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346x0x The last great master of Ottoman miniature

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  • Turkish Radio San Francisco
    Oct 21, 2000
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      x0x The last great master of Ottoman miniature

      "Levni"

      By Necdet Sakaoglu


      Among all the Ottoman architects, painters, poets and horticulturalists
      who left their mark on the Tulip Era, the poets Nedim and Seyyid Vehbi and
      the miniaturist Levni stand out from all the rest. The spectacular
      manuscript dating from this era in the early 18th century entitled
      Surname-i Vehbi was written by Seyyid Vehbi and illustrated by Levni. The
      book describes the ceremonies and festivities held at OkmeydanI in
      Istanbul to celebrate the circumcision of the sons of Sultan Ahmed III.
      These began on 13 September 1720 and continued with processions, displays
      and feasting for 20 days. Although the book bears the name of its author
      Vehbi it is Levnis miniatures for which it is most valued as both work of
      art and documentary record of its day. Each of the 137 paintings reflect
      in vivid detail the costume of the Ottoman court, and contemporary
      entertainments.

      Levni also illustrated two costume albums with miniatures depicting 21
      male and 20 female figures, and portraits of the 22 sultans for Dimitri
      Kandemirs Ottoman History. Levni was at the same time a musician and poet
      who wrote qasides for Sultan Ahmed III (1703-1730) and epic ballads in a
      new form.

      Levni was a pseudonym, meaning lover of colour, and represented in place
      of a signature by a graceful flower in one corner of his miniature
      paintings. His real name was Abdulcelil and he came from the city of
      Edirne, the former Ottoman capital where the court often removed for the
      summer, and where the rebellion of 1703 which brought Ahmed III to the
      throne took place. Little is known about his life, but it was after that
      date that he arrived in Istanbul to spend most of that sultans reign as an
      artist in the palace painting studio or Nakka$hane.

      The work of Levni represents the last golden age of Ottoman miniature
      painting, and the start of a new period in the fields of art and culture.
      His work is in striking contrast to that of earlier Turkish miniaturists
      like Sinan Bey, famous for his portrait of Sultan Mehmed II (1451-1481)
      smelling a rose, Nigari (d.1572) who painted portraits of Suleyman the
      Magnificent, Ottoman admiral Barbaros Hayrettin Pa$a and Selim II, Nak$i
      (late 16th-early 17th century) who painted portraits of seyhs and scholars
      for $akayIk-I Numaniye, or Lokman Celebi (d.1601), who illustrated many
      outstanding manuscripts like the $ehname, the Hunername, the Selim$ahname
      and the $ehin$ahname. Marked western influence can be seen in the move
      from traditional stylisation to increased realism.

      There is a new sense of depth and freedom of movement in Levnis paintings,
      and for the first time he lends facial expression to his figures. The love
      of colour expressed in his own pseudonym can clearly be seen in the way he
      balances and combines colours in his work. There is a strong sense of
      light and shade, and his figures are animated. His miniatures are full
      page plates instead of being fitted between the writing. Although he
      introduced so much that was original and in many ways a departure from
      tradition, his paintings remained a celebration of what could be achieved
      within the context of miniature art in its last great phase.

      His realism, romanticism and depth can be seen to spectacular effect in,
      for example, his Young Woman, Woman Smelling a Rose, Young Man, Sultan
      Osman II on Horseback, the BostancI, the Page, the Peyk Soldier, and Cengi
      Dancer. In his Four Slave Girl Musicians there is such a liveliness and
      sense of joy that we can almost hear the music they are playing.

      * Necdet SakaoGlu is a researcher and writer.


      [Note by TRH: See the following links to view some of Levni's works:

      http://interactive.m2.org/topkapi/html/m1x-4-levni.html
      http://www.arzu.com/turknet/ninethousand/pict/49.jpeg
      http://www.atamanhotel.com/levni.html
      http://www.arzu.com/turknet/ninethousand/pict/60-1.jpeg ]