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Aquinas' esse --Re: contents: book La svolta antropologica di Karl Rahner

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  • James
    ... well as De ... Aquinas ... much less ... seem to ... something. ... In regard to Aquinas, the problem is this: historically, the thomistic tradition was
    Message 1 of 7 , Feb 20 9:41 AM
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      >
      > I've read the Summa several times, and parts of it many times, as well as De
      > Veritate, Existence and Essence, Disputed Questions on Virtue, Aquinas'
      > short work on the sciences and lots of secondary works, such as
      > Garrigou-Lagrange, Gilson, Owens, and Wilhelmsen. Actually, I'm much less
      > familiar with Rahner than Aquinas. What I've read so far does not seem to
      > stray from the Thomistic fold, but I could easily be missing something.
      >

      In regard to Aquinas, the problem is this: historically, the thomistic tradition was not really aware of the full significance of Aquinas' great theological and philosophical synthesis.  Early on with the condemnation of 1277, thomism was on the defensive and could not really get positive traction.  Thomists were literally put into prison for teaching thomism, and the Franciscans, on their part, did not dare to diverge from the Franciscan anti-thesis.  So Alasdair MacIntyre has pointed, out, even when thomism was taught, it tended to be broken up into various treatise, such as the treatise on law, etc. and the whole was lost.  Not to mention the desuetude thomism fell into after Aquinas' canonization with the onslaught of nominalism (yes, Ockham was a Franciscan).

      The revival of thomism with Cajetan had its lacuna, and his logical understanding of analogy (as opposed to a true metaphysical notion and Saurez's denial of the real distinction between esse and essence) led to the rationalization of thomism concluding with its 19th century variety and the infamous "manuals".  Gilson most energetically opposed this trend. But the historical sciences did not arrive until the 19th century and it was not until after the work of Gilson, Fabaro and others, i.e., post-Vatican II, that the full measure of Aquinas teaching can be evaluated and put to relevant questions. 

      With the teachings of the Second Vatican Council on Church and anthropology, and with the history of modern philosophy, a new synthesis is needed.  As Pope John Paul II has pointed out in his address to the thomistic congress in union with a long history of papal directives, Aquinas remains the model, and his philosophy of God as Ipsum Esse per se subsistens is the key to a new synthesis.

      Now Fabro, less well known than Maritain, or Gilson, has provided a most thorough exposition of how Aquinas' theory fits in with the history of Plato's theory of participation, and Aristotle's theory of substance.  For Aquinas not only baptized, so to speak, Aristotle (this is recognized by many), but also Plato (this is not treated at all, even by Gilson).  In short, following the Arabian distinction between esse and essence beginning with Al farabi, and added to efficient causality by Avicenna, Aquinas completed a completely sound, tested, synthesis of Plato on the one hand, and Aristotle on the other, with respect to understanding of God as Ipsum Esse and creation as a participation in this Ipsum Esse per se subsistens.

      Gilson recognized that thomist philosophy is integrated by Aquinas' understanding of sacra doctrina, and that Aquinas held that some truths known to reason have been revealed.  But as a historian of philosophy, he went no further.  I did my thesis on Aquinas' notion of sacra doctrina.  What Ipsum esse is to Aquinas' philosophy, sacra doctrina is to Aquinas' theology and, even more, it is his source of integration for his work.

      Quite complex but true.

      James


      --- In thomism@yahoogroups.com, "John Strong" <pluviosilla@...> wrote:
      >
      > I've read the Summa several times, and parts of it many times, as well as De
      > Veritate, Existence and Essence, Disputed Questions on Virtue, Aquinas'
      > short work on the sciences and lots of secondary works, such as
      > Garrigou-Lagrange, Gilson, Owens, and Wilhelmsen. Actually, I'm much less
      > familiar with Rahner than Aquinas. What I've read so far does not seem to
      > stray from the Thomistic fold, but I could easily be missing something.
      >
      >
      >
      > From: thomism@yahoogroups.com [mailto:thomism@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
      > James
      > Sent: Monday, February 20, 2012 10:55 AM
      > To: thomism@yahoogroups.com
      > Subject: [thomism] Re: contents: book La svolta antropologica di Karl Rahner
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > --- In thomism@yahoogroups.com, "John Strong" pluviosilla@ wrote:
      > >
      > > O.k., please connect the dots then. How is Rahner's narrative Kantian (or
      > > Humean)?
      > >
      >
      > You will have to wait. This is not exactly the best pedagogy. Given the
      > issues and the need to remain objective. It's best to study Aquinas first.
      > And how Fabro has explicated the brilliant and original synthesis of
      > Aquinas' philosophical achievement in an incomparable manner (systematically
      > beyond that of Maritain and even Gilson). To recognize its place in history,
      > -- its relevance for a continuing synthesis of Christian theology and
      > anthropology and philosophy. This is where one's focus should lie, not in
      > how Rahner should be labeled a Kantian, or an Heideggarian, or in deficient
      > anthropologies, etc.
      >
      > The best method is that of Aquinas, who integrated Scripture, tradition,
      > Magisterium, theology and philosophy. The anthropology comes from Jesus
      > Christ -- and the Church, the true "expert in humanity." A positive
      > synthesis is the best solution and answers the requirements of a new
      > century, a new millennium. Providence gives the means to fulfill this task.
      > Thanks.
      >
      > James
      >
      > >
      > >
      > > From: thomism@yahoogroups.com [mailto:thomism@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
      > Of
      > > James
      > > Sent: Monday, February 20, 2012 9:52 AM
      > > To: thomism@yahoogroups.com
      > > Subject: [thomism] Re: contents: book La svolta antropologica di Karl
      > Rahner
      > >
      > > John, yes we will try to get to it, but it's quite complex, I'll have to
      > > warn you, and involves a thorough understanding of philosophy and issues
      > of
      > > modern thinking. It would also presuppose an understanding of classical
      > > philosophy and a sound objective experience -- our minds conform to
      > > objective truth of things outside ourselves.
      > >
      > > Following Hume, whose psychology did not allow for any knowledge of
      > > objective causality outside of us, e.g. billiard balls striking each other
      > > was no proof of causality, Kant decided to ground all knowledge in the
      > > subject, that is to say, experience offers no ground for science. Rather,
      > > all scientific knowledge has its origin in the thinking subject, and thus
      > > one must think in terms of idealistic reason, the very possibility of
      > > knowledge. This is called subjective idealism, a rationalism devoid of all
      > > experience and based upon the subject thinking out the possibility of
      > > knowledge. The "transcendental" is the mysterious subject who imparts its
      > > subjectivity upon all rationalistic scientific knowledge. The "deduction"
      > > is the thinking out following this initial subjective and idealistic
      > > premiss.
      > >
      > > Lurking behind all this is an anthropology that is completely at odds, not
      > > only with the anthropology of Aquinas, but also that of the Catholic
      > Church
      > > and the Revelation of Jesus Christ.
      > >
      > > In short that is it. What Fabro does is to show how Rahner's following of
      > > Kant and merging this with Heideggar contradicts among other things, the
      > > true transcendental nature of the actus essendi, the act of being, or the
      > > "act to be".
      > >
      > > James
      > >
      > > --- In thomism@yahoogroups.com, "John Strong" pluviosilla@ wrote:
      > > >
      > > > James, if you have the time, please summarize the argument for those of
      > us
      > > > who do not read Italian. What is transcendental deduction?
      > > >
      > > > Thanks, - John Strong
      > > >
      > > >
      > > >
      > > > From: thomism@yahoogroups.com [mailto:thomism@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
      > > Of
      > > > James
      > > > Sent: Saturday, February 18, 2012 7:10 PM
      > > > To: thomism@yahoogroups.com
      > > > Subject: [thomism] contents: book La svolta antropologica di Karl Rahner
      > > >
      > > > Dear Everyone,
      > > >
      > > > The English translation of contents below:
      > > >
      > > > Introduction
      > > >
      > > > Summary
      > > >
      > > > Part One - The identity of being and knowing
      > > >
      > > > 1. Problem and Methodology
      > > >
      > > > 2. The transcendental deduction of the unity of human knowledge
      > > >
      > > > 3. The transcendental deduction of the identity of being and knowing
      > > >
      > > > 4. The transcendental identity of being and knowing
      > > >
      > > > 1) The actuality of esse as implementation of knowledge
      > > >
      > > > 2) The actuality of esse identical to the realization of knowing
      > > >
      > > > 3) The identity of emanation, of the the conversion to the phantasm, of
      > > > abstraction and the return (reditio)
      > > >
      > > > 5. The modern transcendental (Kant-Heidegger-Rahner) and the classical
      > > > transcendental (St. Thomas)
      > > >
      > > > 6. Textual interpolations and doctrinal deformation
      > > >
      > > > a) The textual interpolation of C. Gent. II, 99
      > > >
      > > > b) The doctrinal deformation of the plenitude of "ens-esse"
      > > >
      > > > Part Two - Identity of conversion-abstraction-reditio in seipsum and
      > > freedom
      > > >
      > > > 1. The a priori structure of sensitivity
      > > >
      > > > 2. The "conversion" as "abstraction," and the denial of metaphysics
      > > >
      > > > 3. The "abstraction" 'as "reditio subjecti in seipsum" and the denial of
      > > > metaphysical transcendence
      > > >
      > > > 4. The "abstraction-reditio" and the denial of freedom of choice
      > > >
      > > > 5. Brief epilogue
      > > >
      > > > Excursus
      > > >
      > > > At the root of misunderstanding Rahnerian identity of being and knowing
      > > >
      > > > Being as "questionableness" (Sein als Fragbarkeit)
      > > >
      > > > The Rahnerian misfortune '"intellectus in actu perfectio est intellectum
      > > in
      > > > actu"
      > > >
      > > > The Dionysian '"excessus", the Rahnerian "Vorgriff", transcendental
      > > thomism
      > > >
      > > > Appendix - About a recent book on the philosophy of Karl Rahner
      > > >
      > > > Indices, instructions and notes
      > > >
      > > > Index of names
      > > >
      > > > Index of texts of St. Thomas
      > > >
      > > > I. Texts cited
      > > >
      > > > II. Authors indicated
      > > >
      > > > Index of texts by Karl Rahner
      > > >
      > > > I. Texts cited
      > > >
      > > > 1) Texts of Geist in Welt
      > > >
      > > > 2) Texts of Hörer des Wortes
      > > >
      > > > II. Authors indicated
      > > >
      > > > 1) Texts of Geist in Welt
      > > >
      > > > 2) Texts of Hörer des Wortes
      > > >
      > > >
      > > > General notes on the Collected Works of Cornelio Fabro
      > > >
      > > > Instructions about the volume
      > > >
      > > > Notes on the notes to the text
      > > >
      > > > Footnotes
      > > >
      > > > Texts of Karl Rahner
      > > >
      > > > Table of Contents
      > > >
      > >
      >
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