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[thefixedstars] Flu Epidemic - Black Death

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  • jodoch
    Hello Fixed Stars, In the book The Great Mortality, an Intimate History of The Black Death by John Kelly, 2005,
    Message 1 of 1 , Oct 14, 2005
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      Hello Fixed Stars,

      In the book "The Great Mortality, an Intimate History of The Black Death" by
      John Kelly, 2005,

      http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A33506-2005Feb17.html

      the following dates are given for the outbreak of Plague in Europe :

      Constantinople. The Plague arrived sometime in the Spring or
      early Summer 1347.

      Messina, Sicily, in October 1347, at about the beginning of the month...
      (other evidence suggests in late September) "a fleet of Genoese galleys put
      into the port of Messina." It is not certain where they came from : "Caffa,
      another Black Sea port, Constantinople, Romania, or somewhere closer" ...
      already striken by the Plague. "The Black Death had arrived in Europe. It
      is possible that the pestilence slipped into another European port a few
      days or weeks earlier, but Messina and Sicily are where the plague enters
      the historical record in Europe."

      In 1345, in the Italian peninsula it rained torrentially for six months,
      producing famine on an epic scale.
      "In 1346 and 1347 there was a severe shortage of basic foods ... to the
      point where many people died of hunger and people ate grass and weeds as if
      they had been wheat."
      "In Florence the terrible Plague Spring of 1348 was preceded by the terrible
      famine spring of 1347. In April of that year much of Florence was surviving
      on a municipal bread ration. As if sensing the approaching horror, the
      Italian earth also began to tremble. Major earthquakes rocked Rome, Venice,
      Pisa, Bologna, Naples, Padua, and Venice.

      "Contemporary accounts say that Genoa was infected on December 31st 1347,
      but a reconstruction of the timeline suggests that Y. pestis made a first
      run at the city eight to ten weeks earlier." (Late October 1347).

      Marseille, November 1347 "Marseille's lat day of normalcy was November 1st -
      All Saints' Day."

      Avignon, January 1348

      Venice, January 1348. On June 10th, the death rate approaching six hundred a
      day..."

      Central Italy, Late Winter - Early Spring 1348

      Rome, August 1348

      Paris, June 1348

      " In the new medical schools like the University of Paris, students also
      learned that earthquakes, unburied corpses, decaying corps, stagnant water,
      poor ventilation, and even poisons could infect the air; but in the case of
      epidemics, which affected hundreds of thousands of people in widely
      separated places, infection was thought to result from a global disturbance,
      like an unvaborable planetary alignment. The movement of the Moon clearly
      controlled tides; ergo, reasoned medieval (and ancient) man, air quality
      must also be affected by planetary movements and cycles."
      "The Compendium de epidemia per Collegium Facultatis Medicorum Parisius, the
      plague treatise of the Paris medical masters, offers an example of how the
      new medicine used the theories of astrology and infected air to explain the
      origins of the pestilence."
      "According to the Compendium, " " the first cause of this pestilence was an
      is the configuration of the heavens which occurred in 134r, at one hour
      after noon on 20 March, when there was a major conjunction of three planets
      in Aquarius." " In the masters' view, the conjunction caused " a deadly
      corruption in the air," and Mars and Jupiter, two of the three planets in
      the conjunction, played a particularly important role in the corruption. " "
      For Jupiter, being wet and hot draws up evil vapors from the Earth and Mars,
      because it is immoderately hot and dry, then ignites the vapors and as a
      result there were lightning sparks, nowious vapors and fires throughout the
      air."

      Normandy, Summer 1348

      Melcombe in Dorset 1348 , "at about the feast of ... St Thomas the martyr
      (July 7th) the cruel pestilence, hateful to all future ages arrived from
      countries across the sea on the south coast of England at the port called
      Melcombe in Dorset." Today Melcombe is part Of Weymouth..."

      Bristol Channel "infected later in the Summer of 1348".

      Ireland, Summer 1348

      London, early November 1348. "Surprisingly for the city of Shakespeare and
      Dickens, London produced no great plague chroniclers...."

      Wales

      York, May 1349

      Scotland March 1350

      - - - - - - - - - -

      More information on the Black Death :

      http://historymedren.about.com/library/weekly/aa032698.htm and links.

      Best,

      Joanna
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