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Textual Criticism In The Jar - A Post for St. Patrick's Day 2009

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  • James Snapp, Jr.
    *** There s Textual Criticism in the Jar *** A Post for Saint Patrick s Day 2009 (An Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism Without Using the New
    Message 1 of 4 , Mar 17, 2009
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      *** There's Textual Criticism in the Jar ***

      A Post for Saint Patrick's Day 2009

      (An Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism Without Using the New Testament.)

      Today is Saint Patrick's Day, and I want to sing "Whiskey in the Jar," an Irish drinking-song. I want to sing the authentic version, not some secondary form filled with corruptions. After all, how could I ever enjoy the song if I never got its message, and how can I appreciate its message unless I have the original lyrics?

      Only textual criticism offers any hope of achieving this goal. By the way, this will be a lot more fun if you first take 15 minutes or so to listen to at least one or two online presentations of the song "Whiskey in the Jar." YouTube has mini-movies that present the song as sung by The Dubliners, Metallica, Thin Lizzy, and others.

      Back already? Great! Let's start with some higher criticism. "Whiskey in the Jar" is, as far as I can tell, based on two or three historical figures, William Brennan (a highwayman who was hanged in 1804) and Jeremiah Grant (a highwayman who was hanged in 1816). Four old ballads – "Captain Brennan," "Brennan on the Moor," "Bold Lovell," and "Captain Grant" – combine to present a picture of a man who carried pistols and robbed many rich men in the mountains (such as the Mayor of Cashel, a town a bit east-northeast of Tipperary); he was arrested after a fierce fight; he escaped from jail; he was betrayed by a women (named "Molly" in "Captain Brennan") as he slept; he attempted to shoot at his assailants but could not because his powder was wet so he surrendered; he was sentenced to death; the ballad then mentions what he is thinking, chained in jail, just before he is hanged – thoughts of escaping to the mountains, scorning the memory of the woman who betrayed him. In the 1880 book "Lays and Legends of Thomond" ("Thomond" = a big part of Ireland which used to be the O'Brien kingdom), author Michael Hogan presented a ballad called "Captain Brennan" and its tune is listed as "There's Whiskey in the Jar." Clearly we can detect some source-materials here. The basic plot may be traceable as far back as 1728, in "The Beggar's Opera." With this in mind we move along to the text-critical task.

      The canonical Irish form of "Whiskey in the Jar" was released by The Dubliners in 1967, on the album, "More of the Hard Stuff." ("Hard Stuff" as in hard liquor.) This is, however, just one of several local forms of the lyrics. Witnesses to the Irish text-type are numerically far fewer than witnesses to the American text-type which was made popular by Metallica (an American thrash-metal band that released a song called "Whiskey in the Jar" in 1998). The term "American" for this text-type is a misnomer, because although Metallica used and popularized this form of the text, the lyrics used by Metallica were produced previously by Thin Lizzy, an Irish band, in the 1970's. However, although it would make a lot more sense to call this text-form the "Second Irish text-type," we will keep on calling it the "American" text-type because it is sung mostly in America.

      The lyrical variants between the Irish text-type and the American text-type are very significant. We shall consider the "Gilgarean" text-type used by the singing-group Peter, Paul, and Mary. Then we will examine some variants in the Garcian text, a free text which contains some interesting readings. Finally, there is the text of the U2 fragment to consider.

      We begin with a comparison of the Irish text-type and the American text-type, side by side. (Periods separate them.) In the interest of coherence we will consider only the verses.

      Irish (1967)......................American (1972/1998)

      As I was going over.............. As I was going over
      the far-famed Kerry mountains.... the Cork and Kerry mountains
      I met with Captain Farrel........ I saw Captain Farrell
      and his money he was counting.... and his money he was counting
      I first produced me pistol,...... I first produced my pistol
      and I then produced me rapier.... and then produced my rapier
      Sayin' "Stand and deliver,"...... I said, "Stand and deliver
      for he were a bold deceiver...... or the devil he may take ya."

      I counted out his money,......... I took all of his money
      and it made a pretty penny....... and it was a pretty penny
      I put it in me pocket and........ I took all of his money, yeah,
      I took it home to Jenny.......... and I brought it home to Molly
      She sighed and she swore......... She swore that she loved me,
      that she never would deceive me.. no, never would she leave me
      but the devil take the women,.... But the devil take that woman,
      for they never can be easy.... yeah, for you know she tricked me easy.

      I went up to me chamber,......... Being drunk and weary
      all for to take a slumber........ I went to Molly's chamber
      I dreamt of gold and jewels...... Taking Molly [var: "a bottle"] with me,
      and for sure it was no wonder.... --
      But Jenny drew me charges........ --
      and she filled them up with water.. --
      Then sent for Captain Farrell.... --
      to be ready for the slaughter...... but [var: "and"] I never knew the danger.

      'Twas early in the morning, ..... For about six or maybe seven,
      just before I rose to travel..... yeah,
      Up comes a pack of footmen....... --
      and likewise Captain Farrel...... in walked Captain Farrell

      I first produced me pistol,...... I jumped up, fired [var: + "off"] my pistols,
      for she stole away me rapier..... --
      But I couldn't shoot the water .. and I shot him with both barrels, yeah.
      so a prisoner I was taken........ --

      Now some men take delight..... Now some men like the fishing
      in the carriages a'rollin',... and some men like the fowling
      And others take delight....... And some men like to hear,
      in the hurley and the bowling .to hear the cannonball a-roaring
      But I take delight.............Me I like sleeping,
      in the juice of the barley,....especially in my Molly's chamber
      And courting pretty fair maids...But here I am in prison,
      in the morning bright and early..here I am with a ball and chain, yeah.

      If anyone can aid me,..............--
      'tis my brother in the army........--
      If I can find his station,.........--
      in Cork or in Killarney............--
      And if he'll go with me,...........--
      we'll go roving near Kilkenny,.....--
      And I'm sure he'll treat me better...--
      than my own a'sporting Jenny.......--

      (End of Song)

      Clearly, those who promote the idea that no lyrical variants affect the meaning of the song are not being entirely forthright. There are scarcely two consecutive lines that do not contain a variant, and some variants significantly alter the meaning of specific sentences. For example, in the Irish text-form, the highwayman's pistol does not fire, because Jenny soaked the powder-charges. But in the "American" text-form, the highwayman fires both barrels. Also, almost two full verses of the Irish text-form are absent in the "American" text-form.

      Which form is authentic? The grammar of the "American" text-form seems to reveal corrections of the peculiar grammar in the Irish text-form. The Irish line, "they never can be easy" accounts for the "American" variant, "yeah, for you know she tricked me easy." We may theorize that an "American" lyrics-editor did not grasp the meaning of the colloquialism in the earlier Irish text-type (which means that it is never easy to tell what women are thinking) and created a less obscure sentence. It is extremely unlikely that any lyricist copying the "American" variant would create the more difficult Irish reading here. The "American" text-type also contains fewer archaisms: the Irish "take delight" is replaced by "like." The Irish reference to powder-charges is omitted altogether by the "American" text, most likely because either the "American" editor did not understand it, or because he wanted to produce a text which his listeners would be more likely to understand. The "American" text also avoids the Irish text's second use of the phrase, "I first produced me pistol" – a thoughtful removal of a perceived superfluity, inasmuch as there was no second weapon used in that scene. Finally, the "American" text mollifies the severe condemnation of all women, adjusting the text so that only the guilty woman is condemned to be taken by the devil.

      So despite the vast numerical superiority of the "American" text-type, it appears to be based on a revision of the older Irish text-type. However, there is one feature in the "American" text that has very early support: in the "American" text, the woman's name is Molly. This is consistent with the ancient ballad, "Captain Brennan." The evidence favors "Molly" as the name of the woman who betrayed William Brennan; however, this does not require the conclusion that the author of "Whiskey in the Jar" wrote "Molly;" a consideration of the rhymes strongly supports the name "Jenny."

      We now turn to the "Gilgarean" text-form. Here is the comparison between the Irish form (on the left) and the Gilgarean text-form, which is attributed in a colophon to the lyricists Peter, Paul, and Mary:


      Irish (1967).........……………………………….Gilgarean

      As I was going over………....…………….. As I was a'goin' over
      the far-famed Kerry mountains…………. Gilgarra Mountain
      I met with Captain Farrel…………….…. I spied Colonel Farrell
      and his money he was counting………… and his money he was countin'.
      I first produced me pistol,……………… First I drew me pistols,
      and I then produced me rapier…………. and then I drew me rapier,
      Sayin' "Stand and deliver," ……………. Sayin' "Stand and deliver
      for he were a bold deceiver…………….. for I am your bold deceiver."

      I counted out his money,……………….. He counted out his money
      and it made a pretty penny………………and it made a pretty penny.
      I put it in me pocket and……………….. I put in me pocket
      I took it home to Jenny………………… to take home to darlin' Jenny
      She sighed and she swore……………… She sighed and swore she loved me,
      that she never would deceive me………. And never would deceive me,
      but the devil take the women,………….. but the devil take the women,
      for they never can be easy……………… for they always lie so easy.

      I went up to me chamber,………………. I went into me chamber
      all for to take a slumber………………… all for to take a slumber
      I dreamt of gold and jewels…………….. To dream of gold and girls
      and for sure it was no wonder…………... and o'course it was no wonder
      But Jenny drew me charges…………….. Me Jenny took me charges
      and she filled them up with water... and she filled them up with water
      Then sent for Captain Farrell…………… Called on Colonel Farrell
      to be ready for the slaughter……………. to get ready for the slaughter.

      'Twas early in the morning,…………….. Next mornin' early
      just before I rose to travel………………. before I rose to travel
      Up comes a pack of footmen…………… A'came a band o' footmen
      and likewise Captain Farrel…………… .and likewise Colonel Farrell
      I first produced me pistol,……………… I goes to draw me pistol
      for she stole away me rapier…………….for she'd stole away me rapier
      But I couldn't shoot the water………….. But a prisoner I was taken;
      so a prisoner I was taken……………….. I couldn't shoot the water.

      ............................... They put me into jail
      ................................with the judge all a-writin'
      ................................For robbin' Colonel Farrell
      ................................on Gilgarra Mountain
      ................................But they didn't take me fists
      ................................so I knocked the jailer down
      ................................And bid a farewell
      ................................to this tight-fisted [var: "Sligo"] town.

      Now some men take delight......I'd like to find me brother,
      in the carriages a'rollin',....the one that's in the army,
      And others take delight........I don't know where he's stationed,
      in the hurley and the bowling..in Cork or in Killarney
      But I take delight.............Together we'd go roamin' o'er
      in the juice of the barley,....the mountains of Kilkenny
      And courting pretty fair maids...And I swear he'd treat me fairer
      in the morning bright and early...than me darlin' sportin' Jenny.

      If anyone can aid me,...........There's some takes delight
      'tis my brother in the army.....in the carriages and rollin'
      If I can find his station,......And some takes delight
      in Cork or in Killarney.........in the hurley or the bowlin'.
      And if he'll go with me,........But I takes delight
      we'll go roving near Kilkenny,...in the juice of the barley
      And I'm sure he'll treat me better...Courtin' pretty maids
      than my own a'sporting Jenny.....in the mornin' oh so early.

      (End of Song)

      The Gilgarean Text resembles the Irish Text much more closely than the "American" Text does. However, the Gilgarean Text has undergone extensive editing by a non-Irish lyricist who added material from the ancient ballads. The extra verse summarizes a scene from the ballads in which the highwayman escapes from jail. Although the ballads proceed to tell about his re-capture, the highwayman remains free in the Gilgarean Text. The Gilgarean editor, after adding the verse in which the highwaymen escapes, had to reject the line, "If anyone can aid me," deliberately turning it into "I'd like to find me brother." Thus the highwayman's final thoughts are not the yearnings of an imprisoned man who hopes that his brother can help him; instead they are the happy plans of a free man. The Gilgarean Text uses the old ballads but reframes the narrative's outcome, freezing the story before the highwayman is recaptured.

      Additional evidence of the secondary nature of the Gilgarean Text is its variant, "to dream of gold and girls." This variant may have arisen due to an acoustic error, when the lyricist mis-heard the word "jewels" in an accent that was unfamiliar to him. Likewise the nonsense-reading "carriages and rollin'" is derived from "carriages a'rollin'."

      Three other variants -- the variant "o'course," replacing "for sure," and the variant "roamin'," replacing "roving," and the variant "took," replacing "drew" – reinforce the idea that the Gilgarean Text was made by someone who found some Irish modes of expression appealing (repeatedly preserving "me" as a possessive pronoun) but who also was willing to sacrifice them for the sake of clarity.

      We now turn to the Garcian text, extant in a manuscript with the title, "Concert Transcript," which we shall put side-by-side with the American Text, with the extra verse from the Gilgarean Text added for comparison:

      American (1972/1998), [Gilgarean]....Garcian (1993)

      As I was going over.................As I was a-goin' over
      the Cork and Kerry mountains........the Cork and Kerry mountains
      I saw Captain Farrel................I met Colonel Pepper
      and his money he was counting.......and his money he was counting
      I first produced my pistol,.........I drew forth my pistol
      and then produced my rapier.........and I rattled my sabre
      I said, "Stand and deliver,.........Saying, "Stand and deliver,
      or the devil he may take ya.".......for I am a bold deceiver."

      I took all of his money,............Them shiny golden coins
      and it was a pretty penny...........did sure look bright and jolly
      I took all of his money, yeah,......I took the money home
      and I brought it home to Molly......and I gave it to my Molly
      She swore that she loved me,........She promised and she vowed
      no, never would deceive me..........that she never would deceive me
      but the devil take that woman,......But the devil's in the women
      yeah, for you know she tricked me easy.....for they never can be easy

      Being drunk and weary.....................--
      I went to Molly's chamber.................--
      Taking Molly [var: "a bottle"] with me,..--
      But [var: "and"] I never knew the danger.....-- As I was awakin'
      For about six or seven.............between the hours of six and seven
      Yeah,.....................................--
      In walked Captain Farrell.................--
      --..................................Guards were standing 'round me
      --..................................in numbers odd and even.
      I jumped up, fired [var: + "off"] my pistols,...I didn't have my pistols,
      And I shot him with both barrels.....so they . . . prison
      But I couldn't shoot the water.......Da da da da da da da da,
      so a prisoner I was taken............Da da da da da da da da.

      [They put me into jail]..............They put me in jail
      [with the judge all a-writin'].......without a judge or jury
      [For robbin' Colonel Farrell]........For robbing Colonel Pepper
      [on Gilgarra Mountain]...............in the morning so early
      [But they didn't take me fists]......They didn't take my fist
      [so I knocked the jailer down].......so I knocked down the sentry
      [And bid a farewell]................. And I bid a long farewell
      [to this tight-fisted [var: "Sligo"] town.]...to that cold penitentiary

      Now some men take delight........Some take delight
      in the carriages a'rollin',......in the carriage a-rollin'
      And others take delight..........Some take delight
      in the hurley and the bowling....in fishing and bowling
      But I take delight...............I take delight
      in the juice of the barley,......in the juice of the barley
      And courting pretty fair maids...Courting pretty women
      in the morning bright and early..in the morning so early

      If anyone can aid me,.................--
      'tis my brother in the army...........--
      If I can find his station,............--
      in Cork or in Killarney...............--
      And if he'll go with me,..............--
      we'll go roving near Kilkenny,........--
      And I'm sure he'll treat me better....--
      than my own a'sporting Jenny..........--

      (End of Song)

      The Garcian Text agrees sometimes with the Irish Text and sometimes with the American Text. Near the end of the third verse, its lyricist appears to have forgotten which form of the song he was singing. Almost all of the unique Garcian readings bear signs of free adjustment. The phrase "in the morning so early" is mistakenly placed too soon, besides appearing in its rightful place. The term "penitentiary" is clearly anachronistic, as is the reference to a jury.

      One Garcian reading is, however, very notable, and probably is derived from an ancient source: the lines, "Between the hours of six and seven, guards were standin' round me in numbers odd and even." Stylistic considerations favor this reading over the rival variant in the Irish Text.


      Our final text-form for consideration is found in the U2 Fragment (1986/1992):

      As I was goin' over the Cork and Kerry mountains
      I saw Captain Farrell and his money he was countin'.
      I first produced my pistol and then produced my rapier
      I said, "Stand and deliver or the devil he may take ya."

      I took all of his money and it was a pretty penny.
      I took all of his money and I brought it home to Molly.
      She swore that she'd love me, never would she leave me.
      But the devil take that woman, for you know she treat me easy.

      Being drunk and weary I went to Molly's chamber
      Takin' my money with me, and I never knew the danger.
      For about six or maybe seven in walked Captain Farrell.
      I jumped up, fired off my pistols and I shot him with both barrels.

      Now some men like the fishin',
      and some men like the fowlin',
      And some men like ta hear
      a cannonball a roarin'.
      Me I like sleepin',
      'specially in my Molly's chamber.
      But here I am in prison,
      here I am with a ball and chain, yeah.

      (End of Song)

      Clearly, despite being from Dublin, where the Irish Text is popular, U2 used the "American" Text, without any of the Gilgarean variants that are symptomatic of familiarity with the Irish ballads.

      Before reconstructing the text, let's take a close look at the Gilgarean Pericope, in which the highwayman escapes. Here it is with some corrections drawn from other sources not examined here. In the manuscripts in which the Gilgarean Pericope is added, the song's title is usually "Gilgarra Mountain" or "Kilgary Mountain," and the first verse refers to Gilgarra Mountain (or, "Kilgary Mountain") and the last verse begins, "I'd like to find me brother" instead of "If anyone can aid me."

      They put me into prison
      without a judge or writin',
      for robbin' Captain Ferrel
      upon Gilgarra [or, "Kilgary"] Mountain.
      But they did not take me fists,
      so I knocked the sentry down,
      and I bid a fond farewell
      to that gaol in Sligo town.

      The secondary nature of the Gilgarean Pericope seems evident from the reference to Sligo, which is in northwest Ireland, some distance from the other places mentioned in the song. Probably this verse was originally an authentic part of another ballad in which the highwayman escapes; supporting this theory, in some manuscripts there is yet another verse, in which the highwayman's brother shows up and helps him escape to the mountains. Possibly the line "to that tight-fisted town" in the Peter, Paul, and Mary edition was written to replace "to that gaol in Sligo town," by someone who perceived an implausibility when a robbery in southern Ireland resulted in imprisonment at Sligo in the northwest.

      Also, while I am hesitant to introduce a conjectural emendation into the text, it may be worth noticing that there is a small mountain called Gortagerry Mountain near Devilsbit Mountain east of Limerick. This little-known name, which is not found in any extant forms of the song, could explain the variants "Cork and Kerry," "Gilgarra," etc. Possibly this name was in source-materials.

      After cautiously applying the canons of textual criticism – favoring the variant that best explains the others, favoring the difficult variant, favoring the oldest variant, favoring the variant with intrinsic merit, etc. – we can, finally, sing the authentic song:

      Whiskey In The Jar

      As I was going over the far-famed Kerry mountains
      I met with Captain Farrel and his money he was countin'.
      I first produced me pistol and then produced me rapier,
      Sayin' "Stand and deliver," for he were a bold deceiver.

      Chorus:
      Mush a ring dumma do damma da
      Whack fo' the daddy o',
      Whack fo' the daddy o',
      There's whiskey in the jar.

      I counted out his money, and it made a pretty penny.
      I put it in me pocket and I took it home to Jenny.
      She sighed and she swore that she never would deceive me
      but the devil take the women, for they never can be easy.

      I went up to me chamber, all for to take a slumber,
      I dreamt of gold and jewels and for sure it was no wonder.
      But Jenny drew me charges and she filled them up with water,
      Then sent for Captain Farrell to be ready for the slaughter.

      'Twas early in the morning, about six or maybe seven,
      Up comes a pack of footmen, in numbers odd and even.
      I first produced me pistol, for she stole away me rapier,
      But I couldn't shoot the water, so a prisoner I was taken.

      Now some men take delight in the carriages a'rollin',
      And others take delight in the hurley and the bowlin'.
      But I take delight in the juice of the barley,
      And courting pretty fair maids in the morning bright and early.

      If anyone can aid me, 'tis my brother in the army,
      If I can find his station, in Cork or in Killarney,
      And if he'll go with me, we'll go roving near Kilkenny,
      And I'm sure he'll treat me better than my own a'sporting Jenny.

      (End of Song)

      Happy Saint Patrick's Day!

      Yours in Christ,

      James Snapp, Jr.
    • Daniel
      ... . . . [nevertheless] In the manuscripts in which the Gilgarean Pericope is added, the song s title is usually Gilgarra/Kilgary Mountain, and the first
      Message 2 of 4 , Mar 18, 2009
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        --- In textualcriticism@yahoogroups.com, "James Snapp, Jr." wrote:
        >>In the interest of coherence we will consider only the verses.
        . . . [nevertheless]
        In the manuscripts in which the Gilgarean Pericope is added, the song's title is usually "Gilgarra/Kilgary Mountain," and the first verse refers to Gilgarra/Kilgary Mountain") . . .

        Also . . . Gortagerry Mountain [is] near Devilsbit Mountain east of Limerick. This little-known name, which is not found in any extant forms of the song, could explain the variants "Cork and Kerry" and "Gilgarra/Kilgary." Possibly this name was in source-materials.<<

        Ah yes, variants in the title, so often overlooked, can still give a clue as to the reliability of variants in the text. This case can be made in the opening lines of Ephesians, where the three earliest extant copies all have the words PROS EFESIOUS in the title, but don't have the words EN EFESW in the text.

        The earliest copy to have EN EFESW, A 02, reads as follows:

        paulos apostolos iu_ xu_ dia qelhmatos qu_ tois agiois pasin tois susin en efesw kai pistois en xw_ iu_

        Paul an apostle of Js Cht through the will of Gd, to the saints, all those being in Ephesus, and (to the) faithful in Ch Js.

        This text is coherent, either because it is as Paul wrote it, or because it was later redacted, or both.

        The other texts don't fare so well. I give all 4 here, abbreviated to fit on one line each:

        p46
        p.a. xru inu dia q. qu_ tois a. susin kai pistois en p. en xrw inu
        01
        p.a. iu xu dia q. qu_ tois a. T tois susi susi kai p. en xw iu
        02
        p.a. iu xu dia q. qu tois a. pasin tois susin en efesw kai p. en xw iu
        03
        p.a. xu iu dia q. qu tois a. tois susin kai p. en xw iu

        Here are the main problems in each:
        p46
        to the saints being, and faithful in faithful in Chrt Jes
        Aleph
        to the saints (01c: all) those being being and faithful in Cht Js
        Vaticanus
        to the saints the being (02c: in Ephesus) and faithful in Cht Js

        Note that in two of the three copies there is a dittography right where the words "in Ephesus" would fall. Both 01 and 03 were partially corrected to the standard, though neither was fully corrected. And even as corrected, none of them read coherently. "In Ephesus," or "In ___(name of original/subsequent recipient city)" is still conspicuous by its absence.

        If p46 01 03 descend from a common archetype, we can reconstruct the relevant part of it as follows:

        tois agois tois susin kai pistois en xristou ihsou
        "to the saints, those being and faithful in Christ Jesus"

        This harder reading is, in fact, the reading of Vaticanus*, to which the words pasin and en efesw would have been added in two subsequent redactions to get us to the reading of Alexandrinus.

        However, does this harder reading make sense as a reflection of the original? Consider how Paul addressed some of his other epistles:

        pasin tois sousin en Rwmh, agaphtois Qu, klhtois
        th sush en Korinqw, hgiasmenois en Xw Iu, klhtois agious, sun pasin
        th sush en Korinqw sun tois agious pasin
        tois en Kolossais agiois kai pistois
        pasin tois agiois en Xw Iu tois susin en Filippois
        the only exceptions to this pattern are:
        tais ekklhsiais ths Galatias
        th ekklhsia Qessalonikewn (2x)

        So, what makes more sense: that copyists irregularly harmonised the address in Ephesians to four of Paul's seven other ecclesiastical epistles, or that Ephesians originally followed the majority pattern, containing some form of the stock phrase 'pasin tois susin en __', in which some city's name was originally present, but was awkwardly deleted in the ancestors of our earliest copies?

        Daniel Buck
      • bucksburg
        ... paulos apostolos iu_ xu_ dia qelhmatos qu_ tois agiois pasin tois susin en efesw kai pistois en xw_ iu_ Paul an apostle of Js Cht through the will of Gd,
        Message 3 of 4 , Oct 6, 2011
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          --- In March 2009 on textualcriticism@yahoogroups.com, Daniel Buck wrote:

          >>The earliest copy to have EN EFESW, A 02, reads as follows:

          paulos apostolos iu_ xu_ dia qelhmatos qu_ tois agiois pasin tois susin en efesw kai pistois en xw_ iu_

          Paul an apostle of Js Cht through the will of Gd, to the saints, all those being in Ephesus, and (to the) faithful in Ch Js.

          This text is coherent, either because it is as Paul wrote it, or because it was later redacted, or both.>>

          I see now that, in addition to whatever other shortcomings I had back then, I was misled by a feature of the "compare" feature at the Muenster site which made it look like 01 and 03 had dittographies at the point where they were missing EN EFESW. In fact, only p46 has a dittography there:

          PAULOS APOSTOLOS XRU INU DIA QELHMATOS QU TOIS AGIOIS TOIS OUSIN KAI PISTOIS EN PISTOIS EN XRW INU

          Paul an apostle of Chrt. Jes. by the will of Gd to the saints being, and faithful in faithful in Chrt. Jes.

          I have seen this last part translated as, "to the saints who are faithful in Christ Jesus." Is this usage of ONTA found anywhere else in the NT?

          Daniel Buck
        • Jake
          Daniel, There is a similar TSKS construction at Acts 11.1. ??????? ?? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ?????
          Message 4 of 4 , Oct 7, 2011
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            Daniel,

            There is a similar TSKS construction at Acts 11.1.

            Ἤκουσαν δὲ οἱ ἀπόστολοι καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ οἱ ὄντες κατὰ τὴν Ἰουδαίαν ὅτι καὶ τὰ ἔθνη ἐδέξαντο τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ.

            Also at John 11.31 and Acts 11.22 where the participle is adjectival and in 2nd predicate position.

            Here is a note on Eph 1.1 in a paper I've been working on

            " toi/j a[gioij ))) kai. pi,stoij is a TSKS construction according to Wallace , who notes Eph. 1.1 as an example in which both groups are identical (Wallace, 282).  “In Greek, when two [substantives] are connected by kai, and the article precedes only the first noun, there is a close connection between the two. That connection always indicates at least some sort of unity (Wallace, 270).” The presence of intervening words does not negate the implied unity. See the discussion in Wallace, 270-290. The TSKS construction is characteristic of the style of Ephesians [See also 2.20; 3.12; 3.18; 4.11]; the introduction of this stylistic element in the prescript serves to highlight this feature of the letter and creates awareness or expectation in the reader. "

            I ended up translating vv1,2 thus:
            Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, to those who are the holy and faithful ones in Christ Jesus: 2grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

            Hope this helps.

            Jake




            On 10/6/2011 7:05 PM, bucksburg wrote:
             



            --- In March 2009 on textualcriticism@yahoogroups.com, Daniel Buck wrote:

            >>The earliest copy to have EN EFESW, A 02, reads as follows:

            paulos apostolos iu_ xu_ dia qelhmatos qu_ tois agiois pasin tois susin en efesw kai pistois en xw_ iu_

            Paul an apostle of Js Cht through the will of Gd, to the saints, all those being in Ephesus, and (to the) faithful in Ch Js.

            This text is coherent, either because it is as Paul wrote it, or because it was later redacted, or both.>>

            I see now that, in addition to whatever other shortcomings I had back then, I was misled by a feature of the "compare" feature at the Muenster site which made it look like 01 and 03 had dittographies at the point where they were missing EN EFESW. In fact, only p46 has a dittography there:

            PAULOS APOSTOLOS XRU INU DIA QELHMATOS QU TOIS AGIOIS TOIS OUSIN KAI PISTOIS EN PISTOIS EN XRW INU

            Paul an apostle of Chrt. Jes. by the will of Gd to the saints being, and faithful in faithful in Chrt. Jes.

            I have seen this last part translated as, "to the saints who are faithful in Christ Jesus." Is this usage of ONTA found anywhere else in the NT?

            Daniel Buck

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