodes
      than those in the undisturbed, surrounding crop. This effect is
      illustrated in Figure 2.

      Although there are known biological effects that can create node
      lengthening, these could be easily ruled out. It was clear that
      something else had happened. The effect could be simulated by placing
      normal, healthy stems inside a microwave oven. The heat induced by the
      microwaves made the liquids inside the nodes expand, just like the
      mercury inside a thermometer. This caused the nodes to increase in
      length, while the amount of lengthening increased proportionally to
      the amount of microwave energy that was generated.

      This finding led to the conclusion that the node lengthening effect
      may be caused by the involvement of heat, possibly caused by microwave
      radiation. In fact, traces of heat have been found innumerable times
      in crop circles all over the world, such as dehydrated plants, burn
      marks, and molten snow.

      BALLS OF LIGHT

      The number of `balls of light' that have been seen by eyewitnesses has
      increased considerably over the last couple of years. Sized somewhere
      between an egg and a football, these bright, fluorescent, flying light
      objects seem to be somehow related to the crop circle phenomenon. They
      often appear in the fields during the night a crop circle forms, and
      have been seen (and filmed!) many times in and around crop circles.
      Several persons have even claimed that they witnessed how these balls
      of light actually created a crop circle.

      SCIENCE RESPONDS

      In the year 1999, William Levengood and Nancy Talbott published a
      scientific paper [1] that contained a study to the node lengthening
      effect in three different crop circles, two in England and one in the
      USA. The authors presented a `quantitative analysis'; in other words,
      the article tried to explain the AMOUNT of node lengthening throughout
      the crop circle, by means of physical models. The authors concluded
      that the heat (that had made the nodes swell) was electromagnetic in
      origin.

      One year later, I contributed a paper reacting to the one by Levengood
      and Talbott. This article appeared early 2001 [2]. The paper
      reinterpreted the data published by Levengood and Talbott and showed
      that the node lengthening as measured in all three crop circles could
      be perfectly explained by assuming that a `ball of light' had caused
      the node swelling effect. An identical analysis performed on a famous
      man-made formation (Dreischor, Holland, 1997) did not show these
      characteristics at all.

      My statements can be interpreted as follows: Imagine a dark room with
      one single light bulb hanging on the ceiling. If you switch on the
      light, you will notice that right below the light bulb the light
      intensity on the floor will be brightest. Towards the edges of the
      room, the floor will gradually become darker. This light distribution
      on the floor is well understood, and can be described with high
      accuracy.

      The exact light distribution on the floor depends on the HEIGHT of the
      light bulb. When the light bulb is hanging very low, almost touching
      the floor, the floor underneath the light bulb will be very bright,
      but the intensity will rapidly become less as you move away from it
      (see Figure 3, left). When the light is hanging high on the ceiling,
      however, the light intensity underneath the light will be much less
      and be more evenly distributed over the floor (see Figure 3, right).
      Because this mechanism is so well known, one can actually derive the
      height of the light bulb after measuring the light distribution on the
      floor.

      This is what I suggested. As explained above, the swollen nodes inside
      the crop circles may be thought of as many little thermometers,
      expanding their length with increasing heat. If one assumes that the
      heat was induced by a small spherical shape emitting electromagnetic
      radiation, the theoretical heat distribution on the floor can be
      accurately determined (similarly to the case of the light bulb, as
      discussed above). I demonstrated that the measured node lengths in all
      of the three crop circles studies by Levengood and Talbott perfectly
      matched the temperature distribution that would be caused by a small
      ball of light, hanging in the air above the centre of the circles,
      emitting intense heat.

      An identical analysis was repeated on a formation in Holland [3]. An
      eye witness claimed that this crop circle was created in a matter of
      seconds, while a "ball of light" was floating in the air, right above
      the centre of the circle [4]. Figure 4 shows the results.
      The yellow bars indicate the average node length measured at seven
      different locations across the crop circle, from one edge (position
      b1), through the centre (a4), to the opposite edge (b7). Note the
      perfect symmetry, which is remarkable! Similar graphs were obtained
      from two different cross sections through the circle, revealing a
      perfect circular symmetry: long nodes towards the centre of the
      circle, shorter nodes towards the edges.
      The thick, continuous, blueish line represents the theoretical value
      of the node length across the circle, if it were caused by a ball of
      light at a height of 4 meters and 10 centimetres. (This height
      corresponded to the estimate of the eyewitness). Just like the three
      crop circles analysed by Levengood and Talbott, the theoretical values
      for the node length (blue line) correspond perfectly to the
      measurements (yellow bars).

      Consequently, the circumstantial evidence left in the fields was in
      perfect agreement with the words of the eyewitness: the crop circle
      was indeed created with the involvement of a "ball of light".

      CONCLUSIONS

      My paper shows that the node lengthening in several crop circles
      corresponds perfectly to the effect that would be created by a ball of
      light, heating up the crop during the creation of the crop circle.
      This is not the case for a man-made formation.
      The amount of node lengthening, and in particular its symmetry over
      the crop circles, lack any trivial explanation. Consequently, the
      study confirms the words of eyewitnesses, stating that they saw how
      crop circles were created by "balls of light."
      My paper does not attempt to explain where the balls of light come
      from, nor does it explain how the crop is flattened. It does, however,
      give a strong argument to take the "ball of light" phenomenon, as well
      as the words of eyewitnesses, very seriously, and I hope will
      stimulate further study.

      Finally, it should be mentioned that all these findings and
      conclusions have been published in `peer-reviewed' scientific
      journals. In order to guarantee a high level of reliability, such
      journals employ so-called `referees' (objective, anonymous experts),
      who accurately check each contributed paper for errors and
      inconsistencies before it is published. Consequently, conclusions
      published in peer-reviewed scientific journals can not be simply
      dismissed as wild fantasy or pseudo-science. Therefore, it is fair to
      say that recent scientific findings have established considerable
      progress in understanding the crop circle phenomenon, although many
      questions still remain unanswered.

      REFERENCES
      [1] W C Levengood, N P Talbott, `Dispersion of energies in worldwide
      crop formations', Physiol. Plant. 105: 615-624 (1999).
      [2] E H Haselhoff, `Comment to Physiol. Plant. 105: 615-624", Physiol.
      Plant. 111: 123-125 (2001).
      [3] E H Haselhoff, http://www.dcccs.org/id48.htm
      [4] See, for example, N P Talbott,
      http://www.crystalinks.com/crop1999.2.html or
      http://www.labyrinthina.com/crop.htm.
      MORE INFORMATION:
      http://dcocc.com/id20.htm
      DR ELTJO HASELHOFF


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