2427 has been copied from Buttmann 1860
- In February Stephen Carlson informed us that he has found the source of MS 2427. The 1860 edition of the GNT from Philipp Buttmann.
I finally managed to get a copy of this edition and went once through the text.
I do not want to spoil Carlson's work, so I do not give the specifics, but I have found 9 unique features of Buttmann, which are supported by 2427 alone. This, I think, is enough to prove that 2427 has been copied from Buttmann. The probability that these errors happened independently is almost nil. This is further supported by at least 7 other very rare or unusual readings on which 2427 and Buttmann agree. You know me as a skeptical person, but in this case I am convinced.
Other supportive arguments for a late origin:
- word division
- curious abbreviations
- use of Prussian Blue (invented in the 18th CE)
- unknown history before 1917 (or the 1920s)
- unique layout (Mk only, disparate iconographic elements)
- "too good to be true" (closeness to B)
I think we can put this case to rest. Thanks and congratulation again to Stephen Carlson for this important discovery!
Thanks also to M. Mitchell from Chicago for making the codex available online and for providing an excellent collation (NovT 2006).
The question that remains: Is it a forgery? We cannot really know. Perhaps it was originally simply intended as a present to Mr. Askitopoulos? Or created for private entertainment? The MS turned up in the remains of Mr. Askitopoulos in the 1920s. The "who, where, when, how and why" are unknown.
Wieland Willker, Bremen, Germany
- Many Bible critics rely upon digital and or computer or scanned images
for their primary data. At times these images can use some
improvement. With the development of fractal technology and all, it is
possible to improve images, other techniques are also very useful.
Information has been added here,
click on the new link near the top of the page
"Image Enhancements". Which demonstrates various techniques for trying
to improve manuscript images. Some of the softwares are free! A nice
visual journey and read.
Many thanks for the CSNTM for their very very useful recent postings
(codices 032, 02, and all of Von Soden!!). The images look great, and
are nicely cropped! Someone is putting out some professional work, :-)
I have used a number of Bible computer programs, some costing quite a
bit. But the FREE E-Sword is still hard to beat, very useful and fast.
It contains many useful texts! Unicode, with mouse-over context menus!
It is free!! From a gentleman in Tennessee. Only runs on Windows. So
before you send lots of money to Logos, Accordance, or Bibleworks, see
if E-Sword does not have just what you need!
Mr. Gary S. Dykes
- Gary proposed some interesting enhancement technique at:
The separation into the various channels is useful. Here is my take:
Bottom left is the Green channel, bottom right the Magenta channel.
Top right is a contrast enhanced image, which shows clearly the strong jpeg artifacts.
Wieland Willker, Bremen, Germany
- "Wieland Willker" <willker@...> wrote:
> Gary proposed some interesting enhancement technique at:strong jpeg artifacts.
> The separation into the various channels is useful. Here is my take:
> Bottom left is the Green channel, bottom right the Magenta channel.
> Top right is a contrast enhanced image, which shows clearly the
Wieland, you re-used the posted jpg samples, and thus the images you
worked with would contain excessive jpg artifacts. What one needs to
do is begin with an original TIFF or BMP format, then manipulate. You
probably already know this. JPG should be avoided except as a final
save for internet purposes - especailly non-grayscale separations.
Also, the RGB splits are the least useful. HSB and others (especially
YIQ) when actually split into their GRAYSCALE registered components
(used for 4 color printing) offer more data, including impressions
upon the actual parchment - which is why many rulings "magically"
appear in some grayscale splits as these lines are pressed into the
In my opinion, Photozoom Pro at:
for $129.00 is one of the best interpolators, especially its s-spline
Qimage is a powerful product with many features, as well as great
interpolation with its Pyramid-10 interpolator. It is only $50.00:
The free Image Analyzer (with the Fractal plugin) is also good,
especially when post operations (unsharp mask, and anti-aliasing) are
applied. It is found on a link on the page you named above
(zooming_in.html). ---PS the link has been fixed!---
The links are now fixed. Recall that fractal interploation adds an
infinity of pixels (with Genuine Fractals for example...) you can zoom
in forever, and NEVER see pixelations! Via the fractal algorithm more
pixels are created. New DATA is not added, just enchanced parameters.
Genuine Fractals is also a good interploation program, it can be found at:
It costs $159.00 and uses Photoshop CS and only runs on Windows 2000,
and XP. Hard to find earlier versions 2 and 2.5 run on Windows 98 SE.
Photozoom Pro does one of the best jobs, and has numerous tweaks. I
again recommend it. It runs on all 32 bit versions of Windows.
Here is another useful site which shows some tests:
Mr. Gary S. Dykes