will be the first of a series in this investigation. The second

article will be entitled the "The Theory of Motionally Induced EMF

Resonance". Here in this first article the use of the scope as the

research tool is examplified. Further complications can later be

shown when measuring the phase angle between air core primary and

secondaries, but for now the ferro-resonant effect is shown. Without

further adieu here is the prepared article;

The Development of the Alternator Powered Tesla Coil

An ordinary Delco Remy car alternator with diodes removed to

output 3 phases of 456 hz to power a tesla coil via pole pig

transformer is shown. It can be shown and argued by voltage and

amperage measurements that the alternator can input more energy to the

TC then the 60hz 15,000 volt/ 30 ma NST, and this is quite unexpected

to say the least since only one of three phases of the AC alternator

are utilized. The 456 hz TC utilizes a smaller primary and 2.5 times

the capacity the the NST design utilizes.

In the alternator/pole pig connection I have procured a

special situation whereby the capacitance employed in the TC primary

is reflected through the pole pig primary connection to the alternator

stator windings so as to resonate producing two useful effects, but

first the understanding of the principle of maximum energy transfer is

noted, so that the comparison of actual currents and voltages can be

compared to this theory of maximum energy transfer. Generally

speaking the two specifications noting the ability of the source of

emf to produce power are given; these are the open circuit voltage

without a load attached, and the current that source can deliver when

a short is applied. What the maximum energy transfer theorem implies

is that when the open circuit voltage is cut in half by the amount of

load attached, this is the point of maximum energy transfer, but in

this situation only half of the short rating of available amperage

conduction is available. Thus the maximum power or voltage times

amperage from the source is actually each of these ratings cut in half

and then multiplied together, yielding one quarter of what would be

available if the power ratings of open circuit voltage and short

measurement of amperage were simply multiplied together. Thus this

maximum power output of the NST should be [15,000 V* .03A]/4 = 112.5

watts. Now the same procedure is applied to the alternator phase as a

source of power. Because of the fact that the pole face field rotor

becomes remanently magnetized,(in the correct polarity determined by

its spin), the moment the alternator is turned on these voltage and

amperage ratings become apparent. All three phases then read 1.6 -1.7

volts and a short of one of the phases shows a delivery of 1.35 A. Now

the pole pig is attached to one of the phases with the addition of an

amperage meter set on its highest scale without the secondary load of

the TC primary attached. This one threw me a loop because on the

testing of two different higher voltage transformers, both amperage

readings of the non loaded primary read 0 Amps. Apparently the open

secondary condition of the pole pig transformer that determines the

highest impedance of the primary has a non-linear response to the

increase of frequency, where here the increase in frequency being 7.6

fold would mean 7.6 times less primary amperage conduction to the

unloaded pole pig primary, but that may not be happening and later the

actual ratio of expected currents vs derived currents can be

calculated to show the non-linear increase of impedance with increased

frequency. This has been noted before with the stolen high induction

air core coils that exhibited 60 henry at 60 hz, but exhibited values

near 200 henry at these frequencies.

Now the first attempt of showing an alternator powered TC

involved first making one at 60 hz powered by the NST, and that also

was problematic but we arrived at a hit/miss solution with a 2 ft

secondary with a larger top capacity that improved performance so as

to exhibit 4 inch arcing. This model uses 20 nf capacity. When the

alternator/pole pig combination was substituted as the power source

the same coil only delivered 1 inch arcing, but even this was a first.

Jumping the gun a bit, the alternator/ pole pig power source was

reexamined to see if the capacity in the TC primary was near the

maximum energy transfer point. A turn on of the alternator yielded 3

phases of 1.6 volts before the field is energized, where the middle

phase 2 is selected for the pole pig. As mentioned no amperage is

recorded into the pole pig primary until the secondary capacitive load

of the TC primary is added. With the arc gap separated and the field

non- energized a series of amperage conduction and voltage output

tests are made. The short as mentioned yields 1.35 A of a single

phase, and an open circuit value of 1.6 volts. When the TC primary

value of 20 nf was added to the pole pig secondary its primary

amperage went from 0 to .66 A, but the source voltage of 1.6 Volts did

not decrease its value to half, which is what a purely resistive load

should do by the premises of the maximum energy transfer theorem,

where it is assumed that having reached half of the short value of

conduction will also reduce the source voltage by half. Instead what

happens is that the stator voltage is increased by one third to 2.2

volts. So initially measuring things on the high voltage end for these

circumstances, and also considering that since such low voltages are

being employed non-linearities of voltage transformation may exist

since this is the very low end of the saturation curve of the

transformer, but nevertheless the first recording of output voltages

showed 123.5 volts without the capacity attached and 184 volts when it

is attached. Now all these measurements and comparisons of ratios seem

to become distorted from their initially measured values at this

lowest possible level of measurement conducted with an un-energized

field, and these differences can be shown in comparison at real

operation with an energized field with a 10 Amp pole pig primary

consumption, and after the TC had been redesigned to employ the

nearest correct resonant secondary capacity to be determined by these

unenergized field tests to be noted next. In that case after the TC

primary was redesigned and the correct C value used, it was noted that

by sending a third of an amp through the field, this created three

phases of 7.1 volts with no load attached, but then attaching the TC

primary to the pole pig secondary resulted in the primary stator

voltage now going up 60 % to 11.5 volts. Thus at only a 7 volt

unloaded stator it becomes 11.5 volts conducting 10 amps into the pole

pig primary, and the alternator can be pressed to do triple this duty

for short periods of time, sending near 30 amps into the pole pig primary.

Now getting back to the un-energized field tests, the next thing

to be explored was the value of primary amperage consumption once the

registered level of 184 volts at the pole pig secondary was shorted,

and this yielded only a 1 amp primary consumption, when in fact a

direct short of the stator lines connected to the current limited

supply of the alternator yielded 1.35 A. This at first puzzled me so

then obviously the next thing to do was to try various values of

capacity for a pole pig secondary load. The capacities being used are

a series string of five .1 uf values yeilding 20 nf. Taking one out of

the string yields 25 nf, two taken out yeilds 33nf, and next a value

of 50 nf. Note how the adjacent stator phase voltages having no load

are influenced by phase 2's pole pig primary load.

Un-energized field tests initially yield three phases of 1.6 volts.

With 20 nf pole pig secondary load the stator voltages and amperages

become;

Stator phase 1; 1.6 volts

Stator phase 2; 2.2 volts yielding .66 A to pole pig primary

Stator phase 3; 2.0 volts

Using 25 nf phase 2 then outputs .9 A

with its stator voltage rising to 2.3 volts, showing 204 volts at the

arc bars. Using 33 nf;

Stator phase 1) 1.5 volts

Stator phase 2) 2.8

volts yields 1.55 A primary draw, it has exceeded its short value of

1.35A and also yielding 253 volts at arc bars

Stator phase 3) 2.5 volts

Using 50 nf;

This begins to load down stator phase

1, which along with phase 3 is unloaded, so we wonder why the

dramatic loss here on phase 1 which gets now get reduced to what the

rms voltage meter interprets as 0.7 volts and now some scopings are

made of the phase angle differences between the affected phases.

Initially it is assumed that the 3 phase alternator distributes three

maximum voltages 120 degrees out of phase and an unloaded scoping of

phases 2 and 3 as a dual channel scoping shows this fact, but first

the proper procedure for making these scope observations is noted.

First an isolated ground for the scope itself is desired which is

enabled by using a 2 prong plug into the wall voltage instead of three

prong plug for the oscilloscope which is simply achieved by use of a

two prong adapter. Now it is also observed that the common ground

connection between the scope leads themselves is in fact a common

ground point, except for perhaps very expensive scopes having dual

isolated grounds on each channel. What this means is that the first

channel to be scoped uses both the probe ending and the smaller clip

as the ground. But the second channel when added only uses the probe

lead, and its ground connection is left open. The attachments for

the measurement of the adjacent phase once the first two connections

are made must be referenced to the placement of the ground clip on the

initial connection, which becomes channel 1 making a voltage

measurement of phase 2. The alternator delta output has three points

of voltage delivery, and to reference the phase 2's primary connection

to be loaded by the pole pig secondary load of 50 nf, to the phase 3

which also sees a voltage rise from phase 2's reactive loading, the

common ground clip of the first channel is made to be the point of

delivery on the delta stator where both phase 2 and 3 have in common,

and channel 2's probe lead is given the remaining delta point not yet

attached with its common ground lead unattached. In other words the

common ground leads must not be shorted in making the dual channel

scoping observations, and since there are three points of voltage

reference and four points available to make these voltage reference

observations, one of the common leads must be omitted. To reference

phase 2 and 3 the common ground of only one channel is placed on the

delta triangle on the point where the phases themselves are in common,

and thus to measure the referenced voltage between the other

combination of phases 1 and 2 the common lead is changed to the point

in common on the delta triangle that the measured phases themselves

have in common. The first two dual channel scopings are referenced

between phases 2 and 3, both of which receive a voltage rise after

phase 2's addition of the pole pig primary load.

Three Wire/ Dual Channel Scoping of 3 phase Alternator between phases

2 and 3.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/teslafy/files/TD/Picture%20143.jpg

After addition of the pole pig to phase two the following changes in

actual phase angle shown by scoping between the phases are noted;

Stator phase 2 shows

2.6 volts yielding 2.4 A primary draw, a 80 % increase in the

alternator established current limitation and 262 volts at the arc

bars! Note here another discrepancy in that the pole pig normally

gives a 64/1 voltage rise ratio but here it has become 100 fold. A

measurement of the actual current that should ensue for a 50 nf

capacitive reactance at 456 hz having an ohmic resistance of 6984

ohms @ 262 volts however shows that these values are in agreement with

current meter readingsof 37.5 ma on the secondary end, and it is seen

that although the voltage rise ratio has been expanded, the current

ratio of primary amperage consumption and secondary amperage output

has been preserved at 64/1. Note here also that the open circuit

voltage vs capacitively loaded operating voltage has been increased

some 60 %/ in reference to the previous dual channel scoping

Stator phase 3) 2.6 volts

Phase Angle Change between phases 2 & 3 with Pole Pig Ferromagnetic

Resonance

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/teslafy/files/TD/Picture%20146.jpg

Note the pulsed nature on phase 2, and the stretching of the former

120 phase angle towards that of a 180 one. This scoping shows

something initially incomprehensible. EVIDENTLY THE THREE FOLD

DIVISION OF VOLTAGE REFERENCE POINTS IN TIME DELIVERED BY THE THREE

PHASE WYE CONNECTED STATOR WINDINGS PRODUCING A DELTA OUTPUT CAN BE

ALTERED IN TIME THEMSELVES! As an apparent result of this the

voltage normally available on phase 1 has been robbed from to provide

an excess of voltage on its adjacent phases, where its rms voltage

reading shows only .7 volts. We might expect that since the timings

of voltage delivery have been brought near 180 degrees between phases

2 and 3, this leaves very little phase angle difference left in 360

degrees of total time available between cycles on phase 1 which we

then term a âneutrallyâ timed phase because of its loss of voltage;

however we still wish to investigate this timing issue by making a

scoping to be made referencing phase 1 to the other phases where here

phase 1 is referenced to the pig draw of phase 2:

Near 180 phase shift referenced to neutral angle in time

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/teslafy/files/HDN/Picture%20148.jpg

What becomes odd here is the non sinusoidal shape of the neutral

phase which the rms voltage meter interprets as .7 volts,and all the

scopings are made at 2/volts/div. Because of this waveform shape the

phasing angle difference of the adjacent phase is hard to determine,

but we would certainly expect that the peaks of each waveform should

co-incide better. In fact the smaller dual peaked portion of phase 1's

waveform does this, but its larger one peaking at some 1.8 volts

appears in the timing reference point when the adjacent phase is

producing 2 volts in opposite polarity!??... Thus here the

presentation of an incredible premise can be made;

THE CREATION OF THREE OPPOSITES IN TIME.

What I have just shown is two oppositely phased voltages whose highest

peaks deliver almost opposite polarities in time, thus the net

difference between the voltages is almost the sum of their individual

voltages. Next I showed the voltage reference points to the neutral

phasing showing that the adjacent phase voltage can still have better

then an equal and opposite simultaneously created voltage in time. I

have also been able use pancake coils positioned in space at certain

angles to each other to interact to show an impossible phase angle

greater then 180 degrees as we define it, in that the net difference

between the individual voltages in time is greater then the sum of

these quantities, but this issue has not been scoped out yet to see

what nuances of waveforms may exist there. Again the analogy of

dimensional progression is applied here. A two dimensional flat

equilateral triangle has three internal 60 degree angles, adding to

180. If we instead expand the internal area of this triangle by

superimposing it on the 3-D curvature of a sphere, we find that now

the individual angles become greater then the sum adding to 180,

according to the ratio of the triangles internal area vs the total

surface area of the sphere. If we just use a small portion of the

sphere's surface area for the triangle the internal angle change is

negligible, but if the triangle is expanded to encompass 1/8th of the

total surface area of the sphere, its internal 60 degree angle will

have increased 50% to 90 degrees. Now the analogy becomes expanding

the three 120 degree phase angles in time 50 % greater to that of

three 180 phase angles in time. Somehow we presume that now a 4th

dimensional coordinate has been added, with the result that time has

been expanded, and a circle in time of phase angle differences no

longer adds to 360 degrees, but in excess to that. A 440 degree

phasing measurement is shown at

13 meter reading of 3 DSR's(Delta Series Resonances of .15 Henry)/

showing interphasal voltage differences between phasings.

http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/teslafy/files/IRC/Dsc00509.jpg

Using 100nf now the demand begins to exceed the supply and the stator

phases are all reduced to

1) 0.7 volts

2) 0.5 volts yielding .68 A primary draw producing 91 volts at

secondary, showing perhaps another unusual thing where we cannot

predict the secondary voltage output merely by the primary amperage

draw but must also consider the input primary voltage.

3) 1.4 volts.

So obviously 50 nf becomes the first convenient value to select and by

downsizing the primary from the previous NST design, superior arcing

and power input seems available from the alternator 456 hz pole pig

combination vs a single 60 hz NST. A higher power stator voltage

reading shows that sending .8 A through field yields

1) 8.8 volts

2) 32.6 volts to pole pig primary where if we assume linearity of the

10 amp measurement @ 11.5 volts, this becomes a 28 amp draw at 32

volts input yeilding 924 watts possible input power vs the noted 112

watts for the NST example.

3) 29 volts

Note that phase 3's voltage has not yet been severely loaded down, so

our next piece of work will be to add a TC system to that phase, so

that two somewhat oppositely phased TC's can be interacted together at

their top terminals. It now does not seem far off in speculation for a

three phase TC application with three identical TC's powered by a

three phase high voltage transformer, which is also at my disposal for

these experiments.

To close here let us consider the voltage differences available

from the NST vs pole pig/alternator combo. We might assume that 32

volts input becomes 62 fold through the pole pig transformer becomes

near 2000 volts so the ratio to 15,000 volts would be 13 %. But then

again this amount of energy transfers 7.6 times faster at 456 hz and

multiplying .13 by 7.6 yields the original amount. But since the V

term is exponential it would seem that 60 hz @ 15,000 volts should

have more energy transfer, however it may be true that since the 20 nf

value being used is over four times the rated current limitation of

the NST secondary, that it may only charge those caps to 1/4 of its

15,000 voltage rating? And additionally the value of capacity used for

the alternator pole pig combination is 2.5 times higher at 50 nf,

which the NST may not even be able to fire. In any case I have made

my argument that that alternator can out-power the NST with the 456 hz

driven TC here shown at

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/teslafy/files/ATC/DSCN3889.JPG

Sincerely

Harvey D Norris