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2782Endemic species and biosecurity

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  • Bob Conrich
    Jun 5, 2014
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      From the official website today we have Birthday News:
      http://www.tristandc.com/newsbirthdays2014.php

      And a population update:

      There are 266 Tristan da Cunha Islanders with full residency status.

      Returning Islanders need to live back on Tristan for two years before having full residency rights
      (eg to own stock). Recently added to the total are Linda Lavarello, Poppy Lavarello and Ethan
      Lavarello- Green as well as new born Savanna Green


      ..... Ends .....


      To lessen the confusion for those who speak American, "stock," as used above,
      refers to farm animals, not shares in a company.

      Below is an article by Forum member and university journalism lecturer Simon
      Pipe. The biosecurity problems of St. Helena are far more true for Tristan,
      and are extremely critical for Gough and the small islands of the Tristan
      Group.

      While some would like to fully protect the natural environment of Tristan,
      the islanders may not wish to live in an insulated bubble.


      Bob


      -----------------------------------------------------------
      Robert S. Conrich, ACIArb
      Box 666
      Anguilla bob@...
      British West Indies Tel: 1 264 497 2505
      -----------------------------------------------------------


      St. Helena Online
      St Helena tops the league table for unique species
      5 June, 2014
      by Simon Pipe


      Charles Darwin glossed over it, but now St Helena has been officially recognised as Britain’s
      wealthiest spot on Earth when it comes to natural treasures.

      The island is home to a third of the endemic species that are found on British territory around the
      world – that is, plants and creatures that appear naturally in only one place.

      A “stock-take” by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds puts it far ahead of second-placed
      Bermuda. But it also highlights severe ignorance in London about the ecology of Britain’s far-flung
      territories, and a lack of strategy for protecting it.

      St Helena even beats the iconic Galapagos Islands – seven times over – when it comes to unique
      invertebrates (judged on land mass).

      Sadly, spiders and insects don’t attract eco tourists in quite the same way as the natural wonders
      of the Galapagos, but perhaps that’s just as well, given the massive strain that tourism has brought
      to those islands.

      Their human population has grown five-fold since the 1970s, when it had the same number of people as
      St Helena has today. And with three airports and a stream of cruise ships visiting, they’re under
      daily threat of alien species being brought in and causing havoc to a fragile eco-system.

      Bio-security is already being strengthened on St Helena in readiness for the opening of its first
      airport in 2016.

      A press release from The Castle in Jamestown describes the island as “a mid-Atlantic life-raft of
      rare and irreplaceable species”.

      Concerns about protecting agriculture and public health are cited as further reasons to control what
      comes in to the island.

      The RSPB’s findings have been welcomed by Linda Houston of Shelco, the group planning to build an
      eco resort at Broad Bottom on St Helena.

      She said: “This is great news and underpins the importance of a low volume, high value tourism
      strategy for St Helena.

      “As illustrated by our approach to invasive species clearance and the establishment of [our]
      wirebird sanctuary, St Helena’s biodiversity is a central component of our scheme.

      “In our work at Broad Bottom we aim to encourage innovation and knowledge transfer amongst local and
      international renowned centres of excellence, which can be applied across the island.”

      The RSPB’s stock-take of Britain’s overseas territories is the first one ever to be undertaken.

      It was commissioned after a cross-party body of Members of Parliament in London attacked the British
      government for failing in its duty to protect the environment in its overseas territories.

      The Environmental Audit Committee said the government did not even know what it was supposed to be
      looking after.

      The survey brought together all known records from the past 300 years.

      Many of the species recorded in those archives are now lost, including the St Helena olive that was
      rescued from apparent extinction by George Benjamin BEM, who first woke St Helenians up to the
      importance of their endemic plants.

      He also began the planting of gumwood trees on the east of the island that evolved into the
      Millennium Forest.

      A battle is currently being fought to save the false gumwood tree, which has died out in one of its
      two last remaining outposts. Just four trees survive, and efforts are being made to capture seeds to
      grow more.

      The same technique recently saved the bastard gumwood when it became the world’s rarest tree, with
      only one specimen surviving.

      Jeremy Harris, director of the St Helena National Trust, said: “Over 14 million years, St Helena has
      developed a totally unique biosphere of incredible diversity protected by thousands of miles of ocean.

      “Five hundred years ago, it was discovered by people who brought goats and rats and other species
      that had a huge impact on its fragile environment.

      “What remains today is still clearly remarkable and unique and of international significance. St
      Helena, now more than ever, needs our protection and care as the airport approaches, bringing with
      it new risks and challenges.”

      Senior Veterinary Officer Joe Hollins said the opening of the airport would remove the “quarantine
      effect” of a five-day sea voyage to reach St Helena.

      “Biosecurity on St Helena is necessarily being tightened,” he said.

      “We already have laws in place for live animals and related genetic materials, and for fruit,
      vegetables, plants and related products; and the Bees Ordinance protects our disease-free bees and
      honey.

      “But remaining loopholes to be closed include certain meat, dairy and fish imports.”
      RSPB report highlights woeful ignorance and lack of plans

      Glaring gaps in knowledge about Britain’s overseas territories and their wildlife are highlight in
      the RSPB’s report on its findings.

      “Whole groups of species remain almost entirely undiscovered,” says the report, which was funded by
      the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

      “Whilst some excellent conservation work is underway on the ground… the UK Government still has no
      strategic overview of where the most urgent priorities lie, or even a simple understanding of
      actions undertaken, such as the number of nature reserves established.”

      The UK’s environment department, Defra, has “no dedicated evidence plan for the OTs”, and its
      advisory body on nature conservation has no strategy for dealing with “biodiversity knowledge gaps”.

      It says: “The OTs hold at least 1,500 endemic species, compared to around 90 endemic species in the
      UK. This is equivalent to 94 per cent of known endemic British species.

      “Much of the endemic OT fauna and flora is threatened, although only 145 species (9 per cent) have
      ever had their global conservation status assessed. Of these, 111 (77 per cent) are listed as
      Globally Threatened.”

      The RSPB adds that there could be 50,000 unrecorded species in the island territories – more than
      two thousand of them endemic.