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Chronology of Warp Physics

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  • Roger Anderton
    Chronology of Warp Physics Adrian Berry in his book The Iron Sun, gave the situation of Warp Physics as it was known in 1977: 1798 Peter Simon Laplace suggests
    Message 1 of 1 , Apr 6, 2003
      Chronology of Warp Physics

      Adrian Berry in his book The Iron Sun, gave the situation of Warp Physics as it was known in 1977:

      1798 Peter Simon Laplace suggests that some stars may be so massive that their gravity will prevent light from escaping from them.

      1905 Einstein publishes his Special Theory of Relativity.

      1916 Einstein publishes his General Theory of Relativity. Karl Schwarzschild carried Einstein's equations to their most extreme conclusion, and suggests the possibility of black holes which do not rotate. For the first time, he introduces the idea of a 'singularity' in space-time.

      ME - I doubt that Schwarzschild talked about 'singularity'; it was probably a concept read into his equation by later people!

      1935 Einstein, with Nathan Rosen, suggests that separate parts of normal space may be interconnected by timeless 'bridges'.

      [[[ Info from me: Einstein-Rosen Bridges are nowadays called 'wormholes' - a sort of blackhole that has no singularity at its centre. I think it significant that Einstein was looking for a blackhole type scenario which had no singularity.]]]

      1939 J Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder analyse in detail for the first time the mechanics of total gravitational collapse.

      1960 M D Kruskal draws the first 'Kruskal diagram', showing the behaviour of a Schwarzschild, non-rotating black hole.

      1963 Roy Kerr incorporates fast rotation into Schwarzschild's model of a black hole. He produces the so-called 'Kerr solution' to Einstein's 1916 equations.

      1967 R H Boyer and R W Lindquist draw a Kruskal diagram for a rotating black hole, indicating that an instantaneous journey could be made through it which did not hit the singularity.

      1975 David Robinson shows that all black holes must rotate, and that Kerr's solution must be correct.

      Never have ordinary human beings encountered an object like the black hole which, in the words of Kip Thorne, 'curves space and warps time.' Even when the science fiction writers use such literary devices as a 'space warp' to move their spaceships across the Galaxy in no time at all, they are wrongly accused of having resorted to magic in order to make their stories work.

      Science fiction writers do not normally study fundamental physics, and their concept of a 'space warp' is arrived at through instinctive feeling rather than knowledge. This is a pity, since the scientific basis for an instantaneous journey, or at least a passage through which such a journey could be made, was worked out in 1935 by no less an authority than Einstein himself.

      With his colleague Nathan Rosen he published in that year a paper which is regarded as the forerunner of all modern theories that predict the interconnection of our Universe by timeless passages. Einstein and Rosen used the term 'bridge' to describe this interconnection, and the two men gave a lucid description of an Einstein-Rosen bridge that will serve as a model for everything we have been discussing. [ A Einstein and N Rosen, 'The Particle Problem in the General Theory of Relativity'. Physical Review, vol. 48, Jul. 1st 1935, pp 73 -7.] They likened two separated parts of space to two flat 'sheets' with 'bridges' connecting them. ....

      This paper was written twenty- eight years before Roy Kerr introduced the concept of fast -rotating black holes. Einstein and Rosen had only the theory of Schwarzschild to work with. And because, as we have seen, any object trying to penetrate a Schwarzschild, non-rotating black hole would be crushed by its singularity, they suspected that the 'bridge' might have no physical meaning, since entrances were barred by natural forces.

      [[[ Info from me: Einstein and Rosen were thinking of a 'bridge' is instead of a 'singularity'. A spaceship trying to approach either a 'singularity' or a 'bridge' might find itself crushed by the gravitational forces around such objects. ]]]

      Roy Kerr has now removed that natural barrier...... the funnel of whirling space goes on - until it opens up again into another region of normal space, whose distance from the point of departure, in ordinary circumstances and in the absence of a black hole, could be as much as several light - years.

      The British philosopher Guy Robinson of Southampton University wrote in 1964 a learned and slightly mocking article which poked fun at those science fiction writers who casually describe faster than light voyages, but who never bother to try to explain how they are achieved. Robinson showed, quite accurately, that a person could not travel faster than light because if he did so, apart from other difficulties, he would have to travel backwards in time. [G Robinson. 'Hypertravel', Listener, Dec. 17th, 1964, pp 976 - 7] In the absence of any special circumstances, at least one of these two fears would plainly be impossible. But Robinson went further. Apparently delighted by the success of this argument, he then expressed the opinion that an instantaneous journey through space would be impossible for the same reason. The only way for an astronaut to travel instantaneously, he suggested humorously, would be for the astronaut to carry a time-machine in his spaceship, so that he could move backwards in time as he moved forwards in space, thus eliminating distance.

      It is now certain that Robinson's joke contained a shattering truth. For the Kerr black hole, or for that matter the Einstein- Rosen bridge, is a time-machine! A spaceship entering it, provided that it is aimed correctly, is not only flung out in another part of space, but making this journey it is propelled backwards in time.... As Frank J Tipler of Maryland University puts it, 'a rotating cylinder (i.e. a Kerr black hole) would act as a time machine.' [ F J Tipler, 'Rotating Cylinders and the Possibility of Global Causality Violations', Physical Review D, vol. 9, no.8, April 15th, 1974, pp 2203 -6.] Even Brandon Carter, of Cambridge University, England, who reaches a different conclusion eventually, admits that 'it is possible to connect any event to any other by a future-directed time-like line'. [ B Carter, 'Global Structure of the Kerr Family of Gravitational Fields,' Physical Review, vol. 174, no. 5, Oct. 25th, 1968, pp 1559-71.] It will be remembered from the Kruskal diagrams that 'time-like means a legitimate journey that goes slower than light. And so here we have a slower than light journey, that does not violate Einstein's Special Theory, but which nevertheless moves backwards in time, and which for all practical purposes may therefore be regarded as a journey between two separate points which is in effect much faster than light. Yet strictly speaking, because its backwards movement in time corresponds precisely with its forward movement in space, the journey is not faster than light; it is instantaneous.

      [[[ I do not agree. ----- If travel is instantaneous, then I would say that this is very fast; and it means getting somewhere faster than light would make the journey. Its surprising how this person has twisted things round in a peculiar way. The person wants the contradiction of (1) journeys limited by light-speed at the same time as (2) allowing journeys faster than light-speed. ]]]

      Now it may seem, with all this talk about time-machines, that I am saying something stranger than anything before. But it is not so; for a time-machine and a distance-abolishing machine are merely two phrases to describe exactly the same thing. Distance simply means time travelled, or to be more precise, it is the average speed of the journey multiplied by the time taken to achieve it. For instance, the distance between London and New York is normally covered by a subsonic aircraft at an average speed of 580 mph in a period of about 6 hours. Multiply these two figures, and we obtain a true distance between these cities of 3,500 miles. But if this distance of 3,500 miles was miraculously reduced to zero, the aircraft would be able to make the journey instantaneously, in no time at all, because speed multiplied by zero equals zero. Yet to make this instantaneous journey, the aircraft would have to travel backwards in time while it was moving forwards in space.

      And so Guy Robinson's seemingly fanciful speculation about the use of a time-machine has a very real meaning in the context of an instantaneous journey.

      [[[ - So there we have the situation of Warp Physics at 1977- Warp travel required backward time travel, backward time travel was thought impossible, so Warp travel was thought impossible. Not much has changed since then, the theorists and speculators continue to go round in circles covering the same old ground, just the amount of terminology has increased and become more complicated. What has really happened has been that there has been a Fundamental Misunderstanding of Einstein - www.einsteinconspiracy.co.uk

      The most important thing missed out in this chronology:

      1798 Peter Simon Laplace Blackholes.

      1905 Special Theory of Relativity.

      1916 General Theory of Relativity.

      1935 Einstein- Rosen Bridge.

      1939 Oppenheimer and Snyder analyse gravitational collapse.

      1960 'Kruskal diagram'

      1963 'Kerr solution' to Einstein's 1916 equations.

      1967 Boyer and Lindquist draw a Kruskal diagram for a rotating black hole.

      1975 David Robinson shows that all black holes must rotate, and that Kerr's solution must be correct.

      Is the question of when the Unified Theory was discovered. And that happened in 1750s by a Jesuit priest that persuaded the Pope to lift the Ban on teaching the Heliocentric Theory.

      Without the correct Theory, no meaningful mathematical result can be derived. And the Cover - Up in Physics of the UFO situation is free to continue. ]]]

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