[thefixedstars] Flu Epidemic - Black Death
- Hello Fixed Stars,
In the book "The Great Mortality, an Intimate History of The Black Death" by
John Kelly, 2005,
the following dates are given for the outbreak of Plague in Europe :
Constantinople. The Plague arrived sometime in the Spring or
early Summer 1347.
Messina, Sicily, in October 1347, at about the beginning of the month...
(other evidence suggests in late September) "a fleet of Genoese galleys put
into the port of Messina." It is not certain where they came from : "Caffa,
another Black Sea port, Constantinople, Romania, or somewhere closer" ...
already striken by the Plague. "The Black Death had arrived in Europe. It
is possible that the pestilence slipped into another European port a few
days or weeks earlier, but Messina and Sicily are where the plague enters
the historical record in Europe."
In 1345, in the Italian peninsula it rained torrentially for six months,
producing famine on an epic scale.
"In 1346 and 1347 there was a severe shortage of basic foods ... to the
point where many people died of hunger and people ate grass and weeds as if
they had been wheat."
"In Florence the terrible Plague Spring of 1348 was preceded by the terrible
famine spring of 1347. In April of that year much of Florence was surviving
on a municipal bread ration. As if sensing the approaching horror, the
Italian earth also began to tremble. Major earthquakes rocked Rome, Venice,
Pisa, Bologna, Naples, Padua, and Venice.
"Contemporary accounts say that Genoa was infected on December 31st 1347,
but a reconstruction of the timeline suggests that Y. pestis made a first
run at the city eight to ten weeks earlier." (Late October 1347).
Marseille, November 1347 "Marseille's lat day of normalcy was November 1st -
All Saints' Day."
Avignon, January 1348
Venice, January 1348. On June 10th, the death rate approaching six hundred a
Central Italy, Late Winter - Early Spring 1348
Rome, August 1348
Paris, June 1348
" In the new medical schools like the University of Paris, students also
learned that earthquakes, unburied corpses, decaying corps, stagnant water,
poor ventilation, and even poisons could infect the air; but in the case of
epidemics, which affected hundreds of thousands of people in widely
separated places, infection was thought to result from a global disturbance,
like an unvaborable planetary alignment. The movement of the Moon clearly
controlled tides; ergo, reasoned medieval (and ancient) man, air quality
must also be affected by planetary movements and cycles."
"The Compendium de epidemia per Collegium Facultatis Medicorum Parisius, the
plague treatise of the Paris medical masters, offers an example of how the
new medicine used the theories of astrology and infected air to explain the
origins of the pestilence."
"According to the Compendium, " " the first cause of this pestilence was an
is the configuration of the heavens which occurred in 134r, at one hour
after noon on 20 March, when there was a major conjunction of three planets
in Aquarius." " In the masters' view, the conjunction caused " a deadly
corruption in the air," and Mars and Jupiter, two of the three planets in
the conjunction, played a particularly important role in the corruption. " "
For Jupiter, being wet and hot draws up evil vapors from the Earth and Mars,
because it is immoderately hot and dry, then ignites the vapors and as a
result there were lightning sparks, nowious vapors and fires throughout the
Normandy, Summer 1348
Melcombe in Dorset 1348 , "at about the feast of ... St Thomas the martyr
(July 7th) the cruel pestilence, hateful to all future ages arrived from
countries across the sea on the south coast of England at the port called
Melcombe in Dorset." Today Melcombe is part Of Weymouth..."
Bristol Channel "infected later in the Summer of 1348".
Ireland, Summer 1348
London, early November 1348. "Surprisingly for the city of Shakespeare and
Dickens, London produced no great plague chroniclers...."
York, May 1349
Scotland March 1350
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More information on the Black Death :
http://historymedren.about.com/library/weekly/aa032698.htm and links.