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Justin Martyr and the ending of Mark

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  • sarban
    Justin in the 1st Apology says That which he says, He shall send to Thee the rod of power out of Jerusalem, is predictive of the mighty, word, which His
    Message 1 of 4 , May 31, 2005
      Justin in the 1st Apology says 
       
      That which he says, "He shall send to Thee the rod of power out of Jerusalem," is predictive of the mighty, word, which His apostles, going forth from Jerusalem, preached everywhere; and though death is decreed against those who teach or at all confess the name of Christ, we everywhere both embrace and teach it. And if you also read these words in a hostile spirit, ye can do no more, as I said before, than kill us; which indeed does no harm to us, but to you and all who unjustly hate us, and do not repent, brings eternal punishment by fire. 

      'the mighty word which his apostles going forth from Jerusalem preached everywhere' has been taken as an allusion to Mark 16:20  'TOU LOGOU.........EXELThONTES PANTAChOU EKHRUXAN. compared to  '...EXELThONTES EKHRUXAN PANTAChOU....TON LOGON'.

      Some have thought the parallel too weak to be fully conclusivr but it has been replied that Tatian in his Diatessaron almost certainly had the long ending and the Gospel text of Justin was probably a synoptic harmony similar to the Diatessaron but without John. Hence a priori it is quite likely that Justin knew the long ending.

      One major problem with the parallel is that Justin is very clearly talking of 'going forth from Jerusalem' while the long ending of Mark does not mention Jerusalem and on the basis of Mark 16:7 and the parallel in Matthew 28 it could plausibly be argued that Mark 16:15-18 are set in Galilee.

      However if we assume that Justin's synoptic harmony was similar in arrangement to Tatian without John then the end of Justin's gospel would have combined Mark and Luke to give 

      And while he blessed them, he was separated from them, and ascended into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God. And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy: and at all times they were in the temple, praising and blessing God.. And from thence they went forth, and preached in every place; and our Lord helped them, and confirmed their sayings by the signs which they did.

       

      Hence the context of Mark 16:20 has been changed to refer unambiguously to going forth from Jerusalem making the link between this hypothetical but plausible harmony and Justin's Apology substantially closer.

       

      Close enough IMO to make an allusion here by Justin to a harmony including Mark 16:20 highly probable.

       

      Andrew Criddle

       

       

       

    • malcolm robertson
      Dear Andrew, Just a few brief observations. 1. John 3:5 is quoted in Dial. 61. John 3:14 is quoted in Dial. Trypho 91. In a fragment he (alledgedly) alludes
      Message 2 of 4 , May 31, 2005
        Dear Andrew,
         
        Just a few brief observations.
         
        1.  John 3:5 is quoted in Dial. 61.  John 3:14 is quoted in Dial. Trypho 91.  In a fragment he (alledgedly) alludes to ARXWN which may refer back to Jn 12:31.
         
        2.  Apart from two quotes from Mark in the fragments Mk 12:25; 2:17, there are no other references from Mark.  Because Justin's exposition in Dial. 45 is rather free there are other possible sources used in his exposition.  Consider Lk 8:1ff or Acts 2:33; 7:55f; Rom 8:34; Col 3:1(!); Heb 10:12; 1 Pet 3:22; Mt 28:19f as viable options as sources of the allusions in his speech.
         
        3.  Apart from the belief that Hort held that vss 9-20 were from the apostolic period and not original to Mark's composition I think you are going to be hard pressed to find concrete evidence prior to the 3rd century - although it's marked docetic and heretical content may support the supposition that it was composed in the 2nd century (contra Hort who may in fact have thought it was earlier).  The existing sources themselves will have to be appraised critically before their prima facie testimony can be rendered a conclusive verdict.  Other than Hort's remarks there is nothing apart from speculation.  Not even the Latin text of Irenaeus will do.
         
         
        Cordially in Christ,
         
        Malcolm
         
         
        Justin in the 1st Apology says 
         
        That which he says, "He shall send to Thee the rod of power out of Jerusalem," is predictive of the mighty, word, which His apostles, going forth from Jerusalem, preached everywhere; and though death is decreed against those who teach or at all confess the name of Christ, we everywhere both embrace and teach it. And if you also read these words in a hostile spirit, ye can do no more, as I said before, than kill us; which indeed does no harm to us, but to you and all who unjustly hate us, and do not repent, brings eternal punishment by fire. 

        'the mighty word which his apostles going forth from Jerusalem preached everywhere' has been taken as an allusion to Mark 16:20  'TOU LOGOU.........EXELThONTES PANTAChOU EKHRUXAN. compared to  '...EXELThONTES EKHRUXAN PANTAChOU....TON LOGON'.

        Some have thought the parallel too weak to be fully conclusivr but it has been replied that Tatian in his Diatessaron almost certainly had the long ending and the Gospel text of Justin was probably a synoptic harmony similar to the Diatessaron but without John. Hence a priori it is quite likely that Justin knew the long ending.

        One major problem with the parallel is that Justin is very clearly talking of 'going forth from Jerusalem' while the long ending of Mark does not mention Jerusalem and on the basis of Mark 16:7 and the parallel in Matthew 28 it could plausibly be argued that Mark 16:15-18 are set in Galilee.

        However if we assume that Justin's synoptic harmony was similar in arrangement to Tatian without John then the end of Justin's gospel would have combined Mark and Luke to give 

        And while he blessed them, he was separated from them, and ascended into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God. And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy: and at all times they were in the temple, praising and blessing God.. And from thence they went forth, and preached in every place; and our Lord helped them, and confirmed their sayings by the signs which they did.

         

        Hence the context of Mark 16:20 has been changed to refer unambiguously to going forth from Jerusalem making the link between this hypothetical but plausible harmony and Justin's Apology substantially closer.

         

        Close enough IMO to make an allusion here by Justin to a harmony including Mark 16:20 highly probable.

         

        Andrew Criddle

         
         


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      • sarban
        ... From: malcolm robertson To: textualcriticism@yahoogroups.com Sent: Tuesday, May 31, 2005 8:54 PM Subject: [textualcriticism] Justin Martyr and the ending
        Message 3 of 4 , Jun 1, 2005
           
          ----- Original Message -----
          Sent: Tuesday, May 31, 2005 8:54 PM
          Subject: [textualcriticism] Justin Martyr and the ending of Mark

          Dear Andrew,
           
          Just a few brief observations.
           
           
          Thank you Malcolm.
           
          <SNIP>
           
          2.  Apart from two quotes from Mark in the fragments Mk 12:25; 2:17, there are no other references from Mark. 
           
          Those such as Bellinzoni and Petersen who believe that Justin was using a gospel harmony usually hold that several passages generally regarded as loose quotations from Matthew are in fact quotations of a text which harmonises Matthew and Mark (eg Apology 15:2 is regarded by such scholars as a harmony of Matthew 5:29, Mark 9:47 and Matthew 18:9)
           
           
          Because Justin's exposition in Dial. 45 is rather free there are other possible sources used in his exposition.  Consider Lk 8:1ff or Acts 2:33; 7:55f; Rom 8:34; Col 3:1(!); Heb 10:12; 1 Pet 3:22; Mt 28:19f as viable options as sources of the allusions in his speech.
           
          A number of the parallels you kindly provided seem to be parallels to 'sit thou at my right hand' which occurs in the Apology just before the passage I quoted and which I am not proposing as a probable allusion to the long ending. What I am suggesting is that 'the mighty word which his apostles going forth from Jerusalem preached everywhere'  is such an allusion but not to the separated Gospel of Mark but to the long ending of Mark occurring as part of an early Gospel harmony. 
           
          Andrew Criddle
        • malcolm robertson
          Dear Andrew, In light of the introductory/prefatory nature of Justin s remarks immediately prior to the citations as well as the use of the conjunction before
          Message 4 of 4 , Jun 1, 2005
            Dear Andrew,
             
            In light of the introductory/prefatory nature of Justin's remarks immediately prior to the citations as well as the use of the conjunction before each one of these cited passages I am highly doubtful whether Bellinzoni and Petersen are not just free thinking ..."alas, medicine, jurisprudence have I learned..."
             
            I think you would agree it must have been quite a poor production of a harmony if Justin was in fact using such a thing. 
             
            Cordially in Christ,
             
            Malcolm
             
             
            "Those such as Bellinzoni and Petersen who believe that Justin was using a gospel harmony usually hold that several passages generally regarded as loose quotations from Matthew are in fact quotations of a text which harmonises Matthew and Mark (eg Apology 15:2 is regarded by such scholars as a harmony of Matthew 5:29, Mark 9:47 and Matthew 18:9)"



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