using words to deceive
- The word "several" is defined as "more than two, often used to designate a number greater than one." (Black's 5th Ed). And when used to modify the word "State" usually refers to "federal" States and not "union" states. When the govt USC writers mean to identify the "50 union states" that phrase will be specifically written into the text. The example is: Title 26, Section 6103(b)(5)(A) which reads:
"(5) State - The term "State" means
(A) any of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, . . . . . . . etc." (check it out)
I believe this is the only place in Title 26 definitions that actually uses the phrase "the 50 States." Thus one can legitimately conclude that when ever that phrase is missing, the term "State" includes only the "federal" States (i.e. territories and possessions) and not the "50 union states." Another technique of purposeful deception/deflection by definition. Use this piece of knowledge when looking at the 14th Amendment, etc. etc.So when you see the phrase "the several states" does it mean several "federal" states or the 50 union states?? It seems to me that "50" is considerably more than "several." It has been mentioned (correctly or not) that "several" is more than one and less than seven, but can't quote an authority on that.
- (b): "When used in the regulations in this subpart, the term “United States”,
when used in a geographical sense, means the several states (including
the Territories of Alaska and Hawaii before their admission as States),
the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the
If the word "including" is placed in a sentence that means only those items listed are included and all others are excluded. Therefore, in the above usage, "United States" means the several states which are only the Territories of Alaska, Hawaii (before admission), DC, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Only. All others are excluded.
The courts have held that using the word "including" excludes all else not listed.