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Tatian and the Ending of Mark

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  • james_snapp_jr
    In the 2009 Textual Commentary on the Gospels, Wieland Willker wrote: Most scholars accept the incorporation of the longer ending into the Diatessaron in
    Message 1 of 5 , Nov 7, 2009
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      In the 2009 Textual Commentary on the Gospels, Wieland Willker wrote: "Most scholars accept the incorporation of the longer ending into the Diatessaron in some way. But our knowledge of the contents of the original Diatessaron is limited. The evidence regarding the incorporation of Mk 16:9-20 in the Diatessaron is contradictory and may indicate that perhaps the passage was woven in only later in different ways."

      Let's take a look at Codex Fuldensis and the Arabic Diatessaron to see the degree to which their treatment of Mk. 16:9-20 is contradictory. By putting Hill's English translation of the Arabic Diatessaron alongside Ranke's presentation of Codex Fuldensis, we can compare their arrangements and see whether they agree or contradict each other regarding the arrangement of Mark 16:9-20. Here, I will use "AD" as an abbreviation for the Arabic Diatessaron, and "CF" for Codex Fuldensis.

      AD 53 has Mk. 16:9 after John 20:2-17.
      CF 174 has part of 16:9 between John 20:2-10 and 20:11-17.

      AD 53 uses Mk. 16:10 after Lk. 24:9.
      CF 176 uses Mk. 16:10 after Lk. 24:9.

      AD 53 uses Mk. 16:11 between Lk. 24:10 and Lk. 24:11.
      CF 176 uses Mk. 16:11 between Lk. 24:9 and Lk. 24:11.

      AD 53 uses Mk. 16:12 between Lk. 24:11 and Lk. 24:13.
      CF 177 uses Mk. 16:12 between Lk. 24:11 and Lk. 24:13.

      AD 53 uses Mk. 16:13b between Lk. 24:13b-35 and part of Lk. 24:36.
      CF 178 uses Mk. 16:13b between Lk. 24:13-35 and part of Lk. 24:36.

      AD 55 uses Mk. 16:14 between Mt. 28:17 and Mt. 28:18.
      CF 182 uses Mk. 16:14 between Mt. 28:17 and Mt. 28:18.

      AD 55 uses Mk. 16:15 between Mt. 28:18 (with the Pesh's variant) and Mt. 28:19.
      CF 182 uses Mk. 16:15 between Mt. 28:18 and Mt. 28:19.

      AD 55 uses Mk. 16:16-18 between Mt. 28:20 and Lk. 24:49.
      CF 182 uses Mk. 16:16-18 between Mt. 28:20 and Lk. 24:49.

      AD 55 blends "And our Lord Jesus," from Mk. 16:19, with Lk. 24:50.
      CF 182 does not.

      AD 55 uses "and sat down at the right hand of God" between Lk. 24:51 and Lk. 24:52.
      CF 182 uses "and sat down at the right hand of God" between Lk. 24:51 and Lk. 24:52.

      AD 55 uses Mk. 16:20 between Lk. 24:53 and Jn. 21:25.
      CF 182 uses Mk. 16:20 after Lk. 24:53 and ends there with "Amen." (Jn. 21:25 appears in CF at the end of 181.)

      This evidence is, it seems to me, compelling. The differences are trivial. The arrangement of the contents of Mark 16:9-20 in Codex Fuldensis, and the arrangement of the contents of Mark 16:9-20 in the Arabic Diatessaron, are essentially the same. They are not contradictory. Both of these witnesses – one from the West, one from the East – picture Jesus and the disciples proceeding from Galilee directly to Bethany, before returning to Jerusalem. Both picture the scene in Mk. 16:14 as occurring in Galilee. Both use the "as they mourned and wept" phrase at the same point.

      I don't think anything from other Diatessaronic witnesses is going to be able to budge this evidence.

      Yours in Christ,

      James Snapp, Jr.
    • Wieland Willker
      ... Willker ... longer ... knowledge of ... evidence ... Diatessaron is ... was ... I must admit that I don t know anymore why I wrote that. ... Tatian
      Message 2 of 5 , Nov 7, 2009
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        > In the 2009 Textual Commentary on the Gospels, Wieland
        Willker
        > wrote: "Most scholars accept the incorporation of the
        longer
        > ending into the Diatessaron in some way. But our
        knowledge of
        > the contents of the original Diatessaron is limited. The
        evidence
        > regarding the incorporation of Mk 16:9-20 in the
        Diatessaron is
        > contradictory and may indicate that perhaps the passage
        was
        > woven in only later in different ways."


        I must admit that I don't know anymore why I wrote that.
        :-(
        Tatian probably knew the long ending and therefore I didn't
        list him under the "arguable" evidence. I will look into
        this again.
        Thanks!


        Best wishes
            Wieland
               <><
        ------------------------------------------------
        Wieland Willker, Bremen, Germany
        mailto:wie@...
        http://www.uni-bremen.de/~wie
        Textcritical Commentary:
        http://www.uni-bremen.de/~wie/TCG/index.html
      • Wieland Willker
        I have now rephrased the passage on Tatian s Diatessaron in the file on the ... Most scholars accept the incorporation of the longer ending into the
        Message 3 of 5 , Nov 11, 2009
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          I have now rephrased the passage on Tatian's Diatessaron in the file on the
          Endings of Mark:

          -----------------------------
          Most scholars accept the incorporation of the longer ending into the
          Diatessaron in some way (e.g. Aland, Zahn). Mk 16:9-19 is woven together
          with Mt 28 and Lk 24. It should be noted though that our knowledge of the
          contents of the original Diatessaron is limited. The Arabic version includes
          the Long Ending and so also does the Codex Fuldensis. They don't do this in
          exactly the same way, but the basic outline is the same (e.g. Mk 16:9 is at
          different positions and Mk 16:19a isn't in Fuldensis, compare Zahn). Ephrem,
          in his commentary, has no clear references to the long ending, but only
          possible allusions (compare McCarthy).
          -----------------------------

          What do you all think?
          I haven't found anything regarding Aphraates. Anyone?


          Best wishes
          Wieland
          <><
          --------------------------
          Wieland Willker, Bremen, Germany
          mailto:wie@...
          http://www.uni-bremen.de/~wie
          Textcritical commentary:
          http://www.uni-bremen.de/~wie/TCG/
        • Wieland Willker
          ... Please disregard this last sentence. Of course I already have Aphraates in the commentary. Best wishes Wieland
          Message 4 of 5 , Nov 11, 2009
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            > I haven't found anything regarding Aphraates. Anyone?

            Please disregard this last sentence. Of course I already have Aphraates in
            the commentary.

            Best wishes
            Wieland
            <><
            --------------------------
            Wieland Willker, Bremen, Germany
            mailto:wie@...
            http://www.uni-bremen.de/~wie
            Textcritical commentary:
            http://www.uni-bremen.de/~wie/TCG/
          • james_snapp_jr
            Wieland, Probably 16:9-19 should be replaced by 16:9-20. I suggest noting that in Fuldensis and in the Arabic Diatessaron, Mk. 16:14 is presented as
            Message 5 of 5 , Nov 11, 2009
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              Wieland,

              Probably "16:9-19" should be replaced by "16:9-20." I suggest noting that in Fuldensis and in the Arabic Diatessaron, Mk. 16:14 is presented as occurring in Galilee, with the result that Jesus and the disciples proceed from Galilee directly to Bethany. The chance that two harmonists would independently arrange the events that way seems low.

              You wrote, "Ephrem, in his commentary, has no clear references to the long ending, but only possible allusions (compare McCarthy)."

              In Carmel McCarthy's "Saint Ephrem's Commentary on Tatian's Diatessaron," VIII:1 (page 145), Ephrem's commentary states:

              "After they had crucified him, he commanded his disciples, `Go out into the whole world and proclaim my Gospel to the whole of creation, and baptize all the Gentiles.'"

              The paragraph is absent from the two Armenian copies (both made in 1195), but they display many abridgements. Carmel's translation echoes Leloir's presentation of Chester Beatty Syriac MS 709.

              Also, in one of Ephrem's hymns, it says, "Go into all the world and baptize in the name of the Father, and Son, and Spirit." At least that is what Roelof van den Broek seems to have been saying on p. 132 (see the text and the footnote) of New Testament Studies, Vol. XXI, 1975, in his article "A Latin Diatessaron in the `Vita Beate Virginis Marie et Salvatoris Rhythmica."

              While you're updating the commentary, maybe this would be a good time to add a few more witnesses, if they have not already been added:

              Eznik of Golb (co-translator of Armenian in the mid-400's) – used Mk. 16:17-18 in "De Deo" (also known as "Against the Sects"), 1:25. The quotation is on p. 85 of "A Treatise on God Written in Armenian by Eznik of Golb," translated by Monica J. Blanchard and Robin Darling Young, 1998:

              "And again, `Here are signs of believers: they will dislodge demons, and they will take serpents into their hand, and they will drink a deadly poison and it will not cause harm.'"

              Marius Mercator (c. 390 – c. 450). He ministered in northern Africa, Rome, and Thrace. His writings include a series of sermons against the Nestorians. I think there's a reference in Migne's PG (or was it PL?), Vol. 48, Col. 0829, in "Sermo X," where Marius Mercator quotes 16:20.

              Marcus Eremita (early 400's). In Johannes Kunze's 1895 Greek text of Marcus Eremita's treatise Against Nestorius., at the end of chapter 6, there is a clear use of Mark 16:18.

              Patrick (c. 390-c. 460). In "Letter to Coroticus," part 20, and again in "Confession, part 40, Patrick uses Mark 16:16.

              Peter Chrysologus (bishop of Ravenna, 433-450). Quotes and comments extensively on Mark 16:14-20, treating it as a lection, in his 83rd Sermon. He says nothing that would suggest any awareness that the text was ever absent from any manuscripts.

              Leontius of Jerusalem (Greek writer, 530's). Used Mark 16:20 in "Against the Monophysite." Patrick Gray provides the quotation on p. 158 of "Leontius of Jerusalem: Against the Monophysites: "Testimonies of the Saints" and "Aporiae,"" 2008.

              Leo the Great (June 11, 453). In a dated letter (#120) to Theodoret of Cyrhus, Leo quoted Mark 16:16.

              Gildas (early 500's, Britain). Quoted Mark 16:16 in the preface to "De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae," in a long section which is absent from some copies of the work, probably due to some accident or because the section is rather wordy.

              Gregentius of Taphar (early 500's, Ethiopia/Sudan). There's some question about the authenticity of this witness; I haven't sorted it out yet. In "Disputation with the Jew Herban," written in Greek, Gregentius casually used Mark 16:16, word-for-word.

              Isho'dad of Merv (Syriac, 850-875). On pp. 143-145 of Margaret Dunlop Gibson's 1911 translation of Isho'dad's commentary on the Gospels, Isho'dad comments specifically on phrases in 16:9, 16:18, and 16:19. This is especially interesting because just a little before this, Isho'dad demonstrates that he has read "Ad Marinum."

              The Story of Barlaam and Josaphath (composed in the 700's by John of Damascus? Re-edited by Euthymius of Athos?). The authorship of this story is disputed; I haven't seen any strong evidence that John of Damascus did not write it; the 1953 briefly discussed the question of authorship and decided in favor of John of Damascus. I haven't investigated the question personally. Besides containing a form of the second-century "Apology of Aristides," embedded as a speech given by one of the characters in the story, it also contains material from Mark 16:9-20. 16:20 is used in the first chapter; 16:16 is used in ch. 8 and again in ch. 10. Compared to the others, this is a relatively late witness, but it's still earlier than most of the routinely cited manuscripts with margin-notes.

              Yours in Christ,

              James Snapp, Jr.
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