using words to deceive
- (b): "When used in the regulations in this subpart, the term “United States”,
when used in a geographical sense, means the several states (including
the Territories of Alaska and Hawaii before their admission as States),
the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the
If the word "including" is placed in a sentence that means only those items listed are included and all others are excluded. Therefore, in the above usage, "United States" means the several states which are only the Territories of Alaska, Hawaii (before admission), DC, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Only. All others are excluded.
The courts have held that using the word "including" excludes all else not listed.