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Scribal peculiarities

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  • Tommy Wasserman
    I have come across a large number of scribal peculiarities through the years. Here are two which someone might help me with: 1) in an MS the final AMHN (in
    Message 1 of 26 , Jun 7, 2006
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      I have come across a large number of scribal peculiarities through the
      years. Here are two which someone might help me with:

      1) in an MS the final AMHN (in Jude) is written backwards on three
      lines:

      HN
      M
      A

      Has anyone seen anything similar?

      2) In some minuscule MSS there is a sign in the margin, •/•, plus a
      reading. I interpret the sign as an "obelus periestigmenos." The
      question is whether this sign has the same function over time, i.e. in
      the early uncials and in the minuscules, respectively. In short, I am
      not sure if it unequivocally refers to a correction of the text (or
      might be a reference to an alternative reading).

      Any ideas?

      With regards

      Tommy Wasserman
      Centre for Theology and Religious Studies
      Lund University
      Sweden
    • George F Somsel
      What about the alleged upside down Aramaic text. Is there anything there to which he might refer or is this made up out of whole cloth? _____________ Timothy
      Message 2 of 26 , Jun 7, 2006
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        What about the alleged upside down Aramaic text.  Is there anything there to which he might refer or is this made up out of whole cloth?
         
        _____________

        Timothy Arthur Brown <t.a.brown@...> wrote:
        Hello,

        Bruce Prior and I are in the process of finishing up pre-press work on the Freer Gospels transcription now.  You can expect to see an edition available at this year's SBL annual meeting in Washington, DC.  The new images I alluded to are, as far as I know, still intended for public release this November as well.  The newest images are those taken by the Freer/Sackler photography department and I think it's safe to assume that this image library will be published by the Freer/Sackler Gallery itself.

        And now concerning Woodard's "Kodex W". . . Bruce and I first learned of Woodard's theories a couple of years ago.  The claims are wild, but we agreed that such claims, regardless how unbelievable, ought not be automatically rejected simply because they do not conform to our current understanding of the manuscript.  We had at our disposal the tools and access necessary to examine these claims, so we decided to do so.  We were in contact with Lee Woodard by phone and by e-mail and we each had a copy of his book.  Becoming thus fully informed of his claims, we examined high resolution images of the relevant parts of the codex and were unable to substantiate any of Woodard's theories.  Since this examination, I have had opportunity to access the original at the Freer Gallery and must still conclude that Woodard's ideas are without merit.

        Sincerely,

        T. A. Brown
        Franconia, New Hampshire  USA



        mr.scrivener wrote:
        ------------ --------
        Dear Mr. Brown:

        In this message (last year), you mentioned publishing transcriptions
        of Codex W, as well as a possible new Facsimile edition available on
        disk by the '2006 SBL Meetings..'. Well, its June 2006, and I was
        wondering how your projects are coming along.

        ------------ --------- -
        Also, is anyone aware of the following website, which claims to have
        discovered 'seals' or 'signatures' of the scribes who wrote Codex W
        (the Gospel mss)?

        http://www.washingt on-codex. org/woodard_ kodex_article_ 1.htm

        Although the site makes many wild claims, and dates the Gospel Codex
        W too early, surely just the existance of these 'seals' at the
        beginning and end of each gospel in the codex require a thorough
        investigation and proper explanation.

        Any ideas?

        Curiosity is killing me here...
        Eeyore

        ------------ --------- ---------
        --- In textualcriticism@ yahoogroups. com, Timothy Arthur Brown
        <t.a.brown@. ..> wrote:
        >
        >
        > Hi Michael,
        >
        > After responding to your question about published photographs, I
        reread
        > your message and noticed that you also asked about transcriptions.
        >
        > Bruce Prior and I are working on full transcriptions and collations
        of
        > two of the Washington MSS at this moment -- The Gospels MS, about
        which
        > you've inquired, and the Deuteronomy/ Joshua MS. Both
        transcriptions are
        > scheduled for publication by the 2006 SBL meetings in Washington,
        DC.
        >
        > These transcriptions follow the layout of the original manuscripts
        > closely. We have even taken pains to measure and represent the
        spaces
        > which the scribe has often used to separate phrases. Word spacing
        has
        > been added for clarity, however, and whenever it has been necessary
        to
        > use editorial judgments, an explanation appears in the footnotes.
        >
        > T. A. Brown
        > Franconia, New Hampshire USA
        >
        >





        george
        gfsomsel
        _________

        __________________________________________________
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      • Kent Clarke
        I saw that one coming Peter...hahaha Kent Kent D. Clarke (Ph.D. Bristol) Associate Professor of Religious Studies Department of Religious Studies Seal-Kap
        Message 3 of 26 , Jun 7, 2006
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          Re: [textualcriticism] Re: Freer Gospels (W 032) I saw that one coming Peter...hahaha

          Kent


          Kent D. Clarke (Ph.D. Bristol)
          Associate Professor of Religious Studies
          Department of Religious Studies
          Seal-Kap House
          Trinity Western University
          7600 Glover Road
          Langley, BC
          V2Y 1Y1
          Canada




          On 6/7/06 2:45 AM, "Peter M. Head" <pmh15@...> wrote:


           
           

          OED: Fantastic:

          Existing only in imagination; proceeding merely from imagination;
          fabulous, imaginary, unreal (obs.).    b. In mod. use, of alleged
          reasons, fears, etc.: Perversely or irrationally imagined.

          Peter M. Head, PhD
          Sir Kirby Laing Senior Lecturer in New Testament
          Tyndale House
          36 Selwyn Gardens
          Cambridge CB3 9BA
          01223 566601

           
              

        • Timothy Arthur Brown
          Dear George, Bruce and I were unable to substantiate even a single one of Woodard s claims. T. A. Brown Franconia, New Hampshire USA
          Message 4 of 26 , Jun 7, 2006
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            Dear George,

            Bruce and I were unable to substantiate even a single one of Woodard's claims.

            T. A. Brown
            Franconia, New Hampshire  USA



            George F Somsel wrote:
            What about the alleged upside down Aramaic text.  Is there anything there to which he might refer or is this made up out of whole cloth?
             
            _____________

            Timothy Arthur Brown <t.a.brown@...> wrote:
            Hello,

            Bruce Prior and I are in the process of finishing up pre-press work on the Freer Gospels transcription now.  You can expect to see an edition available at this year's SBL annual meeting in Washington, DC.  The new images I alluded to are, as far as I know, still intended for public release this November as well.  The newest images are those taken by the Freer/Sackler photography department and I think it's safe to assume that this image library will be published by the Freer/Sackler Gallery itself.

            And now concerning Woodard's "Kodex W". . . Bruce and I first learned of Woodard's theories a couple of years ago.  The claims are wild, but we agreed that such claims, regardless how unbelievable, ought not be automatically rejected simply because they do not conform to our current understanding of the manuscript.  We had at our disposal the tools and access necessary to examine these claims, so we decided to do so.  We were in contact with Lee Woodard by phone and by e-mail and we each had a copy of his book.  Becoming thus fully informed of his claims, we examined high resolution images of the relevant parts of the codex and were unable to substantiate any of Woodard's theories.  Since this examination, I have had opportunity to access the original at the Freer Gallery and must still conclude that Woodard's ideas are without merit.

            Sincerely,

            T. A. Brown
            Franconia, New Hampshire  USA



            mr.scrivener wrote:
            ------------ --------
            Dear Mr. Brown:

            In this message (last year), you mentioned publishing transcriptions
            of Codex W, as well as a possible new Facsimile edition available on
            disk by the '2006 SBL Meetings..'. Well, its June 2006, and I was
            wondering how your projects are coming along.

            ------------ --------- -
            Also, is anyone aware of the following website, which claims to have
            discovered 'seals' or 'signatures' of the scribes who wrote Codex W
            (the Gospel mss)?

            http://www.washingt on-codex. org/woodard_ kodex_article_ 1.htm

            Althoug h the site makes many wild claims, and dates the Gospel Codex
            W too early, surely just the existance of these 'seals' at the
            beginning and end of each gospel in the codex require a thorough
            investigation and proper explanation.

            Any ideas?

            Curiosity is killing me here...
            Eeyore

            ------------ --------- ---------
            --- In textualcriticism@ yahoogroups. com, Timothy Arthur Brown
            <t.a.brown@. ..> wrote:
            >
            >
            > Hi Michael,
            >
            > After responding to your question about published photographs, I
            reread
            > your message and noticed that you also asked about transcriptions.
            >
            > Bruce Prior and I are working on full transcriptions and collations
            of
            > two of the Washington MSS at this moment -- The Gospels MS, about
            which
            > you've inquired, and the Deuteronomy/ Joshua MS. Both
            transcriptions are
            > scheduled for publication by the 2006 SBL meetings in Washington,
            DC.
            >
            > These transcriptions follow the layout of the original manuscripts
            > closely. We have even taken pains to measure and represent the
            spaces
            > which the scribe has often used to separate phrases. Word spacing
            has
            > been added for clarity, however, and whenever it has been necessary
            to
            > use editorial judgments, an explanation appears in the footnotes.
            >
            > T. A. Brown
            > Franconia, New Hampshire USA
            >
            >





            george
            gfsomsel
            _________

            __________________________________________________
            Do You Yahoo!?
            Tired of spam? Yahoo! Mail has the best spam protection around
            http://mail.yahoo.com


          • mr.scrivener
            Greetings Mr Wasserman: I have two leads for you: (1) the Jude inscription looks painfully like the Egyptian practice found in Christian Magic amulets and
            Message 5 of 26 , Jun 7, 2006
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              Greetings Mr Wasserman:

              I have two leads for you:

              (1) the Jude inscription looks painfully like the Egyptian practice
              found in 'Christian Magic' amulets and small scrolls. I suggest you
              start with the two following books as an introduction to the subject:

              Ancient Christian Magic (Coptic texts of ritual power) Edited by
              Meyer & Smith (Harper Collins 1994), and

              Medicine, Miracle & Magic in NT Times by H.C. Kee.(Cambridge UP 1986-
              1990)

              Also useful might be:
              Paganism & Christianity 100-425 C.E. A Sourcebook Macmullen & Lane

              The writing of religious texts backwards or in patterns was very
              common throughout Egypt and the Aegean in the period.

              (2) Studying Vaticanus I have come to the conclusion that the 'NT'
              Obelisk (the one you describe is a lemniscus =dot/dot)has a variety
              of uses but mostly as a generic indicator of an accidental omission
              corrected in the margin. there is a good introduction to the changes
              in meaning over periods and places here:

              http://www.christianforums.com/t2994963-asterisk-and-obelus-three-
              different-usages.html





              --- In textualcriticism@yahoogroups.com, Tommy Wasserman <tomwas@...>
              wrote:
              >
              > I have come across a large number of scribal peculiarities through
              the
              > years. Here are two which someone might help me with:
              >
              > 1) in an MS the final AMHN (in Jude) is written backwards on three
              > lines:
              >
              > HN
              > M
              > A
              >
              > Has anyone seen anything similar?
              >
              > 2) In some minuscule MSS there is a sign in the margin, •/•, plus a
              > reading. I interpret the sign as an "obelus periestigmenos." The
              > question is whether this sign has the same function over time, i.e.
              in
              > the early uncials and in the minuscules, respectively. In short, I
              am
              > not sure if it unequivocally refers to a correction of the text (or
              > might be a reference to an alternative reading).
              >
              > Any ideas?
              >
              > With regards
              >
              > Tommy Wasserman
              > Centre for Theology and Religious Studies
              > Lund University
              > Sweden
              >
            • mr.scrivener
              Dear Mr. Brown: Thank you for your prompt reply: However, you seem to have left an ambiguity - Mr Woodward s ideas may be without merit, but are the marks just
              Message 6 of 26 , Jun 7, 2006
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                Dear Mr. Brown:

                Thank you for your prompt reply:
                However, you seem to have left an ambiguity -
                Mr Woodward's ideas may be without merit,
                but are the marks just dust specks, imperfections in the photos,
                or actual scribal scribbles, whatever their meaning?
                Could you clarify?

                Still perplexed,
                Eeyore.

                --- In textualcriticism@yahoogroups.com, Timothy Arthur Brown
                <t.a.brown@...> wrote:
                >
                > Hello,
                >
                > Bruce Prior and I are in the process of finishing up pre-press work
                on
                > the Freer Gospels transcription now. You can expect to see an
                edition
                > available at this year's SBL annual meeting in Washington, DC. The
                new
                > images I alluded to are, as far as I know, still intended for
                public
                > release this November as well. The newest images are those taken
                by the
                > Freer/Sackler photography department and I think it's safe to
                assume
                > that this image library will be published by the Freer/Sackler
                Gallery
                > itself.
                >
                > And now concerning Woodard's "Kodex W". . . Bruce and I first
                learned of
                > Woodard's theories a couple of years ago. The claims are wild, but
                we
                > agreed that such claims, regardless how unbelievable, ought not be
                > automatically rejected simply because they do not conform to our
                current
                > understanding of the manuscript. We had at our disposal the tools
                and
                > access necessary to examine these claims, so we decided to do so.
                We
                > were in contact with Lee Woodard by phone and by e-mail and we each
                had
                > a copy of his book. Becoming thus fully informed of his claims, we
                > examined high resolution images of the relevant parts of the codex
                and
                > were unable to substantiate any of Woodard's theories. Since this
                > examination, I have had opportunity to access the original at the
                Freer
                > Gallery and must still conclude that Woodard's ideas are without
                merit.
                >
                > Sincerely,
                >
                > T. A. Brown
                > Franconia, New Hampshire USA
                >
                >
                >
                > mr.scrivener wrote:
                >
                > > --------------------
                > > Dear Mr. Brown:
                > >
                > > In this message (last year), you mentioned publishing
                transcriptions
                > > of Codex W, as well as a possible new Facsimile edition available
                on
                > > disk by the '2006 SBL Meetings..'. Well, its June 2006, and I was
                > > wondering how your projects are coming along.
                > >
                > > ----------------------
                > > Also, is anyone aware of the following website, which claims to
                have
                > > discovered 'seals' or 'signatures' of the scribes who wrote Codex
                W
                > > (the Gospel mss)?
                > >
                > > http://www.washington-codex.org/woodard_kodex_article_1.htm
                > > <http://www.washington-codex.org/woodard_kodex_article_1.htm>
                > >
                > > Although the site makes many wild claims, and dates the Gospel
                Codex
                > > W too early, surely just the existance of these 'seals' at the
                > > beginning and end of each gospel in the codex require a thorough
                > > investigation and proper explanation.
                > >
                > > Any ideas?
                > >
                > > Curiosity is killing me here...
                > > Eeyore
                > >
                > > ------------------------------
                >
              • Jack Kilmon
                ... From: Peter M. Head To: Sent: Wednesday, June 07, 2006 4:45 AM Subject: Re: [textualcriticism] Re:
                Message 7 of 26 , Jun 7, 2006
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                  ----- Original Message -----
                  From: "Peter M. Head" <pmh15@...>
                  To: <textualcriticism@yahoogroups.com>
                  Sent: Wednesday, June 07, 2006 4:45 AM
                  Subject: Re: [textualcriticism] Re: Freer Gospels (W 032)


                  > OED: Fantastic:
                  >
                  >
                  > Existing only in imagination; proceeding merely from imagination;
                  > fabulous, imaginary, unreal (obs.). b. In mod. use, of alleged
                  > reasons, fears, etc.: Perversely or irrationally imagined.


                  I think the word is used more often now in its colloquial shift meaning
                  "excellent" or good beyond expectation.

                  Jack Kilmon
                • Wieland Willker
                  ... I think in Vaticanus it represents a correction. In Vaticanus also exists a wavy sign (vertical ~) which might indicate an explanation of some kind:
                  Message 8 of 26 , Jun 8, 2006
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                    Tommy Wasserman wrote:
                    > 2) In some minuscule MSS there is a sign in the margin, •/•,
                    > plus a reading.

                    I think in Vaticanus it represents a correction.

                    In Vaticanus also exists a wavy sign (vertical ~) which might indicate an explanation of some kind:
                    http://www-user.uni-bremen.de/~wie/Vaticanus/dittographies.html
                    (image on the right)

                    Just for completeness sake, in Vaticanus also another sign appears once:
                    http://www-user.uni-bremen.de/~wie/Vaticanus/wordorder.html


                    Best wishes
                    Wieland
                    <><
                    ------------------------------------------------
                    Wieland Willker, Bremen, Germany
                    mailto:willker@...-bremen.de
                    http://www.uni-bremen.de/~wie
                    Textcritical commentary:
                    http://www.uni-bremen.de/~wie/TCG/index.html
                  • Tommy Wasserman
                    ... Thank you mr. scrivener (is that your real name?). Sorry I was not clear - the MS in question is a medieval Greek continuous-text minuscule with no other
                    Message 9 of 26 , Jun 8, 2006
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                      mr.scrivener wrote:

                      >
                      > Greetings Mr Wasserman:
                      >
                      > I have two leads for you:
                      >
                      > (1) the Jude inscription looks painfully like the Egyptian practice
                      > found in 'Christian Magic' amulets and small scrolls.

                      Thank you mr. scrivener (is that your real name?). Sorry I was not
                      clear - the MS in question is a medieval Greek continuous-text
                      minuscule with no other signs of "magic" use whatsoever, a subject of
                      which I am otherwise quite familiar with.

                      > I suggest you
                      >
                      > (2) Studying Vaticanus I have come to the conclusion that the 'NT'
                      > Obelisk (the one you describe is a lemniscus =dot/dot)has a variety
                      > of uses but mostly as a generic indicator of an accidental omission
                      > corrected in the margin. there is a good introduction to the changes
                      > in meaning over periods and places here:

                      I found the following information about the symbol in "Transformed Into
                      His Image" in Grace Theological Journal 2.2 (Fall 1981) 230-31 which
                      made me hesitat to equal the function to that in the early uncials:

                      A partial explanation of the symbol is given by Diogenes
                      Laertius (iii, 66). He names and describes the use of various signs in a
                      text of Plato; in regard to this sign he says: "the obelos
                      periestigmenos is for random
                      rejections (of passages)." Nowhere has ↓ been found among literary
                      papyri of Classical
                      authors.

                      The use of both signs, however, is frequent in Biblical and
                      Christian papyri. Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus demonstrate
                      the frequent use of both signs, sometimes together and sometimes
                      separately, but always where a correction has been made. When
                      used together, ↓ stands in the margin and •/•. marks the precise place
                      in
                      the line for the correction.

                      Henry A. Sanders notes the use of •/•. in some biblical manuscripts
                      dated to the fourth or early fifth century, marking the location
                      of the omission and then repeated in the margin giving the words to
                      be supplied.

                      An exact parallel to P.Rob. inv. 28 is described in P. Tura, where ↓
                      and •/•. stand together in the margin at the beginning of the part to be
                      supplied.

                      A somewhat later function of •/• is described by Isidore (A.D. 602-
                      36), bishop of Seville (1.21): Lemniscus, id est, virgula inter geminos
                      punctos jacens, opponitur in his locis, quae sacrae Scripturae
                      interpretes
                      eadem sensu, sed diversis sermonibus transtulerent, "The
                      lemniscus, that is a stick lying between two points, is placed in those
                      places which the interpreters of Holy Scriptures transcribe in the
                      same sense, but with different expressions."

                      end of citation

                      With regards

                      Tommy Wasserman
                      Centre for Theology and Religious Studies
                      Lund University
                      Sweden
                    • Timothy Arthur Brown
                      Hello, The claims that Woodard makes are so numerous that a full response would require more attention than his ideas deserve. To answer you generally, some
                      Message 10 of 26 , Jun 8, 2006
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                        Hello,

                        The claims that Woodard makes are so numerous that a full response would require more attention than his ideas deserve.  To answer you generally, some of what Woodard is seeing is offset, that is, ink which has cross-printed from the facing page; in other instances he is reading things into mere stains in the parchment; sometimes he's attributing special significance to the quite typical scribal decorations of a colophon; and he even finds minute hidden messages in the ragged shapes of letters that have suffered the effects of time and use.

                        I hope it is clear that Bruce Prior and I investigated Woodard's claims because we feel responsible to consult secondary sources in our work and, for the sake of thoroughness, needed to make a careful, open-minded examination of Woodard's work as well.  As it turns out, Woodard's work proved unworthy of the time we invested in it.

                        If you would like more detail, you could purchase Woodard's book (though I dislike the idea of giving him undue encouragement) and then purchase the new set of images which will hopefully be made available before the end of the year.  This will enable you to examine his claims yourself.

                        Yours sincerely,

                        T. A. Brown
                        Franconia, New Hampshire  USA



                        mr.scrivener wrote:

                        Dear Mr. Brown:

                        Thank you for your prompt reply:
                        However, you seem to have left an ambiguity -
                        Mr Woodward's ideas may be without merit,
                        but are the marks just dust specks, imperfections in the photos,
                        or actual scribal scribbles, whatever their meaning?
                        Could you clarify?

                        Still perplexed,
                        Eeyore.

                        --- In textualcriticism@ yahoogroups. com, Timothy Arthur Brown
                        <t.a.brown@. ..> wrote:
                        >
                        > Hello,
                        >
                        > Bruce Prior and I are in the process of finishing up pre-press work
                        on
                        > the Freer Gospels transcription now. You can expect to see an
                        edition
                        > available at this year's SBL annual meeting in Washington, DC. The
                        new
                        > images I alluded to are, as far as I know, still intended for
                        public
                        > release this November as well. The newest images are those taken
                        by the
                        > Freer/Sackler photography department and I think it's safe to
                        assume
                        > that this image library will be published by the Freer/Sackler
                        Gallery
                        > itself.
                        >
                        > And now concerning Woodard's "Kodex W". . . Bruce and I first
                        learned of
                        > Woodard's theories a couple of years ago. The claims are wild, but
                        we
                        > agreed that such claims, regardless how unbelievable, ought not be
                        > automatically rejected simply because they do not conform to our
                        current
                        > understanding of the manuscript. We had at our disposal the tools
                        and
                        > access necessary to examine these claims, so we decided to do so.
                        We
                        > were in contact with Lee Woodard by phone and by e-mail and we each
                        had
                        > a copy of his book. Becoming thus fully informed of his claims, we
                        > examined high resolution images of the relevant parts of the codex
                        and
                        > were unable to substantiate any of Woodard's theories. Since this
                        > examination, I have had opportunity to access the original at the
                        Freer
                        > Gallery and must still conclude that Woodard's ideas are without
                        merit.
                        >
                        > Sincerely,
                        >
                        > T. A. Brown
                        > Franconia, New Hampshire USA
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > mr.scrivener wrote:
                        >
                        > > ------------ --------
                        > > Dear Mr. Brown:
                        > >
                        > > In this message (last year), you mentioned publishing
                        transcriptions
                        > > of Codex W, as well as a possible new Facsimile edition available
                        on
                        > > disk by the '2006 SBL Meetings..'. Well, its June 2006, and I was
                        > > wondering how your projects are coming along.
                        > >
                        > > ------------ --------- -
                        > > Also, is anyone aware of the following website, which claims to
                        have
                        > > discovered 'seals' or 'signatures' of the scribes who wrote Codex
                        W
                        > > (the Gospel mss)?
                        > >
                        > > http://www.washingt on-codex. org/woodard_ kodex_article_ 1.htm
                        > > <http://www.washingt on-codex. org/woodard_ kodex_article_ 1.htm>
                        > >
                        > > Although the site makes many wild claims, and dates the Gospel
                        Codex
                        > > W too early, surely just the existance of these 'seals' at the
                        > > beginning and end of each gospel in the codex require a thorough
                        > > investigation and proper explanation.
                        > >
                        > > Any ideas?
                        > >
                        > > Curiosity is killing me here...
                        > > Eeyore
                        > >
                        > > ------------ --------- ---------
                        >


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