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FWD: [UASR] ExNews: Astronomer's Findings Could Topple Big Bang

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  • Frits Westra
    ============================ Posted by : Ndunlks@aol.comFrom: REMcCoy007 To: Ndunlkshttp://www.exnews.com EXCLUSIVE!Discovering New Worlds
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 2, 1999
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      Posted by : Ndunlks@...

      From: REMcCoy007
      To: Ndunlks

      http://www.exnews.com EXCLUSIVE!

      Discovering New Worlds

      Astronomer's Findings Could Topple Big Bang
      By Amy Acheson

      When astronomer Halton Arp published The Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies in
      1966, he was counted among the world's most credible authorities on
      cosmology. But the research published in that book would ultimately
      rupture his relationship to the scientific mainstream, while fueling
      one of the most far-reaching scientific controversies of the twentieth

      Arp's meticulous examination of each galaxy and its environment led
      him to an exciting new discovery - that these galaxies are not
      isolated island universes, but are vitally connected. His systematic
      observations showed that active galaxies and quasars, large and small
      spirals, quasar jets and x-ray clouds are all interacting dynamically
      with each other.

      But this conclusion left astronomers perplexed, and eventually invited
      outrage. They had come to understand that these objects in space were
      separated by vast distances To see the connections between galaxies
      and quasars, they would have to unlearn what they already "knew" about
      a phenomenon called redshift. Virtually all of modern cosmology rests
      on an interpretation of this phenomenon - the shifting of the light
      spectrum toward red when an observed body is moving rapidly away from
      the observer. It is redshift which enables astronomers to calculate
      the velocity and distance of remote galaxies and quasars. And this
      velocity calculation is the singular foundation supporting the entire
      edifice of modern theory. Remove the foundation and only a house of
      cards remains. The hypothesized Big Bang, the "official" age and size
      of the observed universe, "dark matter," and many of the favorite
      mathematical exercises of cosmologists depend on the assumed
      relationship between redshift and velocity.

      The key to Arp's analysis is the repeatedly-observed linkage of
      galaxies and quasars. The standard interpretation says that
      low-redshift galaxies are nearby objects and that high-redshift
      quasars, though consistently observed adjacent to such galaxies, must
      reside at the outer edges of the universe. In other words, the visual
      proximity of the two can only be an accident. But Arp's analysis
      shows that the visual proximity of quasars to nearby galaxies is far
      too consistent to be explained by chance.

      By analogy, imagine astronomers peering at a forest. Their theory
      places brown tree-trunks nearby and green leaves in the background,
      beyond the forest. For the leaves to be seen from so far away, they
      must be incredibly bright - and much larger than the tree trunks. But
      what if all of the observed leaves are close to a tree trunk, and
      where there are no tree trunks there are no leaves? In effect, that
      is Halton Arp's observation in his first book, Quasars, Redshifts and
      Controversies. His is simply telling us that 'leaves belong on trees.'
      Quasars and galaxies go together.

      But now there is more. In his latest book, Seeing Red: Redshifts,
      Cosmology, and Academic Science, Arp tosses in an additional
      admonition: "branches belong on trees, too." With the help of recent
      Hubble Telescope images, he shows that those supposedly remote quasars
      are actually connected to nearby galaxies by observable streams of

      This can only mean that, in these observed cases, redshift is not an
      indicator of velocity; quasars are not the largest and most remote
      objects in the universe, but are nearby; and all of the reasoning
      involved in the Big Bang hypothesis and its derivatives immediately

      From Halton Arp's first attempt to publish his discoveries in the
      Astrophysical Journal (1967) to the present, his work has been
      delayed, rejected, and scorned by nearly every astronomical
      publication. Soon allocation committees began denying telescope time
      for any project remotely connected to his thesis. And yet, despite
      the professional disgrace and the systematic obstructions, Arp refused
      to be deterred. Though forced to leave the country to pursue his work,
      he is now with the prestigious Max Planck Institute in Germany. And
      gradually a generation of more open-minded researchers is learning of
      his work and seeking his counsel.

      The universe we see through Halton Arp's eyes is more alive than the
      conventional universe of scattered shrapnel left over from a
      primordial explosion. Galaxies are being born and are evolving
      dynamically as we observe them. In its birth, a galaxy is ejected from
      an active parent galaxy as a quasar, with its distinctive, high
      redshift. But as it matures it loses this excess redshift - the
      phenomenon as a whole is not a function of velocity. Arp shows us how
      to trace the lineage of galactic families, even our own Milky Way, for
      three or more generations. "The universe we see." becomes smaller,
      more compact. But the limit of Arp's universe, "the universe it is
      possible for us to see," becomes much larger, much older, with no end
      in sight.

      Halton Arp's books tell the whole story of connection, ejection and
      evolution of galaxies. They include the history of how the
      discoveries were made, and the deplorable reception the ideas have
      received by conventional science. And in the preface to Seeing Red he
      issues a challenge: "I believe we must look for salvation from the
      non-specialists, amateurs and interdisciplinary thinkers - those who
      form judgments on the general thrust of the evidence, those who are
      skeptical about any explanation, particularly official ones, and above
      all are tolerant of other people's theories."

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