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Clement's Text of Luke: a Three-Way Tie

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  • james_snapp_jr
    On pages 131-182 of The Text of the Gospels in Clement of Alexandria, Carl P. Cosaert lists citations, adaptations, and allusions to Luke, and lists
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 3, 2012
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      On pages 131-182 of "The Text of the Gospels in Clement of Alexandria," Carl P. Cosaert lists citations, adaptations, and allusions to Luke, and lists agreements between his reconstructions of Clement's readings and the chosen representatives of text-types.

      Cosaert states (on p. 267) in his Group Profile Analysis that in Luke, "Clement's text identifies most closely with the Western text, though again the levels of proportionate agreement fall somewhat short of 65%." But he adds a note of caution about leaning too heavily on the statistically alliance between Clement and the Western that is revealed by his data, and later on (on p. 303) he adjusts his data in a way that drops Clement's level of agreement with the Western Text down to 47.6%; Cosaert concludes that Clement, in Luke "appears to draw from two different streams of readings in circulation, Western and Primary Alexandrian."

      But not Byzantine? Hmm; that would seem to imply that in a comparison of the Byzantine Text to the Alexandrian Text to the Western Text, the Byzantine's rate of agreement to Clement's reconstructed text of Luke would not come close to the rates of agreement with Clement that are displayed by the Primary Alexandrian Text and the Western Text. Let's test that; let's see what happens in a head-to-head-to-head comparison of the best representatives of each of those three text-types. When there is a disagreement between the members of the group Byz-B-D, with which member does Clement agree most frequently? Let's find out by sifting through Cosaert's data, focusing on those points where Clement disagrees with either one or two members of the group Byz-B-D. (I thus set aside places where Clement's text agrees with all three, or disagrees with all three, members of this group.)

      (Cosaert used TR. I have checked all of these references with RP-2005 and adjusted the listings accordingly. Readings in brackets, though included in Cosaert's analysis, were not included in my comparison; reasons for this are given case by case.)

      Clement's Agreements in Luke with One or Two Members of the Group Byz-B-D:

      [3:2 - does not have TOU after TON ~ agrees with Byz B D; disagreeing with TR.]
      (1) 3:13 - PLEON PRASSEIN/PLEON PRASSETE ~ agrees with D; disagreeing with Byz B [The key aspect of this reading is the presence or absence of PLEON]
      (2) 3:22 - UIOS MOI EI SU AGAPHTOS EGW SHMERON GENENNKA SE ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B [However, D reads UIOS MOI EI SU EGW SHMERON GEGENNHKA SE (that is, without AGAPHTOS). Despite Clement's inclusion of AGAPHTOS, Cosaert counts this as an agreement with D, explaining in a footnote that Clement "is clearly aware of this unique reading in Codex Bezae." I would counter that Clement shows an awareness of a conflate reading, not with either one of its component-parts, and that his testimony should be regarded as either an agreement with both, or with neither. So I will keep this in the analysis, but note that it is questionable (because Clement seems to show an awareness of a reading descended from two, not just one, rival readings).]
      (3) 3:23 - HN DE IHSOUS ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B
      (4) 3:23 - WS ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B
      (5) 4:13 - KAIRON/KAIROU ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has CRONOU) [This is actually a three-way disagreement, since Clement has KAIRON but Byz B have KAIRON. The key aspect of this reading is a matter of whether or not Clement supports D's reading CRONOU.]
      (6) 6:22 - MISHSWSIN ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has MISHSOUSIN)
      (7) 6:22 - EKEKA ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has ENEKEN)
      (8) 6:29 - EIS ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have EPI)
      (9) 6:29 - PARECE ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which adds AUTW)
      (10) 6:31 - ANQRWPOI ~ agrees with B; disagrees with Byz D (which add KAI UMEIS)
      (11) 6:36 - GINESQE ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which adds OUN)
      (12) 6:36 - KAQWS ~ agrees with B; disagrees with Byz D (which add KAI)
      (13) 6:37 - INA MH ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have KAI OU MH)
      (14) 6:38 - W (GAR) METRW ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which has TW (GAR) AUTW METRW)
      (15) 6:38 ~ PEPIOSMENON KAI SESALEUMENON ~ agrees with Byz; disagrees with B (which does not have KAI); disagrees with D (which transposes, and does not have KAI)
      (16) 6:38 - UPEREKCUNOMENON ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which has KAI before this word)
      (17) 6:38 - ANTIMETRHQHSETAI ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which lacks ANTI-)
      (18) 6:43 - KARPON SAPRON ~ agrees with B Byz; disagrees with D (which has KARPOUS SAPROUS)
      (19) 6:43 - KARPON KALON ~ agrees with B Byz; disagrees with D (which has KARPOUS KALOUS)
      (20) 6:44 - TRUGWMEN/TRUGWSIN STAFULHN ~ agrees with Byz; disagrees with B D (which transpose) [Clement's utilization (in Paed. 2:74:4) is so loose, it seems to me, that it cannot reasonably be considered an accurate reflection of his text. This reading will be retained in the analysis but the loose nature of the utilization will be noted.]
      (21) 6:45 - KARDIAS (first) ~ agrees with B; disagrees with Byz D (which add AUTOU)
      (22) 6:45 - PERISSEUMATOS ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which adds TOU before this word)
      (23) 6:45 - THS KARDIAS ~ agrees with Byz; disagrees with B D (which do not have THS)
      (24) 6:45 - AGAQOU QESAUROU ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which adds AUTOU)
      (25) 6:45 - TO ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which omits)
      (26) 6:46 - LEGETE ~ agrees with D; diasgrees with Byz B (which have KALEITE)
      (27) 6:46 - A ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which has O)
      (28) 7:25 - DIAGONTES ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have UPARCONTES)
      (29) 7:28 - PROFHTHS ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which omits)
      (30) 7:37 - ALABASTRON MUROU ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which transposes)
      (31) 9:62 - EIS TA OPISW BLEPWN KAI ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have KAI BLEPWN EIS TA OPISW)
      (32) 9:62 - EPIBALLWN ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have EPIBALWN) [A difference of a single repeated letter. Let this reading be compared to any of the readings which were not included in the analysis on the grounds that they were genetically insignificant.]
      (33) 9:62 - CEIRA AUTOU ~ agrees with D Byz; disagrees with B (which omits AUTOU)
      (34) 9:62 - OUDEIS EIS TA OPISW BLEPWN KAI EPIBALLWN CEIRA AUTOU EP AROTRON ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (different word-order)
      (35) 9:62 - TH BASILEIA ~ agrees with B; disagrees with B D (which have THN BASILEIAN)
      (36) 10:19 - OFEWN ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has TWN OFEWN)
      (37) 10:19 - SKORPIWN ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has TWN SKORPIWN)
      (38) 10:21 - EN TW PNEUMATI ~ agrees with D; disagrees with B Byz (which have TW PNEUMATI)
      (39) 10:21 - EUDOKIA EGENETO ~ agrees with B; disagrees with Byz D (which transpose)
      (40) 10:21 - SOFWN KAI SUNETWN ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which transposes)
      (41) 10:42 - AUTHS ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which has AP' AUTHS) [Note: P75 agrees here with Byz, reading AP AUTHS]
      [10:42 - Cosaert noted Clement's reading MARIA (which agrees with Byz D against B's MARIAM) but did not include it in the analysis.]
      (42) 11:43 - FARISAIOI ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have TOIS FARISAIOIS)
      (43) 12:8 - UMIN ~ agrees with B Byz; disagrees with D (which adds OTI)
      (44) 12:8 - OMOLOGHSH ~ agrees with Byz; disagrees with B D (which have OMOLOGHSEI)
      (45) 12:9 - ENWPION ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has something like EMPROSQEN)
      (46) 12:12 - FERWSIN ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz (PROSFERWSIN) and with B (EISFERWSIN)
      (47) 12:11 - EIS ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have EPI)
      (48) 12:11 - PROMERIMNATE/PROSMERIMNATE ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz (MERIMNATE) and with B (MERIMNHSHTE)
      (49) 12:11 - PWS ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which add H TI)
      (50) 12:15 - PASHS ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which has THS)
      (51) 12:15 - AUTOU ~ agrees with B Byz; disagrees with D (which omits)
      [12:15 - ESTIN H ZWH ~ agrees with D, but Cosaert affirms that this is an "accidental" agreement and does not regard it as genetically significant.]
      [(52x) 12:19 - APOKEIMENA/KEIMENA ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which omits) [This is actually a three-way disagreement, since Byz and B have KEIMENA and Clement has APOKEIMENA. Support for the inclusion of KEIMENA can be deduced, but it cannot be *read.* This will not be included in my comparisons.]
      (52) 12:19 - EIS . . . PIE ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which omits)
      (53) 12:20 - APAITOUSIN ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which has AITOUSIN)
      (54) 12:20 - THN PSUCHN SOU APAITOUSIN ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which transposes) [The key aspect of this reading is the word-order]
      (55) 12:20 - OUN ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have DE)
      (56) 12:20 - TINOS ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have TINI)
      (57) 12:22 - UMWN (after PSUCH) ~ agrees with Byz; disagrees with B D (which omit)
      (58) 12:22 - UMWN (after SWMATI) ~ agrees with B; disagrees with Byz D (which omit)
      (59) 12:22 - SWMATI ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which adds UMWN) [Clement uses two rival readings in his utilizations of 12:22 -- one with UMWN after SWMATI, and one without UMWN after SWMATI]
      (60) 12:23 - GAR ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which omits)
      (61) 12:24 - KATANOHSATE ~ agrees with B Byz; disagrees with D (which adds TA PETEINA TOU OURANOU)
      (62) 12:24 - TOUS KORAKAS ~ agrees with B Byz; disagrees with D (which omits) [This could be considered a single unit with the preceding unit -- a case of substitution, rather than an addition followed immediately by an omission.]
      (63) 12:24 - OU (after OTI) ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has OUTE)
      (64) 12:24 - OUDE ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has OUTE)
      (65) 12:24 - AUTOUS ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has AUTA)
      (66) 12:24 - OUX/OUXI UMEIS DIAFERETE ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have POSW MALLON UMEIS DIAFERETE)
      (67) 12:24 - ESTI ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which adds OUTE)
      (68) 12:27 - PWS OUTE NHQEI OUTE UFAINEI ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have PWS AUXANEI OU KOPIA OUDE NHQEI)
      (69) 12:27 - OTI ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which do not have OTI)
      (70) 12:28 - AMFIENNUSI(N) ~ agrees with Byz; disagrees with B D (which have AMFIEZEI)
      (71) 12:29 - H ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which has KAI)
      (72) 12:30 - ZHTEI ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz (which has EPIZHTEI) and disagrees with B (which has EPIZHTOUSIN)
      (73) 12:30 - OIDE (GAR) O PATHR UMWN ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have UMWN DE O PATHR OIDEN)
      (74) 12:31 - ZHTEITE ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have PLHN before this word)
      (75) 12:31 - TOU QEOU ~ agrees with Byz; diasgrees with B D (which have AUTOU)
      (76) 12:35 - UMWN AI OSFUES ~ agrees with Byz; disagrees with B (which has UMWN AI OSFUAIS); disagrees with D (which has UMWN H OSFUS)
      (77) 12:35 - ESTWSAN ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has ESTW)
      (78) 12:35 - LUCNOI ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has LUCLOI)
      (79) 12:36 - AUTWN ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have EAUTWN)
      (80) 12:36 - ANALUSEI ~ agrees with Byz; disagrees with B D (which have ALALUSH)
      (81) 12:36 - ALALUSH ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which has ALALUSEI) [This reading and the preceding reading involve two rival variants which were either used by Clement, or which were interchanged by copyists of Clement's Paed. (2:79:1).]
      (82) 12:36 - ANOIXWSIN ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has ANOIXOUSIN) [This variant occurs within a word-order variant that is a three-way disagreement.]
      (83) 12:37 - EURH ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have EURHSEI)
      (84) 12:48 - EDOQH ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has EDWKAN)
      (85) 12:49 - EPI ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has EIS). [TR has EIS but RP-2005 has EPI]
      (86) 13:32 - APOTELW ~ agrees with B; disagrees with Byz (which has EPITELW) and disagrees with D (which has APOTELOUMAI)
      (87) 13:32 - TH TRITH ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which adds HMERA)
      (88) 14:8 - KLHTHS ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which add UPO TINOS)
      (89) 14:8 - EIS GAMOUS ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has EIS GAMON)
      (90) 14:10 - KLHQHS EIS TON ESCATON TOPON ANAPIPTE ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have KLHQHS POREUQEIS ANAPESE EIS TON ESCATON TOPON)
      (91) 14:13 - POIHS DOXHN ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which transposes)
      (92) 14:15 - MAKARIOS OS ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which has MAKARIOS OSTIS)
      (93) 14:16 - EPOIHSEN ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which has EPOIEI)
      (94) 14:20 - EGHMA ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has ELABON)
      (95) 14:26 - ETI DE KAI ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which has ETI TE KAI)
      (96) 14:26 - EAUTOU PSUXHN ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which transposes)
      (97) 14:26 - MHTERA ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which adds AUTOU)
      (98) 14:33 - TOIS UPARCOUSI[N] ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have TOIS EAUTOU UPARCOUSIN
      (99) 14:33 - PASI ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which omits)
      (100) 16:9 - POIHSATE EAUTOIS FILOUS ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which transposes)
      (101) 16:9 - MAMWNA THS ADIKIAS ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has ADIKIOU MAMWNA)
      (102) 16:9 - EKLIPH ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which has EKLIPHTE)
      (103) 16:16 - MECRIS/MECRI ~ agrees with B; disagrees with D Byz (which have EWS)
      (104) 16:19 - PLOUSIOS ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has PLOUSION)
      (105) 16:19 - KAI BUSSON ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which adds KAI)
      (106) 16:20 - TIS ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which adds HN)
      (107) 16:20 - LAZAROS ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which adds OS)
      (108) 16:21 - EK/APO TWN PIPTONTWN ~ agrees with B; disagrees with Byz D (which have APO TWN PSICIWN TWN PIPTONTWN)
      (109) 17:3 - AMARTH ~ agrees with B; disagrees with Byz (which adds EIS SE); disagrees with D (which has AMARTHSE EIS SE)
      (110) 17:4 - AMARTH ~ agrees with Byz; disagrees with B D (which have AMARTHSH)
      (111) 17:4 - KAI TO ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have KAI)
      (112) 17:4 - EPTAKIS ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which adds THS HMERAS)
      (113) 17:4 - PROS SE (after EPISTREPSH) ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which omits) [TR has EPI SE; either way this disagrees with Clement's reading]
      (114) 17:4 - AFES ~ agrees with D; disagrees with Byz B (which have AFHSEIS)
      (115) 17:4 - METANOW ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has METANOHSW)
      (116) 18:8 - THN ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which omits)
      (117) 19:8 - HMISH ~ agrees with Byz; disagrees with B (which has HMISIA); disagrees with D (which has HMISOI)
      (118) 19:8 - TWN UPARCONTWN MOU ~ agrees with Byz; disagrees with B (which transposes); disagrees with D (which has TWN UPARCONTWN MOI [Cosaert counted this reading of D (MOI instead of MOU) as an agreement with Clement, but I have reclassified it as a disagreement, since MOU is not MOI.]
      (119) 19:9 - SWTHRIA ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which adds EN)
      (120) 20:34 - GAMISKONTAI ~ agrees with B; disagrees with Byz (which has EKGAMISKONTAI); disagrees with D (which has GAMOUNTAI)
      (121) 20:34 - GAMOUSI[N] ~ agrees with Byz B; disagrees with D (which has GENNWNTAI KAI GENNWSIN GAMOUSIN
      (122) 22:31 - O KURIOS ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which omits)
      (123) 24:42 - OI DE ~ agrees with B Byz; disagrees with D (which has KAI)
      (124) 24:42 - MEROS ~ agrees with B D; disagrees with Byz (which adds KAI APO MELISSIOU KHRIOU) [Cosaert states in a footnote: "It is likely that Clement's text did not contain this reading [i.e., KAI APOP MELISSIOU KHRIOU], since his quotation is part of a continuous quotation that continues directly into the following verse." However, here in English is the reference (Paed. 2:15:2): "Now lavish expense is adapted not for enjoyment alone, but also for social communication. Wherefore we must guard against those articles of food which persuade us to eat when we are not hungry, bewitching the appetite. For is there not within a temperate simplicity a wholesome variety of eatables? Bulbs, olives, certain herbs, milk, cheese, fruits, all kinds of cooked food without sauces; and if flesh is wanted, let roast rather than boiled be set down. Have you anything to eat here? said the Lord to the disciples after the resurrection; and they, as taught by Him to practice frugality, gave Him a piece of broiled fish; and having eaten before them, says Luke, He spoke to them what He spoke. And in addition to these, it is not to be overlooked that those who feed according to the Word are not debarred from dainties in the shape of honey-combs." First, it should be clear that the quotation is not entirely continuous, inasmuch as Clement inserts the phrase "as taught by Him to practice frugality." Second, does it really look like Clement has not seen a reference to honeycomb in his text of Luke 24:42? Why else would he mention "dainties in the shape of honeycombs"? Nevertheless this will stay in the comparison.]
      (125) 24:44 - AUTOIS ~ agrees with Byz D; disagrees with B (which has PROS AUTOUS)

      So there are 125 places where Clement agrees with one or two members of the group Byz-B-D.

      (Keep in mind that three of those places appeared immediately questionable (and more may, upon closer examination), and two pairs of readings involve rival readings that are both supported in Clement's utilizations of a passage.)

      Clement's reconstructed text agrees with D 62 times = 49.6%
      Clement's reconstructed text agrees with B 65 times = 52%
      Clement's reconstructed text agrees with Byz 68 times = 54.4%

      Obviously, Clement's reconstructed text of Luke is not Alexandrian or Western or Byzantine. It's something else.

      But even more obviously, Cosaert's preliminary statement that Clement's text of Luke "identifies most closely with the Western text" must be challenged; such a conclusion can only be reached by repeatedly ignoring disagreements between Clement and D on the grounds that they are not genetically insignificant. (That is how, in Table 5 on page 241, D appears as the manuscript with the highest percentage of proportional agreement with Clement /in Genetically Significant Variation/ in Luke: disagreements between Clement and D's singular readings were repeatedly ignored, and if readings of D that would otherwise be singular agreed with Clement's text, they were suddenly promoted, and were regarded as genetically significant.)

      If the evidence justifies the statement that there was a "strong, although not completely dominant, Western influence on Clement's text" (p. 271) then it justifies similar statements about an Alexandrian influence, and a Byzantine influence (since Clement agrees with B more often than he agrees with D, and with Byz more often than he agrees with B). Cosaert seems to have realized this, at least in part, because after looking at the evidence from different angles, he concludes (p. 304) that "For his text of Luke, Clement appears to draw from two different streams of readings in circulation, Western and Primary Alexandrian." Why not say *three* streams, inasmuch as we observe a virtual three-way tie as far as the percentages of agreements with Clement are concerned?

      (I'm not granting that this is really what Cosaert's evidence indicates. It may indicate that Clement used a distinct text-type that was not Alexandrian or Western or Byzantine. Or, it may indicate that the entire enterprise of reconstructing a Gospels-text on the basis of allusions and adaptations is ill-advised and very likely to produce extremely unreliable results. But *if* it is going to be said that Clement's text of Luke was influenced by one or more known text-types on the basis of Cosaert's evidence, the Byzantine Text ought to be one of them.)

      Yours in Christ,

      James Snapp, Jr.
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