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Fw: Re: [spaceflightnow.com] Gravitational waves back Big Bang theory / Orion test flight delay

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  • John W
    This is a post of mine on another group, slightly amended.  John W. ... around which there should by now be an enormous void, having practically no matter,
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 19, 2014
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      This is a post of mine on another group, slightly amended.  John W.

       Re: [spaceflightnow.com] Gravitational waves back Big Bang theory / Orion test flight delay

      About the first item, "Gravitational waves back big bang theory", I would make these comments:

      I am of the opinion that the observed red shift of distant galaxies, which increases linearly with distance according to the Hubble equation (containing the Hubble constant), is NOT, in fact, due to a Doppler effect caused by expansion of the universe, making galaxies recede from each other. This  universal expansion is supposedly being accelerated by "dark energy", against their mutual gravitational attraction, which latter should eventually cause expansion to decelerate and eventually reverse, unless the universe is infinite and matter on a long distance scale is distributed uniformly in it. For this to happen, the supposed "big bang" which allegedly started universal expansion 13.8 billion years ago, at which time all matter and energy in the universe was supposed to be  concentrated at a single point in space, should have occurred at an identifiable (by distance and celestial longitude and latitude) and detectable particular point in space, around which there should by now be an enormous void, having practically no matter, with a radius of billions of light-years, supposing that the initial velocity of expansion was a large fraction of the speed of light. 

      However, there is  ABSOLUTELY NO EVIDENCE for the existence of or any such location of the site of the alleged "big bang", or of such an huge void around such a point in space with no matter in it for billions of light-years around it. Instead, I explain the observed "red shift" of distant galaxies, entailing reduction in energy of light and hence increase of wavelength toward the red and infrared with increasing observed distance, as being due to the medium of space (call it "ether" if you like) through which light (transverse electromagnetic waves) travels being slightly imperfectly elastic, similarly to sound waves through a slightly imperfectly elastic solid (i.e. with a non-infinite viscosity) steadily being degraded to heat with distance. This degradation of light, steadily reducing the energy of photons, over long distances may well account for the cosmic microwave background radiation ("COBE") that in 1965 was discovered coming from every point in the sky, which is only very slightly anisotropic and has a wavelength distribution equivalent to that of a "black-body" at a temperature of 2.7ºK. 

      While it is clear that matter began to coalesce to form stars and quasars about 13.8 billion years ago, this does not mean that matter as we know it started then with a "big bang" at a particular point in space i.e. a singularity. It is equally valid to postulate that, before then, the matter and energy in the universe had been uniformly distributed throughout the universe as hydrogen molecules and electromagnetic radiation; and 13.8 billion years ago, something (God?) caused a disturbance or disturbances in this uniformly distributed matter, resulting in uneven distribution and hence coalescence of matter into the first stars and quasars. In fact, this would account well for the distribution of matter in the universe as seen today, which on a long distance scale is quite uniform. Because the formation of light sources, i.e. the first stars and quasars in which hydrogen fusion started to occur, did not start until an estimated about 100 million years after matter started to coalesce, no objects more than 13.7 billion light-years away can be seen from Earth, even with the most powerful space telescopes. Only space telescopes can see galaxies at anything like this distance because the faint light from such distances is severely red-shifted to such an extent that atmospheric absorbance and Earth's own infrared emissions prevent ground-based telescopes from photographing it. There is no known means by which astronomers can detect or image anything more than 13.8 billion light -years away, simply because light from further away simply has  not had time to travel here.

       Unfortunately, detection of the "ether" by such means as the Michelson-Morley experiment ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelson%E2%80%93Morley_experiment and http://galileoandeinstein.physics..virginia.edu/lectures/michelson.html ), repeated many times since 1887 by researchers with various refinements, is exceedingly difficult in laboratories on a massive body such as Earth, or near such a body, with negative results observed, which can be explained by gravity "dragging along" ether with it. This "ether" approach would explain gravitation as being due to longitudinal (compressional) waves in the ether emanating from matter (subatomiic particles), the interference pattern from two or more sources of which results in attraction. The difficulty in proving the existence of an "ether" has resulted in Einstein's special and general relativity reigning supreme.

      "Dark energy", supposed to be causing acceleration of the alleged expansion of the universe, is as much as myth as its matter equivalent, "dark matter".. There is nothing exotic or special or magical about "dark matter", in my opinion. "Dark matter" has been postulated  to account for the fact that galaxies have been consistently measured (by means of the Doppler effect)  as rotating substantially faster than can be explained by using in the Oort equation (which theoretically describes the motion of a stellar system such as a galaxy in which a substantial part of the mass and hence gravitational attraction is distributed at considerable distances from the center) the estimated total mass  and mass distribution with distance from center of the observable luminous matter in galaxies i.e. main-sequence stars. 

      However, in my opinion, the "dark matter" is merely non-luminous ordinary matter in a galaxy, comprising its central "black hole", non-luminous smaller "black holes" and neutron stars formed when stars at least several times the mass of the Sun use up their core hydrogen and then go supernova when the core collapses and rebounds, "black dwarfs" (i.e. spent white dwarfs which are originally formed when a star roughly the mass of the Sun or slightly larger has used up all its available core hydrogen and swells up and ejects its cooler outer layers into space when its core collapses), and interstellar gases and dust and larger particles of matter (including the very numerous "brown dwarfs" that are believed to exist - stars with insufficient mass for hydrogen fusion ever to start although larger than Jupiter, and which emit only low-energy infrared light derived from gravitational contraction).

      John W.

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