Herbert Hoover (was: Re: Barak Obama's fixed stars)
--- On Fri, 11/21/08, msbhavens1 <msbhavens1@...> wrote:
From: msbhavens1 <msbhavens1@...>
Subject: [thefixedstars] Re: Barak Obama's fixed stars
Date: Friday, November 21, 2008, 11:16 AM
>>under hoover you might add philanthropist or humanitarian.
>>When World War I started in August 1914, he helped organize 120,000
American tourists and businessmen to return to the US from Europe.
Hoover led five hundred volunteers to pass out food, clothing,
steamship tickets and cash. "I did not realize it at the moment, but
on August 3, 1914 my career was over forever. I was on the slippery
road of public life." The difference between dictatorship and
democracy, Hoover liked to say, was simple: dictators organize from
the top down, democracies from the bottom up.(a lot more on Wikipedia
about his humanitarian side worth reading)
While Herbert Hoover may have acted like a humanitarian during and just after World War I, his conduct in overseeing relief efforts in the South during the great Mississippi River flood of 1927 is another stain on his image and is a major reason why most African-Americans now vote Democratic. (I'll have his fixed stars posted before too long.)
"April 22 : The Great Flood overruns Greenville, Mississippi. Downtown Greenville is covered in 10 feet of water. For 60 miles to the east and 90 miles to the south of the Mounds Landing break, the Delta becomes a turbulent, churning inland sea, leaving tens of thousands of people stranded on rooftops and clinging to trees. LeRoy Percy [a local plantation owner and civic leader] appoints his son, Will Percy, to head the Flood Relief Committee. Will is 42 years old.
April 23: Searching for marooned people in Washington County, rescue boats follow power lines to farms and houses in the countryside, bringing back whomever they find to the high ground on the crown of the Greenville levee. Over 10,000 refugees, mostly African Americans, crowd onto the narrow eight-foot-wide crown with their salvaged possessions and livestock. With the arrival of the refugees, Greenville's population almost doubles.
April 25: The situation in Greenville is dire. Thirteen thousand African Americans are stranded on the levee with nothing but blankets and makeshift tents for shelter. There is no food for them. The city's water supply is contaminated. The railway has been washed away, and sanitation is non-existent. An outbreak of cholera or typhoid is imminent.
Will Percy decides that the only honorable and decent course of action is to evacuate the refugees to safer ground down river and arranges for barges to pick up and transport the refugees. Many people are reluctant to abandon Greenville, despite the fact that their homes have been submerged. The planters, in particular, oppose Will's plan, fearing that if the African American refugees leave, they will never return, and there will be no labor to work the crops. LeRoy, placing his business interests above his family's tradition of aiding those less fortunate, betrays his son and secretly sides with the planters. Boats with room for all the refugees arrive, but only 33 white women and children are allowed to board. The African American refugees are left behind, trapped on the levee. Later, Will Percy will write that he was "astounded and horrified" by this turn of events.
April: To justify his relief committee's failure to evacuate the refugees, Will Percy convinces the Red Cross to make Greenville a distribution center, with the African Americans providing the labor. Red Cross relief provisions arrive in Greenville, but the best provisions go to the whites in town. Only African Americans wearing tags around their necks marked "laborer" receive rations. National Guard is called in to patrol the refugee camps in Greenville. Word filters out of the camps that guardsmen are robbing, assaulting, raping and even murdering African Americans held on the levee.
April 26: Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, placed in charge of flood relief by President Calvin Coolidge, visits Greenville and approves the flood relief committee's plans.
"May: Slowly word of the abuses in the refugee camps reaches the Northern press. Once the situation in the refugee camps hits the national press, Herbert Hoover initiates an investigation of the reports. His investigators confirm numerous instances of abuse, but Hoover chooses to suppress the report. Hoover, known as "the Great Humanitarian," has his eyes set on the presidency. He has ridden a wave of good publicity from his flood relief efforts, and is determined to maintain his positive image. Hoover forms a Colored Advisory Commission of influential African American conservatives, led by Robert Russa Moton, to further investigate the camps. The commission confirms the initial findings. In exchange for keeping the report quiet, Hoover promises that if he wins the election, he will support the advancement of African Americans, including possible agrarian land reform. Moton agrees, and Hoover is never called to account for the treatment of African
Americans in Washington County.
June and July: As the flood waters recede, Greenville faces the task of digging the town out the mud. Again, the white leadership of the town resorts to conscripting African Americans at gun point. African American community leaders are outraged and refuse to recruit more workers. The Percys convince Hoover to visit Greenville and appeal to the workers, but his speech is a failure and the shortage of workers persists.
July 7: James Gooden, a well respected African American in the Greenville community, is shot in the back by a white policeman for refusing to return for a day shift after working all night on the clean-up. Word of his death spreads quickly and work stops. Tensions rise, and both blacks and whites arm themselves with guns and other weapons. Greenville is at a standoff. Will Percy calls a reconciliation meeting of the African American community at a local church, but places the blame on them for the death of their neighbor.
August 31: Will Percy resigns from the Greenville Flood Relief Committee and leaves for a trip to Japan the very next day.
Late summer: Thousands of African Americans pack up their belongings and leave Washington County. Most head north and within a year, fifty percent of the Delta's African American population will have migrated from the region. Once "the Queen of the South," Greenville will never recover the prosperity it once enjoyed before the flood.
After Hoover is elected president, he turns his back on Robert Moton, the Colored Advisory Commission, and his earlier promises. Burned badly by Hoover, in the next election Moton and the African American community shift their support from the Republicans to the Democratic party and Franklin Delano Roosevelt."
Mark A. Holmes
- --- In email@example.com, Mark Andrew Holmes
> --- On Fri, 11/21/08, msbhavens1 <msbhavens1@...> wrote:
> From: msbhavens1 <msbhavens1@...>
> Subject: [thefixedstars] Re: Barak Obama's fixed stars
> To: firstname.lastname@example.org
> Date: Friday, November 21, 2008, 11:16 AM
> >>under hoover you might add philanthropist or humanitarian.
> >>from wikipedia:
> >>When World War I started in August 1914, he helped organize
> American tourists and businessmen to return to the US from Europe.but
> Hoover led five hundred volunteers to pass out food, clothing,
> steamship tickets and cash. "I did not realize it at the moment,
> on August 3, 1914 my career was over forever. I was on the slipperyWikipedia
> road of public life." The difference between dictatorship and
> democracy, Hoover liked to say, was simple: dictators organize from
> the top down, democracies from the bottom up.(a lot more on
> about his humanitarian side worth reading)just after World War I, his conduct in overseeing relief efforts in
> While Herbert Hoover may have acted like a humanitarian during and
the South during the great Mississippi River flood of 1927 is another
stain on his image and is a major reason why most African-Americans
now vote Democratic. (I'll have his fixed stars posted before too
August 10, 1874
West Branch, Iowa
Merak (Beta Ursae Majoris)
Asellus Borealis (Gamma Cancri)
Asellus Australis (Delta Cancri)
Armus (Eta Capricorni)
Zanrak (Gamma Eridani)
Capulus (M-34 Persei, the Sword-Handle Cluster in Perseus)
Al Hecka (Zeta Tauri)
Prima Hyadum (Gamma Tauri)
Mirach (Beta Andromedae)
Mira (Omicron Ceti)
He probably would have done better to stay a humanitarian; politics
ruined his reputation.
Mark A. Holmes