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RE: [ufodiscussion] The Tropics May Be Expanding

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  • Jahnets
    If global warming isn’t responsible for tropical expansion, another possible cause is the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer due to pollutants such
    Message 1 of 2 , Jun 1, 2006
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      " If global warming isn’t responsible for tropical expansion, another
      possible cause is the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer due to
      pollutants such as refrigerant gases. Ozone loss cools the stratosphere
      while the troposphere warms – the same pattern from global warming due to
      greenhouse gases."


      So when HAARP punches through the stratosphere we do not loose ozone??? Is
      this another way to bring on Armeggedon?




      -----Original Message-----
      From: ufodiscussion@yahoogroups.com
      [mailto:ufodiscussion@yahoogroups.com]On Behalf Of Light Eye
      Sent: Thursday, June 01, 2006 11:29 AM
      To: global_rumblings@yahoogroups.com; Global_Rumblings@...;
      SpeakIt@...; ufodiscussion@yahoogroups.com;
      changingplanetchat@yahoogroups.com; astrosciences@yahoogroups.com;
      GS5555@...; giuliano.marinkovic@...;
      wayfarer9@...; parascience@...; henrik.palmgren@...
      Subject: [ufodiscussion] The Tropics May Be Expanding


      Dear Friends,

      http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/520675/?sc=dwhn

      Also this article;

      Warming In Subtropics Pushes Jet Streams Towards Poles;

      http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/520721/?sc=dwhn

      Love and Light.

      David

      The Tropics May be Expanding
      Description
      Atmospheric temperature measurements by satellites indicate Earth’s hot,
      tropical zone has expanded farther from the equator since 1979, say
      scientists from Utah and Washington state. But they don't know if the
      tropical expansion was triggered by natural climate variation or by
      human-caused phenomena such as depletion of the atmosphere’s ozone layer or
      global warming due to the greenhouse effect.
      Image 1 of 1'; // ===================================== //
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      ===================================== var tss; var iss; var jss = 1;
      var pss = Picture.length-1; var isOpera = 0;var preLoad = new Array(); for
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      (pss)) jss=1; if (jss Qiang Fu,
      University of Washington
      This map of the Earth shows areas of particularly strong warming of
      the lower atmosphere in yellow, orange and reddish colors. Note the enhanced
      warming of midlatitude regions north and south of the equator, indicating
      the expansion of the tropics. The map also shows pronounced warming at
      Arctic latitudes. | | |--> --> Image 1 of 1 -->

      Newswise — Atmospheric temperature measurements by U.S. weather
      satellites indicate Earth’s hot, tropical zone has expanded farther from the
      equator since 1979, says a study by scientists from the University of Utah
      and University of Washington.

      Researchers say the apparent north-south widening of the tropics amounts
      to 2 degrees of latitude or 140 miles. But they do not know yet if the
      tropical expansion was triggered by natural climate variation or by
      human-caused phenomena such as depletion of the atmosphere’s ozone layer or
      global warming due to the greenhouse effect.
      The study is being published in the Friday May 26 issue of the journal
      Science.

      “It’s a big deal. The tropics may be expanding and getting larger,” says
      study co-author Thomas Reichler, an assistant professor of meteorology at
      the University of Utah. “If this is true, it also would mean that
      subtropical deserts are expanding into heavily populated midlatitude
      regions.”
      Droughts and unusually dry conditions in recent years in the subtropical
      American Southwest and Mediterranean Europe may be related to expansion of
      the tropics, he added.

      Reichler conducted the study with principal author Qiang Fu, who earned
      his Ph.D. degree at the University of Utah and now is an associate professor
      of atmospheric sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle. Other
      co-authors were Professor John M. Wallace and graduate student Celeste
      Johanson, also atmospheric scientists at Washington.
      Satellites Take Earth’s Temperature

      Reichler said the study makes no conclusion about the cause of the
      tropical expansion, but is purely observational, based on 1979-2005
      measurements by the TIROS-N and NOAA 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 14 weather
      satellites. NOAA is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
      parent agency of the National Weather Service.

      There has been debate over the interpretation of atmospheric temperature
      measurements collected by microwave sounding units (MSUs) on the weather
      satellites. But Science reported in a May 12 news story (“No Doubt About It,
      the World Is Warming,” page 825) that scientists with competing views hashed
      out their differences and now agree the weather satellite data show warming
      of the lower atmosphere, or troposphere, which extends from the ground up to
      55,000 feet at the equator and 23,000 feet at the poles.
      While those measurements dealt with global averages, the new study shows
      specifically that Earth’s midlatitudes got about 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit
      warmer during the past 26 years, suggesting there has been a change in the
      average position of the subtropical jet streams. These rivers of air – one
      in the Northern Hemisphere and one in the Southern Hemisphere – move west to
      east and mark the meteorological transition from tropical to subtropical
      climates.
      “We analyzed 26-year-long satellite measurements of atmospheric
      temperatures and found a distinct and very robust pattern of warming, which
      suggests that each subtropical jet stream has moved poleward by about 1
      degree latitude,” Reichler says. “This poleward movement took place over
      both hemispheres, indicating that the tropics have been widening. …
      Independent [weather balloon] observations of the atmosphere confirm these
      findings.”
      He adds: “The possible expansion of the tropics may be a totally new
      aspect of climate change. We don’t know for sure what triggered it. My
      research is investigating whether it is related to global warming or not. …
      One can certainly think of various mechanisms of how global warming-related
      changes in the atmosphere could induce the changes we see. But it’s very
      speculative at this point. That’s what our research is going to look at.”
      The tropical zone is defined geographically as the portion of Earth’s
      surface characterized by hot weather and located between the Tropic of
      Cancer at 23.5 degrees north latitude and the Tropic of Capricorn at 23.5
      degrees south latitude. But meteorologists generally consider the tropics
      extend 30 degrees latitude north and south of the equator.
      The subtropics – which also tend to have hot climates – are the
      indefinite belts in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres that are between
      tropical and temperate zones. The U.S. desert Southwest is considered
      subtropical, Reichler says.
      Earth has two polar jet streams at polar latitudes, one in each
      hemisphere, and two subtropical jet streams closer to the equator, also one
      in each hemisphere. The jet streams, at altitudes of roughly 30,000 feet,
      are relatively narrow streams or tubes of high-speed air moving generally
      west-to-east, but in a path that meanders widely in a north-south direction.
      They represent boundaries between warm, tropical air masses and cooler air
      closer to the poles. In the Northern Hemisphere, the polar jet stream
      generally is found between 30 degrees and 70 degrees north latitude, while
      the subtropical jet stream generally is confined between 20 degrees and 50
      degrees north latitude.
      The average position of each subtropical jet stream marks the location
      of dry, subtropical desert regions on the land below, such as southwestern
      United States. But in winter, Pacific cyclones can move along the track of
      the jet, bringing storms to California.
      Pushing the Subtropical Jets toward the Poles
      The study implies that warmer midlatitude temperatures mean the
      subtropical jet streams have moved farther from the equator based on the
      idea that warmer air makes the lower atmosphere, or troposphere, expand and
      bulge upward. Thus, warmer midlatitude temperatures create a bulge that
      pushes the subtropical jet streams toward the poles.
      The study found that while the lower atmosphere or troposphere at
      midlatitudes got warmer during the past 25 years, the overlying stratosphere
      got cooler.
      “This pattern of warming in the troposphere where we live and cooling of
      the stratosphere above may actually cause a change of the jet positions,”
      Reichler says.
      Global warming might cause tropical expansion another way, he adds. The
      El Nino climate phenomenon – characterized by a pool of warm water in the
      western tropical Pacific moving eastward toward the Americas – often causes
      warmer, drier summers at midlatitudes. Other studies have shown tropical sea
      surface temperatures have warmed during the past 25 years. If ocean warming
      by El Nino can cause warmer, drier summers, then so should a general
      increase in tropical ocean temperatures – a possible mechanism for tropical
      expansion, Reichler says.
      The researchers considered the possibility that the 26-year warming
      trend might be an illusion caused by data from the strong El Nino of 1997,
      which caused record midlatitude temperatures in 1998. But the midlatitude
      warming trend remained even when data from the 1997 El Nino was excluded.
      If global warming isn’t responsible for tropical expansion, another
      possible cause is the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer due to
      pollutants such as refrigerant gases. Ozone loss cools the stratosphere
      while the troposphere warms – the same pattern from global warming due to
      greenhouse gases.


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