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Re: Rev 22:19 - "book" invalid Latin reading

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  • Daniel Buck
    ... Vulgate, Boharic and Tepl and frequent early church writer reading is invalid .
    Message 1 of 55 , Aug 3, 2006
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      --- In textualcriticism@yahoogroups.com, Schmuel <schmuel@...> wrote:
      >. . . one wonders how [one could] determine that an Old Latin,
      Vulgate, Boharic and Tepl and frequent early church writer reading
      is "invalid". <<

      I wasn't the one who raised the question of '99.9%' having too many
      significant figures; Schmuel was, and I was the first to answer it.

      Schmuel is downplaying the Greek evidence, which is overwhelmingly
      against 'book,' and playing up evidence from other ms traditions. It
      seems to frustrate him that no one is willing to accept an
      original 'tree' reading as <i>possible</i>; yet the burden of proof is
      upon him to show that it is at all <i>probable</i>. What is the

      1.Old Latin: The Old Latin mss aren't all that old. None of them
      predate Jerome's Vulgate. Are these Old Latin mss with 'book' from the
      9th, 10th, or 11th centuries? If so they are contemporaneous with many
      of Hoskier's 180-odd minuscules with 'tree'.

      2. Codex Teplensis: This Gutenburg-era mss isn't all that useful for
      textual criticism. The text itself is rather wild in places, but where
      its vorlage can be tracked down it is nothing but a late translation
      of late Vulgate mss. Thus a reading of 'book' is but to be expected.

      3. Vulgate: Which Vulgate mss read 'book?' If it is only the late
      ones, what does that evidence point to, but a ligno>libro shift?

      4. Boharic: This evidence can't be ignored. But neither can the
      hypothesis of Latin influence. At the least this lead needs to be
      investigated more thoroughly before being tossed back into play.

      Finally, one bit of evidence that is capable of overriding all others:
      The King James Version reads 'tree', and that is the end of the
      discussion for people of a certain persuasion. So let the discussion
      end, if this factor trumps all others under investigation.

      Daniel Buck
    • Larry Swain
      ... No. ... Vulgar Latin as spoken and written in Gaul evolved into Old French and PROVENCAL, Gascon, and Occitan etc over the course of centuries. The first
      Message 55 of 55 , Jan 6, 2009
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        Jovial wrote:

        >Are you kidding?<


        > I'm not sure exactly what time periods Gaulic Latin evolved into Old French / Provencial, but I would say that it's probably rather safe to assume that the Old Latin had the biggest influence on that region.<

        Vulgar Latin as spoken and written in Gaul evolved into Old French and PROVENCAL, Gascon, and Occitan etc over the course of centuries. The first bit of Old French we have evidence of is mid-9th century, the Oaths of Strasbourg, though the language that we could Old French would obviously be a bit earlier.

        But no, it is not safe to assume that it is Latin or VL Biblical texts that would be the biggest influence on Gaul in the second century CE. "Old Latin" as a linguistic designation refers to Latin of before 75 BCE, so "Old Latin" wouldn't be influencing Irenaeus in any case.

        For one thing, we don't know quite when or where the various Vetus Latina translations began, but our first solid evidence for such translations are in North Africa with Tertullian and the Scitillan Martyrs, not in Italy, esp. Rome, nor in Gaul.

        For a second thing, Gaul at this period was multi-lingual. The native Gaulish was still spoken and used, Latin was used for official functions and trade etc, and there were other Celtic speakers and Greeks. Irenaeus himself says he learned Gaulish with difficulty and seems to have preached in that language rather than in Latin. Further, the sixth century author, Gregory of Tours, when writing lives of the martyrs and saints for Gaul at this period (he believes Irenaeus a martyr)almost all those he describes have Greek names, a few with Latin names. Irenaeus wrote in Greek: all his writings have Greek as their original language. Taken together, this suggests that not only Irenaeus, but most of the Christian community which he knew were Greek, and if not Greek, knew Greek or spoke Gaulish, not Latin.

        For a third thing, Irenaeus's native language is Greek. He's from Asia Minor. He knew the Bible, the LXX and the early Christian writings in Greek. Why, and for that matter how, would a native Greek speaker who already knew these texts in Greek suddenly jettison all his knowledge and his native tongue in favor of a different language and translation of the texts he already knew? That doesn't make a lot of sense.

        And fourth, so far as I know, there isn't any evidence for Vetus Latina translations in Gaul at this period. It might be interesting as an exercise to compare the Latin translation of Irenaeus with VL readings when he cites Scripture, but ultimately that still would not demonstrate that Irenaeus himself knew and used Vetus Latina translations.

        >> Vulgate was after Irenaeus, but it was influenced by many of the same Old Latin readings as those in Lyon would have had access to.<<

        Not at all. By Jerome's day, 2 centuries after Irenaeus, there would have been a lot more Latin translations and they would have been disseminated more widely, particularly in the West since by this time the empire had pretty well split between Latin and Greek speakers. This is what made Jerome so valuable: he knew and could speak and read both languages. That's a rather significant change in the linguistic map of the empire and so reading the situation in Jerome's lifetime back into Irenaeus' is a problematic anachronism.


        >>One should be open to multiple possibilities when consulting how Church 'fathers' quote scripture, including the possibility they are paraphrasing from incomplete memory.<<
        One should also be open to following the evidence, and certainly nothing I've said on this subject should suggest to you that I'm not aware that many writers paraphrase or cite from memory, sometimes an incomplete or imperfect one.

        Larry Swain

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