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Re: Byzantine Lections from Mark in Codex Vaticanus

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  • tvanlopik
    Addition. In general: It is better to use Gregory s List of Byzantine lectionary lessons. For the Matthean period (the weeks after Pentecost) Scrivener do
    Message 1 of 7 , May 22, 2009
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      Addition.

      In general:
      It is better to use Gregory's List of Byzantine lectionary lessons. For the "Matthean" period (the weeks after Pentecost) Scrivener do not provide the traditional, common, Byzantine lectionary for the Apostolos. So the list in http://www.skypoint.com/members/waltzmn/Lectionary.html , where Scrivener too is followed, is also to be used with care.
      See, J. Duplacy, Les lectionnaires et l'edition du N.T. Grec, in: Melanges bibliques en hommage Beda Rigaux, 1970, p. 537-538, n. 2-3.

      On the post on "Byzantine Lectionary Divisions of Mark in Codex Vaticanus":
      In the field of the lectionaries, as Duplacy wrote, we are impeded by considerable ignorance.
      When incipits of lessons of 1Cor., as indicated by 16th century verses division, are indicated as lessons in Mark and these non-existing Markan incipits are corresponding with "gaps" in the Markan text of B (4th century) it is clear there is something wrong with the method of investigation.
      I think there are so many "gaps" in B that it is possible to "prove" everything you want. The weekday lessons of the Byzantine lectionary system are fixed at the end of the development the system. If (I say: IF!) there are traces of a correlation between the Byzantine system and scribal "rubrication" in B, they should be found in the older sunday/saterday lessons and in the lessons of the Lord and the Virgin.

      On the post on the dating of the Resurrection (Heothina) lessons:
      Again: the are too many gaps to be significant?
      I do want more evidence (examples) for the use of "gaps" as liturgical signs/equipment.

      Teunis van Lopik


      --- In textualcriticism@yahoogroups.com, "tvanlopik" <tvanlopik@...> wrote:
      >
      > I think here is going something wrong:
      >
      > EK TOU KATA MARKON
      >
      > Week 12, Day 2: 1:9-15.........Y Mark
      > Week 12, Day 2: 7:37-8:3.......N 1Cor.
      > Week 12, Day 3: 1:16-22........Y Mark
      > Week 12, Day 3: 8:4-7..........Y 1Cor.
      > Week 12, Day 4: 1:23-28........Y Mark
      > Week 12, Day 4: 9:13-18........N 1Cor.
      > Week 12, Day 5: 1:29-35........Y Mark
      > Week 12, Day 5: 10:2-10........N 1Cor.
      > Week 12, Day 6: 2:18-22........Y Mark
      > Week 12, Day 6: 2:10-15........Y 1Cor.
      > etc.
      >
      > The first lesson mentioned is from the Evangelion and the second from the Apostolos.
      >
      > Compare Gregory, Textkritik, Vol. 1, p. 351
      >
      > Teunis van Lopik
      > Leidschendam, The Netherlands
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > --- In textualcriticism@yahoogroups.com, "James Snapp, Jr." <voxverax@> wrote:
      > >
      > > I want to get back to analyzing B's text looking for signs of editing, but in the course of preparing a presentation about that, I noticed some features in B that seem very interesting.
      > >
      > > I stayed up late last night/early this morning constructing the following comparisons of some lections in the Byzantine lectionary to text-units in Mark in Codex Vaticanus. It could probably use a double-check (Kevin Edgecomb, could you look it over?); nevertheless I thought I'd post it as is. Enjoy!
      > >
      > > +++++++++++++++
      > >
      > > Byzantine Lectionary Divisions of Mark in Codex Vaticanus
      > >
      > > +++++++++++++++
      > >
      > > How old is the Byzantine lectionary? It is sometimes treated as if it is as young as its youngest component-part, but that is like treating a ship as if it is as young as the youngest barnacle on it. There must be a pretty large stratum of the Byzantine lectionary that is as old as Codex Vaticanus, because the existence of its lections are indicated in Codex Vaticanus, in indications which can only have been made by the original copyist.
      > >
      > > Here is a table of the Byzantine lections from Mark in the normal Synaxarion and Menologion, as presented by Scrivener in his "Plain Introduction," pp. 78-83 (third edition). This table shows where the beginning of a lection is immediately preceded by a small gap or chapter-number in Codex B. It also shows where the end of a lection is immediately followed by a small gap. A few other comments are added. The lections are listed in the order in which they are given by Scrivener.
      > >
      > > Week/Day and Lection............Preceded by a small gap? (Yes or No)
      > > Week 6, Day 5 (Ascension-Day)
      > > Matins: Mark 16:9-20...........absent from B
      > >
      > > EK TOU KATA MARKON
      > >
      > > Week 12, Day 2: 1:9-15.........Y
      > > Week 12, Day 2: 7:37-8:3.......N
      > > Week 12, Day 3: 1:16-22........Y
      > > Week 12, Day 3: 8:4-7..........Y
      > > Week 12, Day 4: 1:23-28........Y
      > > Week 12, Day 4: 9:13-18........N
      > > Week 12, Day 5: 1:29-35........Y
      > > Week 12, Day 5: 10:2-10........N
      > > Week 12, Day 6: 2:18-22........Y
      > > Week 12, Day 6: 2:10-15........Y
      > >
      > > Week 13, Day 2: 3:6-12.........Y
      > > Week 13, Day 2: 10:14-23.......Y
      > > Week 13, Day 3: 3:13-21........Y
      > > Week 13, Day 3: 10:31-11:3.....N
      > > Week 13, Day 4: 3:20-27........Y
      > > Week 13, Day 4: 11:4-12........N
      > > Week 13, Day 5: 3:28-35........Y
      > > Week 13, Day 5: 11:13-23.......N
      > > Week 13, Day 6: 4:1-9..........Y
      > > Week 13, Day 6: 11:31-12:6.....N
      > >
      > > Week 14, Day 2: 4:10-23........Y
      > > Week 14, Day 2: 12:12-18.......Y
      > > Week 14, Day 3: 4:24-34........Y
      > > Week 14, Day 3: 12:18-26.......N
      > > Week 14, Day 4: 4:35-41........Y
      > > Week 14, Day 4: 13:8 – 14:1....N
      > > Week 14, Day 5: 5:1-20.........Y
      > > Week 14, Day 5: 14:1-12........N
      > > Week 14, Day 6: Scrivener has "v. 22-24; 35-vi. 1. 12-20".
      > > 5:22 starts a line; there is a gap after 5:34; 6:1 starts just before a numbered chapter but there is no gap within a line of the chapter-number.
      > > Week 14, Day 6: 6:12-20........Y
      > >
      > > Week 15, Day 2: 5:24-34........Y
      > > Week 15, Day 3: 6:1-7..........chapter-number but no gap within a line of the number.
      > > Week 15, Day 4: 6:7-13.........Y
      > > Week 15, Day 5: 6:30-45........Y
      > > Week 15, Day 6: 6:45-53........Y (and chapter-number)
      > >
      > > Week 16, Day 2: 6:54-7:3.......N (chapter-number at 6:53)
      > > Week 16, Day 3: 7:5-15.........Y
      > > Week 16, Day 4: 7:14-24........Y
      > > Week 16, Day 5: 7:24-30........N, but the lection starts a line below a bar.
      > > Week 16, Day 6: 8:1-10.........Y
      > >
      > > EK TOU KATA LOUKAN
      > >
      > > Week 13, Day 2: Mk 8:11-21.....N
      > > Week 13, Day 3: 8:22-26........Y (and chapter-number)
      > > Week 13, Day 4: 8:30-34........N
      > > Week 13, Day 5: 9:10-16........N
      > > Week 13, Day 6: 9:33-41........Y
      > >
      > > Week 14, Day 2: 9:42-10:1......N
      > > Week 14, Day 3: 10:2-11........N
      > > Week 14, Day 4: 10:11-16.......N
      > > Week 14, Day 5: 10:17-27.......N (no gap, but there is a chapter-number and an ekthetized initial letter.)
      > > Week 14, Day 6: 10:24-32.......Y
      > >
      > > Week 15, Day 2: 10:46-52.......Y
      > > (Note: a parableptic error occurred at the beginning of 10:46, elicited by a hole in the parchment. A chapter-number is in the left margin, and in the correction-note in the right margin, the missing text is provided with the initial letter ekthetized.)
      > > Week 15, Day 3: 11:11-23.......Y
      > > Week 15, Day 4: 11:22-26.......Y
      > > Week 15, Day 5: 11:27-33.......Y
      > > Week 15, Day 6: 12:1-12........Y
      > >
      > > Week 16, Day 2: 12:13-17.......Y
      > > Week 16, Day 3: 12:18-27.......Y
      > > Week 16, Day 4: 12:28-34.......Y
      > > Week 16, Day 5: 12:38-44.......Y
      > > Week 16, Day 6: 13:1-9.........Y
      > >
      > > Week 17, Day 2: 13:9-13........Y
      > > Week 17, Day 3: 13:14-23.......Y
      > > Week 17, Day 4: 13:24-31.......N
      > > Week 17, Day 5: 13:31-14:2.....N
      > > Week 17, Day 6: 14:3-9.........Y (and chapter-number)
      > >
      > > +++++++++++++++
      > >
      > > Carnival Week, Day 2: 11:1-11 Y
      > > Carnival Week, Day 3: 14:10-42 N (a chapter-number is here)
      > > Carnival Week, Day 4: 14:43-15:1 N (a chapter-number is here)
      > > Carnival Week, Day 5: 15:1-15 N (a chapter-number is one line higher, apparently misplaced because two lines begin with KAI.)
      > >
      > > Lections for Lent:
      > > Saturday #1: 2:23-3:5........Y
      > > Saturday #2a: 1:35-44..........Y
      > > Saturday #2b: 3:12-14.........N
      > > Sunday #2a: 2:1-12.............Y
      > > Sunday #2b: 1:10-2:3...........N
      > > Saturday #3a: 2:14-17..........N
      > > Saturday #3b: 10:32-37.........Y
      > > Sunday #3a: 8:34-9:1...........N
      > > Sunday #3b: 4:14-5:6...........?? (minimal gap)
      > > Saturday #4a: 7:31-37..........N
      > > Saturday #4b: 6:9-12...........N
      > > Sunday #4a: 9:17-31............N
      > > Sunday #4b: 6:13-20............N
      > > Saturday #5a: 8:27-31..........N (chapter-number)
      > > Saturday #5b: 9:24-28..........N
      > > Sunday #5a: 10:32-45...........Y
      > > Sunday #5b: 10:11-14...........N
      > > Sunday #6, EIS THN LITHN, 10:46-11:11.......Y (See for Week 15, Day 2)
      > >
      > > +++++++++++++++
      > >
      > > If you print out Scrivener's presentation of the lections, you will see clusters of lections that are preceded by gaps in B:
      > >
      > > In the EK TOU KATA MARKON series:
      > >
      > > Cluster: all 5 primary lections in Week 12 + the secondary lections for days 3 and 6.
      > >
      > > Cluster: all 5 primary lections in Week 13 + the secondary lection for day 2.
      > >
      > > Cluster: the first 4 primary lections in Week 14 + the secondary lections for days 2 and 6.
      > >
      > > Cluster: all 5 primary lections in Week 15.
      > >
      > > Cluster: primary lections in Week 16 for Days 3 and 4, probably 5 and Day 6. There is no gap before the Day-5 lection but it begins at the beginning of a line.
      > >
      > > In the part that's mainly from Luke:
      > >
      > > Sparse: Week 13, Day 3 and Day 6. Week 14, Day 5.
      > >
      > > Cluster: all 5 lections in Week 15. (The lection for Day 5 (11:27-33) starts a line.)
      > >
      > > Cluster: all 5 lections in Week 16.
      > >
      > > Cluster: lections for Day 2, Day 3, and Day 6 in Week 17.
      > >
      > > Cluster: lections for Day 2, 3, and 5 in Carnival Week.
      > >
      > > Lections in Lent: five or six, + the lection for Sunday #6, EIS THN LITHN.
      > >
      > > +++++++++++++++
      > >
      > > Now we may ask a question: if we look at the non-Sunday lections in the Byzantine lectionary, in the part that is mainly drawn from Mark (EK TOU KATA MARKON), how many of them, if we consider only the primary lections, are indicated in Codex B via a small gap where these non-Sunday lections commence?
      > >
      > > There are 25 such primary lections.
      > > In Codex Vaticanus, a gap precedes 21 of them.
      > >
      > > The four primary Byzantine lections in the EK TOU KATA MARKON part of the lectionary that are not preceded by a gap in Codex B are
      > >
      > > (1) Week 14, Day 6: "v. 22-24; 35-vi. 1. 12-20" in Scrivener. Mark 6:12-20 appears to be the secondary lection for this day, and 6:12 is preceded by a gap.
      > >
      > > (2) Week 15, Day 3: Mark 6:1-7. A chapter-number is here, but there is no gap. A bar is also here. Possibly the scribe formatted the chapter as if it began at KAI ERCETAI, when it should have begun with the preceding KAI.
      > >
      > > (3) Week 16, Day 2: Mark 6:54-7:3. A chapter-number, a bar, and a gap in the text occurs one verse earlier, at the beginning of 6:53.
      > >
      > > (4) Week 16, Day 5: Mark 7:24-30. 7:24 begins a line, and is preceded by a bar. Mark 7:30 is followed by a gap, a bar, and a chapter-number at the beginning of 7:31.
      > >
      > > We can ask if these correlations show the influence of the Byzantine lectionary in Egypt, or the influence of non-Byzantine lections in the Byzantine lectionary, but clearly there is a strong relationship between the primary readings of the EK TOU KATA MARKON part of the Byzantine lectionary, and these gap-bracketed sections in Codex B.
      > >
      > > Probably similar comparisons of small gaps in the text of Matthew, Luke, and John to the lections from those three Gospels will yield similar parallels to the primary lections in the EK TOU KATA MATQAION, EK TOU KATA LOUKAN, and EK TOU KATA IWANNHN units of the Byzantine lectionary.
      > >
      > > Yours in Christ,
      > >
      > > James Snapp, Jr.
      > >
      >
    • James Snapp, Jr.
      Teunis, Thanks for your very helpful post. I completely misunderstood the second column of Scrivener s presentation of the lections; precisely as you say, the
      Message 2 of 7 , May 22, 2009
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        Teunis,

        Thanks for your very helpful post.

        I completely misunderstood the second column of Scrivener's presentation of the lections; precisely as you say, the second column -- where there are two lections listed -- is from the Apostolos; thus everything I listed as a "secondary" reading is actually a reading from I Corinthians, not from Mark at all. (I did mention that I was working late when I made the comparisons, yes? :-) )

        So the lections assigned to Mk. 8:4-7, 2:10-15, 10:14-23, 12:12-18, 6:12-20, 10:32-27, and 4:12-5:6 should be removed from consideration.

        On one hand, this does show the shortcomings of the method: we've got a lot of gaps in B, and when the beginning of seven lections from other books can be aligned with the beginning of sections in Mark -- using chapter:verse references -- there is clearly a high degree of fortuitousness involved.

        On the other hand, when the Apostolos-lections are removed from the equation, how many of the weekday-lections from Mark in the EK TOU KATA MARKON portion of the lectionary are bracketed by gaps? Out of 25 lections, 21 are bracketed by gaps.

        The remaining four:

        5:22-24 -- 5:22 starts a line and begins under a bar. There is a gap at the end of 5:24.

        6:1-7 -- A chapter starts in 6:1; the lines here are
        GEINKAIEXH[L]QENEKEIQEN
        KAIERCETAIEISTHNPA
        and the chapter-number is to the left of the second line; a bar is between the two lines. It looks like the copyist simply forgot to put a gap here. There is a gap nearby, in 5:43 between TOUTO and KAI EIPEN.

        6:54-7:3 -- A chapter begins one verse earlier, in 6:53, and ends one verse later, at the end of 7:4 (-KAI CALKIWN).

        7:24-30 -- 7:24 starts a line and begins underneath a bar. There is a gap at the end of 7:30, and a chapter begins at the beginning of 7:31.

        The further the picture develops, the closer the correlation seems to be between some of B's gaps and almost all of the lections.

        TvL: "It is better to use Gregory's List of Byzantine lectionary lessons."

        I would, if I had access. Is Gregory's "Textkritik" available online somewhere?

        TvL: "I think there are so many "gaps" in B that it is possible to "prove" everything you want."

        Do the correlations really look entirely fortuitous to you? -- 21 exact correlations and even more if we consider things other than gaps (bars and chapter-beginnings when lines end evenly)?

        TvL: "The weekday lessons of the Byzantine lectionary system are fixed at the end of the development the system. If (I say: IF!) there are traces of a correlation between the Byzantine system and scribal "rubrication" in B, they should be found in the older Sunday/Saturday lessons and in the lessons of the Lord and the Virgin."

        That would be the logical place to start looking, which is why it was surprising to see exact correlations between the gaps in B and the *weekday* readings in the lectionary. Maybe the assumption that the weekday lessions of the Byzantine lectionary were fixed only at the end of the development of the system needs to be revisited.

        T: "On the post on the dating of the Resurrection (Heothina) lessons:
        Again: the are too many gaps to be significant?"

        It would take a thorough study of the gaps to find out. If B were a medieval manuscript, though, I don't think anyone would question that the gaps that corresponded to the beginnings of the lections were placed there to indicate the beginning of lections.

        Yours in Christ,

        James Snapp, Jr.
      • tvanlopik
        The reasonings for the occurence of Byzantine lessons in the codex Vaticanus are still not strong nor coherent, I suppose. Non existing incipits of the
        Message 3 of 7 , May 22, 2009
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          The reasonings for the occurence of Byzantine lessons in the codex Vaticanus are still not strong nor coherent, I suppose.
          Non existing incipits of the Byzantine system match with "gaps" in B. So it to be expected that there also accidental matchings of Byzantine incipits and "gaps" in B.
          The incipits of the Byzantine lessons are in many cases fixed by considerations on the content. So, for example, the incipits of most of the Resurrection lessons are the same as the incipits of other divisions of the text (Eusebian canons, common (modern) chapters, etc.). The division by "gaps" and other signs in B can be explained by content.
          What to do with the not with Byzantine lessons matching "gaps"? How to indicate them?
          Why are supposed lectionary indications so hidden and unclear, so unusable for the reader?
          For the moment I still think the link between Byzantine lectionary system and B is wishfull thinking.

          Revision of the opinion that the weekday lessons of the Byzantine lectionary system are fixed at the end of the development the system is, when I read the literature carefully, out of order.

          For an online view of the Byzantine lectionary system I can recommand:
          http://www.goarch.org/chapel/chapel/calendar
          For example:
          On Monday, August 24, 2009 we commemorate:
          12th Monday after Pentecost
          Epistle Reading
          St. Paul's Second Letter to the Corinthians 5:10-15
          BRETHREN, we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each one may receive good or ... |
          Gospel Reading
          Mark 1:9-15
          In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan. And when he ... |


          Teunis van Lopik


          --- In textualcriticism@yahoogroups.com, "James Snapp, Jr." <voxverax@...> wrote:
          >
          > Teunis,
          >
          > Thanks for your very helpful post.
          >
          > I completely misunderstood the second column of Scrivener's presentation of the lections; precisely as you say, the second column -- where there are two lections listed -- is from the Apostolos; thus everything I listed as a "secondary" reading is actually a reading from I Corinthians, not from Mark at all. (I did mention that I was working late when I made the comparisons, yes? :-) )
          >
          > So the lections assigned to Mk. 8:4-7, 2:10-15, 10:14-23, 12:12-18, 6:12-20, 10:32-27, and 4:12-5:6 should be removed from consideration.
          >
          > On one hand, this does show the shortcomings of the method: we've got a lot of gaps in B, and when the beginning of seven lections from other books can be aligned with the beginning of sections in Mark -- using chapter:verse references -- there is clearly a high degree of fortuitousness involved.
          >
          > On the other hand, when the Apostolos-lections are removed from the equation, how many of the weekday-lections from Mark in the EK TOU KATA MARKON portion of the lectionary are bracketed by gaps? Out of 25 lections, 21 are bracketed by gaps.
          >
          > The remaining four:
          >
          > 5:22-24 -- 5:22 starts a line and begins under a bar. There is a gap at the end of 5:24.
          >
          > 6:1-7 -- A chapter starts in 6:1; the lines here are
          > GEINKAIEXH[L]QENEKEIQEN
          > KAIERCETAIEISTHNPA
          > and the chapter-number is to the left of the second line; a bar is between the two lines. It looks like the copyist simply forgot to put a gap here. There is a gap nearby, in 5:43 between TOUTO and KAI EIPEN.
          >
          > 6:54-7:3 -- A chapter begins one verse earlier, in 6:53, and ends one verse later, at the end of 7:4 (-KAI CALKIWN).
          >
          > 7:24-30 -- 7:24 starts a line and begins underneath a bar. There is a gap at the end of 7:30, and a chapter begins at the beginning of 7:31.
          >
          > The further the picture develops, the closer the correlation seems to be between some of B's gaps and almost all of the lections.
          >
          > TvL: "It is better to use Gregory's List of Byzantine lectionary lessons."
          >
          > I would, if I had access. Is Gregory's "Textkritik" available online somewhere?
          >
          > TvL: "I think there are so many "gaps" in B that it is possible to "prove" everything you want."
          >
          > Do the correlations really look entirely fortuitous to you? -- 21 exact correlations and even more if we consider things other than gaps (bars and chapter-beginnings when lines end evenly)?
          >
          > TvL: "The weekday lessons of the Byzantine lectionary system are fixed at the end of the development the system. If (I say: IF!) there are traces of a correlation between the Byzantine system and scribal "rubrication" in B, they should be found in the older Sunday/Saturday lessons and in the lessons of the Lord and the Virgin."
          >
          > That would be the logical place to start looking, which is why it was surprising to see exact correlations between the gaps in B and the *weekday* readings in the lectionary. Maybe the assumption that the weekday lessions of the Byzantine lectionary were fixed only at the end of the development of the system needs to be revisited.
          >
          > T: "On the post on the dating of the Resurrection (Heothina) lessons:
          > Again: the are too many gaps to be significant?"
          >
          > It would take a thorough study of the gaps to find out. If B were a medieval manuscript, though, I don't think anyone would question that the gaps that corresponded to the beginnings of the lections were placed there to indicate the beginning of lections.
          >
          > Yours in Christ,
          >
          > James Snapp, Jr.
          >
        • James Snapp, Jr.
          Teunis, After analyzing the evidence more thoroughly, I think you re right: the correlations between the Byzantine lections and the gaps and chapters in B do
          Message 4 of 7 , May 23, 2009
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            Teunis,

            After analyzing the evidence more thoroughly, I think you're right: the correlations between the Byzantine lections and the gaps and chapters in B do not imply that the Byzantine Lectionary was nearly complete in the early 300's. This becomes obvious when one considers the quantity of those gaps. Here's some data about the gaps, the chapters, and some other features, collected in one convenient list.

            To ensure accuracy, I used the Lectionary in the Orthodox Study Bible instead of Scrivener's list. I also was a little pickier about what to consider a real gap. And I kept track of the subscripted bars on the left edge of the line, accompanying most gaps.

            In the following list, when one of B's chapters begins at the same point where a Byzantine lection begins, I provide the chapter-number in parentheses. Some other notes are preceded by "***." The first and second Y/N indicate whether or not the lection is accompanied by a gap or a bar. The third and fourth Y/N series pertains to the ends of the Byzantine lections. Most of the time the third and fourth columns are superfluous, since the lections tend to be consecutive.


            Lection Gap? Bar? Gap? Bar?

            Third Sunday of Pascha:
            Sunday of the Myrrhbearing Women
            and Sunday of Joseph of Arimathea
            and Nicodemus:
            Mark 15:43-16:8 N N [End of text]

            Sixth Week of Pascha: Thurs.:
            The Ascension of our Lord –
            Matins: Mark 16:9-20 [absent from B] [absent from B]

            12th week after Pentecost: Mon.
            1:9-15 (#2) Y Y Y Y

            12th week after Pentecost: Tues.
            1:16-22 Y Y Y Y

            12th week after Pentecost: Wed.
            1:23-28 Y Y Y Y

            12th week after Pentecost, Thurs.
            1:29-35 (#6) Y Y Y Y
            ***1:35 begins ch. 7

            12th week after Pentecost, Fri.
            2:18-22 (#12) Y Y Y Y

            13th week after Pentecost: Mon.
            3:6-12 Y Y Y Y

            13th week after Pentecost: Tues.
            3:13-19 Y Y Y Y
            13th week after Pentecost: Wed.
            3:20-27 Y Y Y Y

            13th week after Pentecost: Thurs.
            3:28-35 Y Y Y Y

            13th week after Pentecost: Fri.
            4:1-9 (#17) Y Y Y Y

            14th week after Pentecost: Mon.
            4:10-23 (#18) Y Y Y Y

            14th week after Pentecost: Tues.
            4:24-34 Y Y Y Y

            14th week after Pentecost, Wed.
            4:35-41 (#19) Y Y Y Y

            14th week after Pentecost, Thurs.
            5:1-20 Y Y Y Y

            14th week after Pentecost, Fri.
            5:22-24 N Y Y Y
            and
            5:35-6:1 N N N N
            ***a gap and bar are at the beginning of 5:34, and at 5:43b

            15th week after Pentecost, Mon.
            5:24-34 Y Y N N
            ***a gap and bar are at the end of 5:33

            15th week after Pentecost, Tues.
            6:1-7 (#22) N Y N N
            ***In 6:6, KAI PERIHGEN is ekthetized. In the next line, a dot appears before the KAI that begins 6:7, and a bar accompanies that line.

            15th week after Pentecost, Wed.
            6:7-13 (#23?) N N Y Y
            *** B's ch. 23 begins with KAI PERIHGEN in 6:6 and ends at the end of 6:13.

            15th week after Pentecost, Thurs.
            6:30-45 (#25) Y Y Y Y

            15th week after Pentecost, Fri.
            6:45-53 (#26) Y Y Y Y

            16th week after Pentecost: Mon.
            6:54-7:8 Y Y Y Y
            ***ch. 27 = 6:53-56

            16th week after Pentecost: Tues.
            7:5-16 Y Y Y Y
            ***B does not contain 7:16; a bar separated 7:15 and 7:17.
            ***ch. 29 = 7:17-23.

            16th week after Pentecost: Wed.
            7:14-24 Y Y N N


            16th week after Pentecost: Thurs.
            7:24-30 (ch. 30) N Y Y Y

            16th week after Pentecost: Fri.
            8:1-10 (ch. 32) Y Y N N
            ***ch. 33 begins at the start of 8:10

            Sunday before Theophany:
            1:1-8 (#1) [beginning of book] Y Y

            Eve of the Theophany: third hour:
            1:1-8 (again) (#1) [beginning of book] Y Y

            Eve of the Theophany: sixth hour:
            1:9-15 (#2) Y Y Y Y

            Blessing of Water:
            1:9-11 (#2, again) Y Y Y Y

            Holy Theophany of Our Lord God and
            Savior Jesus Christ: Matins:
            1:9-11 (#2, again) [same as previous lection]

            30th week after Pentecost: Mon.
            8:11-21 N N Y Y
            ***ch. 33 starts at 8:10; ch. 34 ends at the end of 8:21

            30th week after Pentecost: Tues.
            8:22-26 (#35) Y Y N Y
            ***verse 26 ends at the end of a line
            ***ch. 36 begins at the beginning of 8:27.

            30th week after Pentecost: Wed.
            8:30-34 N N N N
            ***(9:2 – Transfiguration narrative begins)

            30th week after Pentecost: Thurs.
            9:10-16 N N N Y

            30th week after Pentecost: Fri.
            9:33-41 (#40) Y Y N N
            ***gap and bar are at the beginning of 9:41

            31st week after Pentecost: Mon.
            9:42-10:1 N N N N
            ***gap and bar are at the beginning of 9:41
            ***gap and bar are at the beginning of 10:1

            31st week after Pentecost: Tues.
            10:2-11 N N N N
            ***ch. 41 begins at the beginning of 10:1

            31st week after Pentecost: Wed.
            10:11-16 N N N Y

            31st week after Pentecost: Thurs.
            10:17-27 (#42) N N N Y
            ***initial letter is ekthetized.

            31st week after Pentecost: Fri.
            10:23-32 Y N N Y?
            ***the bar is after efobounto, not at the end of the verse.

            32nd week after Pentecost: Mon.
            10:46-52 (#43) Y Y Y Y
            ***A parableptic error occurred at the beginning of 10:46, elicited by a hole in the parchment. The number 46 is in the left margin, and in the correction-note is in the right margin, the missing text is provided with the initial kai-compendium ekthetized.

            32nd week after Pentecost: Tues.
            11:11-23 Y Y Y Y

            32nd week after Pentecost: Wed.
            11:23-26 N N N Y
            ***B does not have 11:26
            ***the bar separated 11:25 and 11:27
            ***a colon-like mark is in the margin

            32nd week after Pentecost: Thurs.
            11:27-33 N Y Y Y

            32rd week after Pentecost: Fri.
            12:1-12 Y Y Y Y

            Week before the Triodion: Mon.
            12:13-17 (#47) Y Y Y Y

            Week before the Triodion: Tues.
            12:18-27 Y Y Y Y

            Week before the Triodion: Wed.
            12:28-37 Y Y Y Y

            Week before the Triodion: Thurs.
            12:38-44 Y Y Y N
            ***after 12:44, half the line is blank.

            Week before the Triodion: Fri.
            13:1-8 (#49) Y N Y N
            ***the first letter of 13:1 is ekthetized.

            Triodion: Mon.
            13:9-13 Y N? Y N

            Triodion: Tues.
            13:14-23 Y N N N

            Triodion: Wed.
            13:24-31 N Y Y

            Triodion: Thurs.
            13:31-14:2 N Y Y
            ***ch. 50 = 13:32-14:2

            Triodion: Fri.
            14:3-9 (#51) Y Y Y Y
            ***ch. 52 begins at the beginning of 14:10

            Meat Fare Week: Mon.
            11:1-11 (#44) Y Y Y

            ***ch. 45 begins at the beginning of 11:12

            Meat Fare Week: Tues.
            14:10-42 (#52) N Y N Y

            Meat Fare Week: Wed.
            14:43-15:1 (#55) N Y N N

            Meat Fare Week: Thurs.
            15:1-15 (#57) N Y Y
            ***the chapter-number and bar are one line above the beginning of 15:1, apparently
            misplaced by the copyist because two consecutive lines began with KAI.

            Great Lent:

            First Week: Sat.:
            2:23-3:5 (#13) Y Y Y Y

            Second Week: Sat.:
            1:35-44 (#7) Y Y Y?? N
            ***ekthetized letter
            ***there is space at the end of the line in which 1:44 ends, but there is no bar.

            Second Week: Sun.:
            2:1-12 (#9) Y Y Y Y

            Third Week: Sat.:
            2:14-17 Y Y Y Y
            ***ch. 11 ends at the end of 2:17.

            Third Sunday of Great Lent:
            Adoration of the Holy Cross:
            8:34-9:1 N Y Y Y
            ***ch. 36 ends at the end of 9:1.

            Fourth Week: Sat.:
            7:31-37 (#31) Y Y Y Y

            Fourth Sunday of Great Lent:
            Commemoration of St. John of the Ladder:
            Liturgy: 9:17-31 N Y N N
            ***ch. 39 ends at the end of 9:32.
            ***9:31 ends evenly at the end of a line.

            Fifth Week: Sat.:
            8:27-31 (#36) N Y N N
            ***a gap and bar appear after ELALEI in 8:32.

            Fifth Sunday of Great Lent:
            Liturgy: 10:32-45 Y Y Y Y
            ***10:46 begins a chapter

            Holy Week:

            Holy Friday (Thursday Evening):
            Passion-Gospel #6:
            15:16-32 (#58) Y Y Y Y

            Holy Friday (Thursday Evening):
            Passion-Gospel #10:
            15:43-47 N N Y Y
            ***ch. 61 = 15:42-47

            Holy Friday: the Third Hour:
            15:16-41 (#58) Y Y Y Y
            ***ch. 61 = 15:42-47

            +++++++++++++++

            Major Fixed Feasts

            Sunday After the Exaltation of the Cross:
            8:34-9:1 N Y Y Y
            ***ch. 36 ends at the end of 9:1

            Other Special and General Feastdays:

            Monk Martyr: 8:34-9:1 (same as previous lection)

            Female Martyrs: 5:24 Y Y Y Y
            (or Mt. 15:21-28)
            ***a gap and bar are at the beginning and end of 5:24

            Beheading: Liturgy:
            6:14-30 (#24) Y Y Y Y

            +++++++++++++++


            With that data in hand, I attempted to bring things into focus by going through Mark in B and specially noticing places where there is both a gap and a bar where a chapter does not begin or end. I was looking for gaps and/or bars that correspond to the beginnings (and ends) of Byzantine lections but not to the chapter-divisions in B. I first listed the beginnings of all of B's chapters, and then inserted in that list all the other places where a gap and bar occur. For good measure, I also noted some places where only a bar or only a gap occurs. (It's really the places where the gap and bar occur together that I'm looking for. But I am working with an imperfect facsimile, so there is a possibility that some in some places where I have only seen a gap, there might be a bar.)

            Next, I took that list and blended it with the preceding list of Markan lections from the Lectionary. I have only noted instances where a Byzantine lection begins *exactly* at the gap and/or bar in Codex Vaticanus (plus a couple of instances where that seems to have been the copyist's intention).

            Here are the results (B = bar and G = gap):

            1:1-1:8 – ch. 1 (1:1 – Lection for Sunday before Theophany & Eve of the Theophany)
            1:4 GB
            1:9-1:11 – ch. 2 (1:9 - Lection for 12th Week after Pentecost, Monday, and Lection for Eve of the Theophany, 6th hour, and for the Blessing of Water, and for the Holy Theophany of Our Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ, Matins.)
            1:12-1:13 – ch. 3
            1:14-1:20 – ch. 4
            1:16 GB (1:16 – Lection for 12th week after Pentecost, Tues.)
            1:21-1:28 – ch. 5
            1:23 GB (1:23 – Lection for 12th week after Pentecost, Wed.)
            1:27 GB
            1:29-1:34 – ch. 6 (1:29 – Lection for 12th week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
            1:35-1:37 – ch. 7 (1:35 – Lent, Second Week, Sat.)
            1:38-1:45 – ch. 8
            1:39 GB
            1:40 B (G at end of line?)
            1:44 (G at end of line?)
            2:1-2:12 – ch. 9 (2:1-12 = Lent, Second Week, Sun.)
            2:3 B
            2:6 G
            2:10 G
            2:12-2:14 – ch. 10
            2:13 GB
            2:14 B (2:14 – Lent, Third Week, Sat.)
            2:17 GB
            2:15-2:17 – ch. 11
            2:18-2:22 – ch. 12 (2:18 – Lection for 12th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
            2:19 G
            2:21 GB
            2:22 GB
            2:23-2:28 – ch. 13 (2:23 – Lent, First Week, Sat.)
            2:25 GB (the gap is small)
            2:27 G
            3:1-3:6 – ch. 14
            3:6 GB (3:6 – Lection for 13th week after Pentecost, Mon.)
            3:7-3:13 – ch. 15
            3:9 GB
            3:14-3:35 – ch. 16
            3:13 GB (3:13 – Lection for 13th week after Pentecost, Tues.)
            3:18 Gaps after "Bartholomew"
            and "Matthew"
            3:20 GB (3:20 – Lection for 13th week after Pentecost, Wed.)
            3:23 GB
            3:28 GB (3:28 – Lection for 13th week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
            3:31 GB
            3:33 GB
            4:1-4:9 – ch. 17 (4:1 – Lection for 13th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
            4:3 B
            4:10-4:34 – ch. 18 (4:10 – Lection for 14th week after Pentecost, Mon.)
            4:13 GB
            4:18 B
            4:21 GB
            4:24 GB (4:24 – Lection for 14th week after Pentecost, Tues.)
            4:26 GB
            4:30 GB
            4:33 GB
            4:35-5:1 – ch. 19 (4:35 – Lection for 14th week after Pentecost, Wed.)
            4:40 GB
            5:1 GB (gap at end of line) (5:1 – Lection for 14th week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
            5:2-5:20 – ch. 20
            5:6 GB (gap is small)
            5:9 B
            5:9b GB (Gap is after ONOMA SOI)
            5:13b G(??)
            5:14 GB
            5:15 GB
            5:18 GB
            5:20 GB
            5:21-5:43 – ch. 21
            5:22 GB (5:22 – part of the Lection for 14th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
            5:24 GB (5:24 – Lection for 15th week after Pentecost, Mon, and for a fixed feast for female martyrs.)
            5:25 GB
            5:30 GB
            5:31 GB
            5:33 B
            5:34 GB
            5:38 GB
            5:40a GB
            5:43 GB
            5:43b GB (before KAI EIPEN)
            6:1-6:6 – ch. 22 (6:1 – Lection for 15th week after Pentecost, Tues.)
            6:4 GB
            6:6/7-6:13 – ch. 23 (6:7 – Lection for 15th week after Pentecost, Wed.)
            (I counted this one as exact, even though it's not, because the copyist may have intended it to be.)
            6:12 GB
            6:14-6:29 – ch. 24 (6:14 – fixed feast, Beheading.)
            6:16 G
            6:17 GB
            6:18 GB
            6:19 G
            6:21 GB
            6:22 G (between SUNANAKEIMENOIS and O DE BASILEUS)
            6:24 GB
            6:29 GB
            6:30-6:44 – ch. 25 (6:30 – Lection for 15th week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
            6:32 GB
            6:34 G
            6:34b B (after POIMENA)
            6:35 G
            6:37 GB
            6:38 GB
            6:45-6:52 – ch. 26 (6:45 – Lection for 15th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
            6:47 GB
            6:48 GB (before PERI TETARTHN)
            6:49 B
            6:53-6:56 – ch. 27
            7:1-7:16 – ch. 28
            7:5 GB (7:5 – Lection for 16th week after Pentecost, Tues.)
            7:6 GB
            7:8 GB
            7:14 GB (7:14 – Lection for 16th week after Pentecost, Wed.)
            7:17-7:23 – ch. 29
            7:20 G
            7:24-7:30 – ch. 30 (7:24 – Lection for 16th week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
            7:28 G
            7:29 GB
            7:31-7:37 – ch. 31 (7:31-37 = Lent, Fourth Week, Sat.)
            7:34b (gap before KAI LEGEI)
            8:1-8:9 – ch. 32 (8:1 – Lection for 16th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
            8:4 GB
            8:10-8:12 – ch. 33
            8:12 GB
            8:13-8:21 – ch. 34
            8:22-8:26 – ch. 35 (8:22-26 = Lection for 30th week after Pentecost, Tues.)
            8:27-9:1 – ch. 36 (8:27 – Lent, Fifth Week, Sat.)
            8:28 G
            8:29b B (before APOKRIQEIS)
            8:32 GB (after ELAKEI)
            8:34 B (8:34 – Lent, Third Sunday, Adoration of the Holy Cross, and a fixed feast for the Sunday after the Exaltation of the Cross)
            9:1 G
            9:2-9:27 – ch. 37
            9:7 G(?) B
            9:14 B
            9:17 B (9:17 – Lent, Fourth Sunday, Liturgy)
            9:19 GB
            9:23 GB
            9:25 B
            9:28-9:29 – ch. 38
            9:29 B
            9:30-9:32 – ch. 39
            9:33-9:50 – ch. 40 (9:33 – Lection for 30th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
            9:35 GB
            9:38 GB
            9:39 GB
            9:41 GB
            9:45 GB
            9:46 G
            9:50 B
            10:1-10:16 – ch. 41
            10:3 G
            10:10 GB
            10:13 B
            10:14 GB
            10:15 GB
            10:17-10:45 – ch. 42 (10:17 – Lection for 31st week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
            10:18 GB
            10:20 GB
            10:22 G
            10:23 G (10:23 inexact; 31st week after Pentecost, Fri., but the bar is after EFOBOUNTO)
            10:24 G
            10:24b G (after AUTOU)
            10:26 G
            10:27 G
            10:28 B
            10:29 GB
            10:32 GB (ekthetized initial HSAN) (10:32 – Lent, Fifth Sunday, Liturgy.)
            10:32 B (after EFOBOUNTO)
            10:35 GB
            10:36 B
            10:38 G
            10:39b B (before O DE _IS_)
            10:41 GB
            10:42 GB
            10:46-10:52 – ch. 43 (10:46-52 = Lection for the 32nd week after Pentecost, Mon.)
            10:49 G
            10:51 G
            11:1-11:11 – ch. 44 (11:1-11 = Lection for Meat Fare Week, Mon.)
            [11:1b - incidental gap between
            TO OROS and TO ELAIWN]
            11:7 G
            11:11 GB (11:11 – Lection for the 32nd week after Pentecost, Tues.)
            11:12-11:19 – ch. 45
            11:14 GB
            11:18 GB
            11:19 GB
            11:20-12:12 – ch. 46
            11:22 G
            11:24 GB
            11:25 G
            11:27 B (11:27 – Lection for the 32nd week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
            11:29 G
            11:33 G
            11:33b G
            12:1 GB (12:1 – Lection for the 32nd week after Pentecost, Fri.)
            12:10 G
            12:12 G
            12:13-12:40 – ch. 47 (12:13 – Lection for the Week before the Triodion, Mon.)
            12:15 GB
            12:18 GB (12:18 – Lection for the Week before the Triodion, Tues.)
            12:24 GB
            12:28 GB (12:28 – Lection for the Week before the Triodion, Wed.)
            12:35 GB
            12:38 GB (12:38 – Lection for the Week before the Triodion, Thurs.)
            12:41-12:44 – ch. 48
            12:43 B
            13:1-13:31 – ch. 49 (13:1 – Lection for the Week before the Triodion, Fri.)
            13:2 GB
            13:3 GB
            13:5 GB
            13:9 GB(?) Bar is very faint? (13:9 – Triodion, Mon.)
            13:14 G (13:9 – Triodion, Tues.)
            13:17 G
            13:30 B
            13:32-14:2 – ch. 50
            13:36 B
            14:1 B
            14:3-14:9 – ch. 51 (14:3-9 = Lection for Triodion, Fri.)
            14:6 GB
            14:10-14:16 – ch. 52 (14:10 – Lection for Meat Fare Week, Tues.)
            14:11 G (? small)
            14:12 GB
            14:13 GB
            14:16 B
            14:17-14:26 – ch. 53
            14:25 B
            14:26 GB
            14:27-14:42 – ch. 54
            14:30 GB
            14:32 G
            14:33 G (? small)
            14:35 GB
            14:41 GB
            14:43-14:52 – ch. 55 (14:43 – Lection for Meat Fare Week, Wed.)
            14:53-14:72 – ch. 56
            14:55 GB
            14:57 B
            14:61 G (? small)
            14:63 G
            14:68b B (after LEGEIS)
            14:71 GB
            15:1-15:15 – ch. 57 (chapter-number out of place) (15:1-15 = Meat Fare Week, Thurs.)
            15:2 GB
            15:2c G (before SU LEGEIS)
            15:4 GB
            15:5 GB
            15:9 GB
            15:12 GB
            15:14 G
            15:16-15:23 – ch. 58 (15:16 – Lection for Holy Friday/Thursday Evening, Passion Gospel #6, and for Holy Friday, the 3rd Hour.)
            15:24-15:37 – ch. 59
            15:33 GB
            15:35 S (with raised dot)
            15:38-15:41 – ch. 60
            15:39 G
            15:40 G
            15:42-15:47 – ch. 61
            15:46 G
            16:1-16:8 – ch. 62
            16:2 G

            +++++++++++++++

            So: the beginnings of the following 15 lections (out of 73 lection-beginnings, after accounting for redundancies – 20.5%) are not accompanied by a gap, a bar, a gap and bar, or the beginning of a chapter in B:

            15:43-16:8 (3rd Sunday of Pascha/Myrrhbearers)
            16:9-20 (6th week of Pascha, Thursday/Ascension Matins)
            5:35-6:1 (the second part of the Lection for the 14th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
            6:54-7:8 (16th week after Pentecost, Mon.) Chapter 27 begins at 6:53.
            8:11-21 (30th week after Pentecost, Mon.) 8:10-8:21 = Chapters 33 and 34.
            8:30-34 (30th week after Pentecost, Wed.)
            9:10-16 (30th week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
            9:42-10:1 (31st week after Pentecost, Mon.)
            10:2-11 (31st week after Pentecost, Tues.)
            10:11-16 (31st week after Pentecost, Wed.)
            10:23-32 (31st week after Pentecost, Fri.)
            11:23-26 (32nd week after Pentecost, Wed.) (B does not have 11:26.)
            13:24-31 (Triodion, Wed.)
            13:31-14:2 (Triodion, Thurs.)
            15:43-47 (Holy Friday/Thursday Evening, Passion-Gospel #10)

            The chance of a Byzantine lection being accompanied in B by a gap, a bar, a gap and a bar, or a chapter-beginning is thus 79%. It would be higher (8 out of 65 = 87.7%) if not for the cluster of seven lections in the 30th and 31st weeks after Pentecost which are not accompanied by a gap, a bar, a gap and bar, or a chapter-beginning where they begin. If we set aside those seven lections from the equation, and also removed 16:9-20 (since it is not in Codex B), the chance rises to 7 out of 64 (89%).

            Instead of suggesting that 79% of the Byzantine lectionary was developed by the early 300's, this probably simply shows that when the text of Mark is divided into B's 62 chapters, and then further divided into B's 155 sub-sections (separated by gaps), when the Byzantine Lectionary's 73 Markan lection-beginnings are projected onto a text divided into those 216 division-points, 79% of the lection-beginnings will land on those division-points. Fifty-eight out of 73 randomly-drawn points in the text would not land on 216 other randomly-drawn points in the text, but the division-points were not randomly-drawn; they occur where independently working copyists would naturally posit a sense-break in the text, usually due to a change of scene, speaker, or subject in the course of the narrative.

            Yours in Christ,

            James Snapp, Jr.
          • tvanlopik
            Thank you for the massive list of gaps and other signes in the Vaticanus. My concern is not whether the Byzantine lectionary system was nearly complete in
            Message 5 of 7 , May 24, 2009
            • 0 Attachment
              Thank you for the massive list of "gaps" and other signes in the Vaticanus.
              My concern is not whether the Byzantine lectionary system was nearly complete in the early 300's. I think in that time there was not a Byzantine Synaxarion in the form now available (since the 7th/8t century)at all. Maybe the system was in the 4th century in a status nascendi: the /sat/sunday lections for Lent and and the Pentekostarion, the lections of the Holy week.
              So I stick with by the questions about accident and logical divisions when "gaps" in B are matched with the Byzanine lectionary lessons.

              Teunis van Lopik

              --- In textualcriticism@yahoogroups.com, "James Snapp, Jr." <voxverax@...> wrote:
              >
              > Teunis,
              >
              > After analyzing the evidence more thoroughly, I think you're right: the correlations between the Byzantine lections and the gaps and chapters in B do not imply that the Byzantine Lectionary was nearly complete in the early 300's. This becomes obvious when one considers the quantity of those gaps. Here's some data about the gaps, the chapters, and some other features, collected in one convenient list.
              >
              > To ensure accuracy, I used the Lectionary in the Orthodox Study Bible instead of Scrivener's list. I also was a little pickier about what to consider a real gap. And I kept track of the subscripted bars on the left edge of the line, accompanying most gaps.
              >
              > In the following list, when one of B's chapters begins at the same point where a Byzantine lection begins, I provide the chapter-number in parentheses. Some other notes are preceded by "***." The first and second Y/N indicate whether or not the lection is accompanied by a gap or a bar. The third and fourth Y/N series pertains to the ends of the Byzantine lections. Most of the time the third and fourth columns are superfluous, since the lections tend to be consecutive.
              >
              >
              > Lection Gap? Bar? Gap? Bar?
              >
              > Third Sunday of Pascha:
              > Sunday of the Myrrhbearing Women
              > and Sunday of Joseph of Arimathea
              > and Nicodemus:
              > Mark 15:43-16:8 N N [End of text]
              >
              > Sixth Week of Pascha: Thurs.:
              > The Ascension of our Lord ?
              > Matins: Mark 16:9-20 [absent from B] [absent from B]
              >
              > 12th week after Pentecost: Mon.
              > 1:9-15 (#2) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 12th week after Pentecost: Tues.
              > 1:16-22 Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 12th week after Pentecost: Wed.
              > 1:23-28 Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 12th week after Pentecost, Thurs.
              > 1:29-35 (#6) Y Y Y Y
              > ***1:35 begins ch. 7
              >
              > 12th week after Pentecost, Fri.
              > 2:18-22 (#12) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 13th week after Pentecost: Mon.
              > 3:6-12 Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 13th week after Pentecost: Tues.
              > 3:13-19 Y Y Y Y
              > 13th week after Pentecost: Wed.
              > 3:20-27 Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 13th week after Pentecost: Thurs.
              > 3:28-35 Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 13th week after Pentecost: Fri.
              > 4:1-9 (#17) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 14th week after Pentecost: Mon.
              > 4:10-23 (#18) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 14th week after Pentecost: Tues.
              > 4:24-34 Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 14th week after Pentecost, Wed.
              > 4:35-41 (#19) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 14th week after Pentecost, Thurs.
              > 5:1-20 Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 14th week after Pentecost, Fri.
              > 5:22-24 N Y Y Y
              > and
              > 5:35-6:1 N N N N
              > ***a gap and bar are at the beginning of 5:34, and at 5:43b
              >
              > 15th week after Pentecost, Mon.
              > 5:24-34 Y Y N N
              > ***a gap and bar are at the end of 5:33
              >
              > 15th week after Pentecost, Tues.
              > 6:1-7 (#22) N Y N N
              > ***In 6:6, KAI PERIHGEN is ekthetized. In the next line, a dot appears before the KAI that begins 6:7, and a bar accompanies that line.
              >
              > 15th week after Pentecost, Wed.
              > 6:7-13 (#23?) N N Y Y
              > *** B's ch. 23 begins with KAI PERIHGEN in 6:6 and ends at the end of 6:13.
              >
              > 15th week after Pentecost, Thurs.
              > 6:30-45 (#25) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 15th week after Pentecost, Fri.
              > 6:45-53 (#26) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 16th week after Pentecost: Mon.
              > 6:54-7:8 Y Y Y Y
              > ***ch. 27 = 6:53-56
              >
              > 16th week after Pentecost: Tues.
              > 7:5-16 Y Y Y Y
              > ***B does not contain 7:16; a bar separated 7:15 and 7:17.
              > ***ch. 29 = 7:17-23.
              >
              > 16th week after Pentecost: Wed.
              > 7:14-24 Y Y N N
              >
              >
              > 16th week after Pentecost: Thurs.
              > 7:24-30 (ch. 30) N Y Y Y
              >
              > 16th week after Pentecost: Fri.
              > 8:1-10 (ch. 32) Y Y N N
              > ***ch. 33 begins at the start of 8:10
              >
              > Sunday before Theophany:
              > 1:1-8 (#1) [beginning of book] Y Y
              >
              > Eve of the Theophany: third hour:
              > 1:1-8 (again) (#1) [beginning of book] Y Y
              >
              > Eve of the Theophany: sixth hour:
              > 1:9-15 (#2) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > Blessing of Water:
              > 1:9-11 (#2, again) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > Holy Theophany of Our Lord God and
              > Savior Jesus Christ: Matins:
              > 1:9-11 (#2, again) [same as previous lection]
              >
              > 30th week after Pentecost: Mon.
              > 8:11-21 N N Y Y
              > ***ch. 33 starts at 8:10; ch. 34 ends at the end of 8:21
              >
              > 30th week after Pentecost: Tues.
              > 8:22-26 (#35) Y Y N Y
              > ***verse 26 ends at the end of a line
              > ***ch. 36 begins at the beginning of 8:27.
              >
              > 30th week after Pentecost: Wed.
              > 8:30-34 N N N N
              > ***(9:2 ? Transfiguration narrative begins)
              >
              > 30th week after Pentecost: Thurs.
              > 9:10-16 N N N Y
              >
              > 30th week after Pentecost: Fri.
              > 9:33-41 (#40) Y Y N N
              > ***gap and bar are at the beginning of 9:41
              >
              > 31st week after Pentecost: Mon.
              > 9:42-10:1 N N N N
              > ***gap and bar are at the beginning of 9:41
              > ***gap and bar are at the beginning of 10:1
              >
              > 31st week after Pentecost: Tues.
              > 10:2-11 N N N N
              > ***ch. 41 begins at the beginning of 10:1
              >
              > 31st week after Pentecost: Wed.
              > 10:11-16 N N N Y
              >
              > 31st week after Pentecost: Thurs.
              > 10:17-27 (#42) N N N Y
              > ***initial letter is ekthetized.
              >
              > 31st week after Pentecost: Fri.
              > 10:23-32 Y N N Y?
              > ***the bar is after efobounto, not at the end of the verse.
              >
              > 32nd week after Pentecost: Mon.
              > 10:46-52 (#43) Y Y Y Y
              > ***A parableptic error occurred at the beginning of 10:46, elicited by a hole in the parchment. The number 46 is in the left margin, and in the correction-note is in the right margin, the missing text is provided with the initial kai-compendium ekthetized.
              >
              > 32nd week after Pentecost: Tues.
              > 11:11-23 Y Y Y Y
              >
              > 32nd week after Pentecost: Wed.
              > 11:23-26 N N N Y
              > ***B does not have 11:26
              > ***the bar separated 11:25 and 11:27
              > ***a colon-like mark is in the margin
              >
              > 32nd week after Pentecost: Thurs.
              > 11:27-33 N Y Y Y
              >
              > 32rd week after Pentecost: Fri.
              > 12:1-12 Y Y Y Y
              >
              > Week before the Triodion: Mon.
              > 12:13-17 (#47) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > Week before the Triodion: Tues.
              > 12:18-27 Y Y Y Y
              >
              > Week before the Triodion: Wed.
              > 12:28-37 Y Y Y Y
              >
              > Week before the Triodion: Thurs.
              > 12:38-44 Y Y Y N
              > ***after 12:44, half the line is blank.
              >
              > Week before the Triodion: Fri.
              > 13:1-8 (#49) Y N Y N
              > ***the first letter of 13:1 is ekthetized.
              >
              > Triodion: Mon.
              > 13:9-13 Y N? Y N
              >
              > Triodion: Tues.
              > 13:14-23 Y N N N
              >
              > Triodion: Wed.
              > 13:24-31 N Y Y
              >
              > Triodion: Thurs.
              > 13:31-14:2 N Y Y
              > ***ch. 50 = 13:32-14:2
              >
              > Triodion: Fri.
              > 14:3-9 (#51) Y Y Y Y
              > ***ch. 52 begins at the beginning of 14:10
              >
              > Meat Fare Week: Mon.
              > 11:1-11 (#44) Y Y Y
              >
              > ***ch. 45 begins at the beginning of 11:12
              >
              > Meat Fare Week: Tues.
              > 14:10-42 (#52) N Y N Y
              >
              > Meat Fare Week: Wed.
              > 14:43-15:1 (#55) N Y N N
              >
              > Meat Fare Week: Thurs.
              > 15:1-15 (#57) N Y Y
              > ***the chapter-number and bar are one line above the beginning of 15:1, apparently
              > misplaced by the copyist because two consecutive lines began with KAI.
              >
              > Great Lent:
              >
              > First Week: Sat.:
              > 2:23-3:5 (#13) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > Second Week: Sat.:
              > 1:35-44 (#7) Y Y Y?? N
              > ***ekthetized letter
              > ***there is space at the end of the line in which 1:44 ends, but there is no bar.
              >
              > Second Week: Sun.:
              > 2:1-12 (#9) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > Third Week: Sat.:
              > 2:14-17 Y Y Y Y
              > ***ch. 11 ends at the end of 2:17.
              >
              > Third Sunday of Great Lent:
              > Adoration of the Holy Cross:
              > 8:34-9:1 N Y Y Y
              > ***ch. 36 ends at the end of 9:1.
              >
              > Fourth Week: Sat.:
              > 7:31-37 (#31) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > Fourth Sunday of Great Lent:
              > Commemoration of St. John of the Ladder:
              > Liturgy: 9:17-31 N Y N N
              > ***ch. 39 ends at the end of 9:32.
              > ***9:31 ends evenly at the end of a line.
              >
              > Fifth Week: Sat.:
              > 8:27-31 (#36) N Y N N
              > ***a gap and bar appear after ELALEI in 8:32.
              >
              > Fifth Sunday of Great Lent:
              > Liturgy: 10:32-45 Y Y Y Y
              > ***10:46 begins a chapter
              >
              > Holy Week:
              >
              > Holy Friday (Thursday Evening):
              > Passion-Gospel #6:
              > 15:16-32 (#58) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > Holy Friday (Thursday Evening):
              > Passion-Gospel #10:
              > 15:43-47 N N Y Y
              > ***ch. 61 = 15:42-47
              >
              > Holy Friday: the Third Hour:
              > 15:16-41 (#58) Y Y Y Y
              > ***ch. 61 = 15:42-47
              >
              > +++++++++++++++
              >
              > Major Fixed Feasts
              >
              > Sunday After the Exaltation of the Cross:
              > 8:34-9:1 N Y Y Y
              > ***ch. 36 ends at the end of 9:1
              >
              > Other Special and General Feastdays:
              >
              > Monk Martyr: 8:34-9:1 (same as previous lection)
              >
              > Female Martyrs: 5:24 Y Y Y Y
              > (or Mt. 15:21-28)
              > ***a gap and bar are at the beginning and end of 5:24
              >
              > Beheading: Liturgy:
              > 6:14-30 (#24) Y Y Y Y
              >
              > +++++++++++++++
              >
              >
              > With that data in hand, I attempted to bring things into focus by going through Mark in B and specially noticing places where there is both a gap and a bar where a chapter does not begin or end. I was looking for gaps and/or bars that correspond to the beginnings (and ends) of Byzantine lections but not to the chapter-divisions in B. I first listed the beginnings of all of B's chapters, and then inserted in that list all the other places where a gap and bar occur. For good measure, I also noted some places where only a bar or only a gap occurs. (It's really the places where the gap and bar occur together that I'm looking for. But I am working with an imperfect facsimile, so there is a possibility that some in some places where I have only seen a gap, there might be a bar.)
              >
              > Next, I took that list and blended it with the preceding list of Markan lections from the Lectionary. I have only noted instances where a Byzantine lection begins *exactly* at the gap and/or bar in Codex Vaticanus (plus a couple of instances where that seems to have been the copyist's intention).
              >
              > Here are the results (B = bar and G = gap):
              >
              > 1:1-1:8 ? ch. 1 (1:1 ? Lection for Sunday before Theophany & Eve of the Theophany)
              > 1:4 GB
              > 1:9-1:11 ? ch. 2 (1:9 - Lection for 12th Week after Pentecost, Monday, and Lection for Eve of the Theophany, 6th hour, and for the Blessing of Water, and for the Holy Theophany of Our Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ, Matins.)
              > 1:12-1:13 ? ch. 3
              > 1:14-1:20 ? ch. 4
              > 1:16 GB (1:16 ? Lection for 12th week after Pentecost, Tues.)
              > 1:21-1:28 ? ch. 5
              > 1:23 GB (1:23 ? Lection for 12th week after Pentecost, Wed.)
              > 1:27 GB
              > 1:29-1:34 ? ch. 6 (1:29 ? Lection for 12th week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
              > 1:35-1:37 ? ch. 7 (1:35 ? Lent, Second Week, Sat.)
              > 1:38-1:45 ? ch. 8
              > 1:39 GB
              > 1:40 B (G at end of line?)
              > 1:44 (G at end of line?)
              > 2:1-2:12 ? ch. 9 (2:1-12 = Lent, Second Week, Sun.)
              > 2:3 B
              > 2:6 G
              > 2:10 G
              > 2:12-2:14 ? ch. 10
              > 2:13 GB
              > 2:14 B (2:14 ? Lent, Third Week, Sat.)
              > 2:17 GB
              > 2:15-2:17 ? ch. 11
              > 2:18-2:22 ? ch. 12 (2:18 ? Lection for 12th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
              > 2:19 G
              > 2:21 GB
              > 2:22 GB
              > 2:23-2:28 ? ch. 13 (2:23 ? Lent, First Week, Sat.)
              > 2:25 GB (the gap is small)
              > 2:27 G
              > 3:1-3:6 ? ch. 14
              > 3:6 GB (3:6 ? Lection for 13th week after Pentecost, Mon.)
              > 3:7-3:13 ? ch. 15
              > 3:9 GB
              > 3:14-3:35 ? ch. 16
              > 3:13 GB (3:13 ? Lection for 13th week after Pentecost, Tues.)
              > 3:18 Gaps after "Bartholomew"
              > and "Matthew"
              > 3:20 GB (3:20 ? Lection for 13th week after Pentecost, Wed.)
              > 3:23 GB
              > 3:28 GB (3:28 ? Lection for 13th week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
              > 3:31 GB
              > 3:33 GB
              > 4:1-4:9 ? ch. 17 (4:1 ? Lection for 13th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
              > 4:3 B
              > 4:10-4:34 ? ch. 18 (4:10 ? Lection for 14th week after Pentecost, Mon.)
              > 4:13 GB
              > 4:18 B
              > 4:21 GB
              > 4:24 GB (4:24 ? Lection for 14th week after Pentecost, Tues.)
              > 4:26 GB
              > 4:30 GB
              > 4:33 GB
              > 4:35-5:1 ? ch. 19 (4:35 ? Lection for 14th week after Pentecost, Wed.)
              > 4:40 GB
              > 5:1 GB (gap at end of line) (5:1 ? Lection for 14th week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
              > 5:2-5:20 ? ch. 20
              > 5:6 GB (gap is small)
              > 5:9 B
              > 5:9b GB (Gap is after ONOMA SOI)
              > 5:13b G(??)
              > 5:14 GB
              > 5:15 GB
              > 5:18 GB
              > 5:20 GB
              > 5:21-5:43 ? ch. 21
              > 5:22 GB (5:22 ? part of the Lection for 14th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
              > 5:24 GB (5:24 ? Lection for 15th week after Pentecost, Mon, and for a fixed feast for female martyrs.)
              > 5:25 GB
              > 5:30 GB
              > 5:31 GB
              > 5:33 B
              > 5:34 GB
              > 5:38 GB
              > 5:40a GB
              > 5:43 GB
              > 5:43b GB (before KAI EIPEN)
              > 6:1-6:6 ? ch. 22 (6:1 ? Lection for 15th week after Pentecost, Tues.)
              > 6:4 GB
              > 6:6/7-6:13 ? ch. 23 (6:7 ? Lection for 15th week after Pentecost, Wed.)
              > (I counted this one as exact, even though it's not, because the copyist may have intended it to be.)
              > 6:12 GB
              > 6:14-6:29 ? ch. 24 (6:14 ? fixed feast, Beheading.)
              > 6:16 G
              > 6:17 GB
              > 6:18 GB
              > 6:19 G
              > 6:21 GB
              > 6:22 G (between SUNANAKEIMENOIS and O DE BASILEUS)
              > 6:24 GB
              > 6:29 GB
              > 6:30-6:44 ? ch. 25 (6:30 ? Lection for 15th week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
              > 6:32 GB
              > 6:34 G
              > 6:34b B (after POIMENA)
              > 6:35 G
              > 6:37 GB
              > 6:38 GB
              > 6:45-6:52 ? ch. 26 (6:45 ? Lection for 15th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
              > 6:47 GB
              > 6:48 GB (before PERI TETARTHN)
              > 6:49 B
              > 6:53-6:56 ? ch. 27
              > 7:1-7:16 ? ch. 28
              > 7:5 GB (7:5 ? Lection for 16th week after Pentecost, Tues.)
              > 7:6 GB
              > 7:8 GB
              > 7:14 GB (7:14 ? Lection for 16th week after Pentecost, Wed.)
              > 7:17-7:23 ? ch. 29
              > 7:20 G
              > 7:24-7:30 ? ch. 30 (7:24 ? Lection for 16th week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
              > 7:28 G
              > 7:29 GB
              > 7:31-7:37 ? ch. 31 (7:31-37 = Lent, Fourth Week, Sat.)
              > 7:34b (gap before KAI LEGEI)
              > 8:1-8:9 ? ch. 32 (8:1 ? Lection for 16th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
              > 8:4 GB
              > 8:10-8:12 ? ch. 33
              > 8:12 GB
              > 8:13-8:21 ? ch. 34
              > 8:22-8:26 ? ch. 35 (8:22-26 = Lection for 30th week after Pentecost, Tues.)
              > 8:27-9:1 ? ch. 36 (8:27 ? Lent, Fifth Week, Sat.)
              > 8:28 G
              > 8:29b B (before APOKRIQEIS)
              > 8:32 GB (after ELAKEI)
              > 8:34 B (8:34 ? Lent, Third Sunday, Adoration of the Holy Cross, and a fixed feast for the Sunday after the Exaltation of the Cross)
              > 9:1 G
              > 9:2-9:27 ? ch. 37
              > 9:7 G(?) B
              > 9:14 B
              > 9:17 B (9:17 ? Lent, Fourth Sunday, Liturgy)
              > 9:19 GB
              > 9:23 GB
              > 9:25 B
              > 9:28-9:29 ? ch. 38
              > 9:29 B
              > 9:30-9:32 ? ch. 39
              > 9:33-9:50 ? ch. 40 (9:33 ? Lection for 30th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
              > 9:35 GB
              > 9:38 GB
              > 9:39 GB
              > 9:41 GB
              > 9:45 GB
              > 9:46 G
              > 9:50 B
              > 10:1-10:16 ? ch. 41
              > 10:3 G
              > 10:10 GB
              > 10:13 B
              > 10:14 GB
              > 10:15 GB
              > 10:17-10:45 ? ch. 42 (10:17 ? Lection for 31st week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
              > 10:18 GB
              > 10:20 GB
              > 10:22 G
              > 10:23 G (10:23 inexact; 31st week after Pentecost, Fri., but the bar is after EFOBOUNTO)
              > 10:24 G
              > 10:24b G (after AUTOU)
              > 10:26 G
              > 10:27 G
              > 10:28 B
              > 10:29 GB
              > 10:32 GB (ekthetized initial HSAN) (10:32 ? Lent, Fifth Sunday, Liturgy.)
              > 10:32 B (after EFOBOUNTO)
              > 10:35 GB
              > 10:36 B
              > 10:38 G
              > 10:39b B (before O DE _IS_)
              > 10:41 GB
              > 10:42 GB
              > 10:46-10:52 ? ch. 43 (10:46-52 = Lection for the 32nd week after Pentecost, Mon.)
              > 10:49 G
              > 10:51 G
              > 11:1-11:11 ? ch. 44 (11:1-11 = Lection for Meat Fare Week, Mon.)
              > [11:1b - incidental gap between
              > TO OROS and TO ELAIWN]
              > 11:7 G
              > 11:11 GB (11:11 ? Lection for the 32nd week after Pentecost, Tues.)
              > 11:12-11:19 ? ch. 45
              > 11:14 GB
              > 11:18 GB
              > 11:19 GB
              > 11:20-12:12 ? ch. 46
              > 11:22 G
              > 11:24 GB
              > 11:25 G
              > 11:27 B (11:27 ? Lection for the 32nd week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
              > 11:29 G
              > 11:33 G
              > 11:33b G
              > 12:1 GB (12:1 ? Lection for the 32nd week after Pentecost, Fri.)
              > 12:10 G
              > 12:12 G
              > 12:13-12:40 ? ch. 47 (12:13 ? Lection for the Week before the Triodion, Mon.)
              > 12:15 GB
              > 12:18 GB (12:18 ? Lection for the Week before the Triodion, Tues.)
              > 12:24 GB
              > 12:28 GB (12:28 ? Lection for the Week before the Triodion, Wed.)
              > 12:35 GB
              > 12:38 GB (12:38 ? Lection for the Week before the Triodion, Thurs.)
              > 12:41-12:44 ? ch. 48
              > 12:43 B
              > 13:1-13:31 ? ch. 49 (13:1 ? Lection for the Week before the Triodion, Fri.)
              > 13:2 GB
              > 13:3 GB
              > 13:5 GB
              > 13:9 GB(?) Bar is very faint? (13:9 ? Triodion, Mon.)
              > 13:14 G (13:9 ? Triodion, Tues.)
              > 13:17 G
              > 13:30 B
              > 13:32-14:2 ? ch. 50
              > 13:36 B
              > 14:1 B
              > 14:3-14:9 ? ch. 51 (14:3-9 = Lection for Triodion, Fri.)
              > 14:6 GB
              > 14:10-14:16 ? ch. 52 (14:10 ? Lection for Meat Fare Week, Tues.)
              > 14:11 G (? small)
              > 14:12 GB
              > 14:13 GB
              > 14:16 B
              > 14:17-14:26 ? ch. 53
              > 14:25 B
              > 14:26 GB
              > 14:27-14:42 ? ch. 54
              > 14:30 GB
              > 14:32 G
              > 14:33 G (? small)
              > 14:35 GB
              > 14:41 GB
              > 14:43-14:52 ? ch. 55 (14:43 ? Lection for Meat Fare Week, Wed.)
              > 14:53-14:72 ? ch. 56
              > 14:55 GB
              > 14:57 B
              > 14:61 G (? small)
              > 14:63 G
              > 14:68b B (after LEGEIS)
              > 14:71 GB
              > 15:1-15:15 ? ch. 57 (chapter-number out of place) (15:1-15 = Meat Fare Week, Thurs.)
              > 15:2 GB
              > 15:2c G (before SU LEGEIS)
              > 15:4 GB
              > 15:5 GB
              > 15:9 GB
              > 15:12 GB
              > 15:14 G
              > 15:16-15:23 ? ch. 58 (15:16 ? Lection for Holy Friday/Thursday Evening, Passion Gospel #6, and for Holy Friday, the 3rd Hour.)
              > 15:24-15:37 ? ch. 59
              > 15:33 GB
              > 15:35 S (with raised dot)
              > 15:38-15:41 ? ch. 60
              > 15:39 G
              > 15:40 G
              > 15:42-15:47 ? ch. 61
              > 15:46 G
              > 16:1-16:8 ? ch. 62
              > 16:2 G
              >
              > +++++++++++++++
              >
              > So: the beginnings of the following 15 lections (out of 73 lection-beginnings, after accounting for redundancies ? 20.5%) are not accompanied by a gap, a bar, a gap and bar, or the beginning of a chapter in B:
              >
              > 15:43-16:8 (3rd Sunday of Pascha/Myrrhbearers)
              > 16:9-20 (6th week of Pascha, Thursday/Ascension Matins)
              > 5:35-6:1 (the second part of the Lection for the 14th week after Pentecost, Fri.)
              > 6:54-7:8 (16th week after Pentecost, Mon.) Chapter 27 begins at 6:53.
              > 8:11-21 (30th week after Pentecost, Mon.) 8:10-8:21 = Chapters 33 and 34.
              > 8:30-34 (30th week after Pentecost, Wed.)
              > 9:10-16 (30th week after Pentecost, Thurs.)
              > 9:42-10:1 (31st week after Pentecost, Mon.)
              > 10:2-11 (31st week after Pentecost, Tues.)
              > 10:11-16 (31st week after Pentecost, Wed.)
              > 10:23-32 (31st week after Pentecost, Fri.)
              > 11:23-26 (32nd week after Pentecost, Wed.) (B does not have 11:26.)
              > 13:24-31 (Triodion, Wed.)
              > 13:31-14:2 (Triodion, Thurs.)
              > 15:43-47 (Holy Friday/Thursday Evening, Passion-Gospel #10)
              >
              > The chance of a Byzantine lection being accompanied in B by a gap, a bar, a gap and a bar, or a chapter-beginning is thus 79%. It would be higher (8 out of 65 = 87.7%) if not for the cluster of seven lections in the 30th and 31st weeks after Pentecost which are not accompanied by a gap, a bar, a gap and bar, or a chapter-beginning where they begin. If we set aside those seven lections from the equation, and also removed 16:9-20 (since it is not in Codex B), the chance rises to 7 out of 64 (89%).
              >
              > Instead of suggesting that 79% of the Byzantine lectionary was developed by the early 300's, this probably simply shows that when the text of Mark is divided into B's 62 chapters, and then further divided into B's 155 sub-sections (separated by gaps), when the Byzantine Lectionary's 73 Markan lection-beginnings are projected onto a text divided into those 216 division-points, 79% of the lection-beginnings will land on those division-points. Fifty-eight out of 73 randomly-drawn points in the text would not land on 216 other randomly-drawn points in the text, but the division-points were not randomly-drawn; they occur where independently working copyists would naturally posit a sense-break in the text, usually due to a change of scene, speaker, or subject in the course of the narrative.
              >
              > Yours in Christ,
              >
              > James Snapp, Jr.
              >
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