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The Development of the Alternator Powered Tesla Coil

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  • Harvey D Norris
    Here is the landmark article I have prepared for some time now, which will be the first of a series in this investigation. The second article will be entitled
    Message 1 of 1 , Oct 28, 2008
      Here is the landmark article I have prepared for some time now, which
      will be the first of a series in this investigation. The second
      article will be entitled the "The Theory of Motionally Induced EMF
      Resonance". Here in this first article the use of the scope as the
      research tool is examplified. Further complications can later be
      shown when measuring the phase angle between air core primary and
      secondaries, but for now the ferro-resonant effect is shown. Without
      further adieu here is the prepared article;

      The Development of the Alternator Powered Tesla Coil

      An ordinary Delco Remy car alternator with diodes removed to
      output 3 phases of 456 hz to power a tesla coil via pole pig
      transformer is shown. It can be shown and argued by voltage and
      amperage measurements that the alternator can input more energy to the
      TC then the 60hz 15,000 volt/ 30 ma NST, and this is quite unexpected
      to say the least since only one of three phases of the AC alternator
      are utilized. The 456 hz TC utilizes a smaller primary and 2.5 times
      the capacity the the NST design utilizes.
      In the alternator/pole pig connection I have procured a
      special situation whereby the capacitance employed in the TC primary
      is reflected through the pole pig primary connection to the alternator
      stator windings so as to resonate producing two useful effects, but
      first the understanding of the principle of maximum energy transfer is
      noted, so that the comparison of actual currents and voltages can be
      compared to this theory of maximum energy transfer. Generally
      speaking the two specifications noting the ability of the source of
      emf to produce power are given; these are the open circuit voltage
      without a load attached, and the current that source can deliver when
      a short is applied. What the maximum energy transfer theorem implies
      is that when the open circuit voltage is cut in half by the amount of
      load attached, this is the point of maximum energy transfer, but in
      this situation only half of the short rating of available amperage
      conduction is available. Thus the maximum power or voltage times
      amperage from the source is actually each of these ratings cut in half
      and then multiplied together, yielding one quarter of what would be
      available if the power ratings of open circuit voltage and short
      measurement of amperage were simply multiplied together. Thus this
      maximum power output of the NST should be [15,000 V* .03A]/4 = 112.5
      watts. Now the same procedure is applied to the alternator phase as a
      source of power. Because of the fact that the pole face field rotor
      becomes remanently magnetized,(in the correct polarity determined by
      its spin), the moment the alternator is turned on these voltage and
      amperage ratings become apparent. All three phases then read 1.6 -1.7
      volts and a short of one of the phases shows a delivery of 1.35 A. Now
      the pole pig is attached to one of the phases with the addition of an
      amperage meter set on its highest scale without the secondary load of
      the TC primary attached. This one threw me a loop because on the
      testing of two different higher voltage transformers, both amperage
      readings of the non loaded primary read 0 Amps. Apparently the open
      secondary condition of the pole pig transformer that determines the
      highest impedance of the primary has a non-linear response to the
      increase of frequency, where here the increase in frequency being 7.6
      fold would mean 7.6 times less primary amperage conduction to the
      unloaded pole pig primary, but that may not be happening and later the
      actual ratio of expected currents vs derived currents can be
      calculated to show the non-linear increase of impedance with increased
      frequency. This has been noted before with the stolen high induction
      air core coils that exhibited 60 henry at 60 hz, but exhibited values
      near 200 henry at these frequencies.
      Now the first attempt of showing an alternator powered TC
      involved first making one at 60 hz powered by the NST, and that also
      was problematic but we arrived at a hit/miss solution with a 2 ft
      secondary with a larger top capacity that improved performance so as
      to exhibit 4 inch arcing. This model uses 20 nf capacity. When the
      alternator/pole pig combination was substituted as the power source
      the same coil only delivered 1 inch arcing, but even this was a first.
      Jumping the gun a bit, the alternator/ pole pig power source was
      reexamined to see if the capacity in the TC primary was near the
      maximum energy transfer point. A turn on of the alternator yielded 3
      phases of 1.6 volts before the field is energized, where the middle
      phase 2 is selected for the pole pig. As mentioned no amperage is
      recorded into the pole pig primary until the secondary capacitive load
      of the TC primary is added. With the arc gap separated and the field
      non- energized a series of amperage conduction and voltage output
      tests are made. The short as mentioned yields 1.35 A of a single
      phase, and an open circuit value of 1.6 volts. When the TC primary
      value of 20 nf was added to the pole pig secondary its primary
      amperage went from 0 to .66 A, but the source voltage of 1.6 Volts did
      not decrease its value to half, which is what a purely resistive load
      should do by the premises of the maximum energy transfer theorem,
      where it is assumed that having reached half of the short value of
      conduction will also reduce the source voltage by half. Instead what
      happens is that the stator voltage is increased by one third to 2.2
      volts. So initially measuring things on the high voltage end for these
      circumstances, and also considering that since such low voltages are
      being employed non-linearities of voltage transformation may exist
      since this is the very low end of the saturation curve of the
      transformer, but nevertheless the first recording of output voltages
      showed 123.5 volts without the capacity attached and 184 volts when it
      is attached. Now all these measurements and comparisons of ratios seem
      to become distorted from their initially measured values at this
      lowest possible level of measurement conducted with an un-energized
      field, and these differences can be shown in comparison at real
      operation with an energized field with a 10 Amp pole pig primary
      consumption, and after the TC had been redesigned to employ the
      nearest correct resonant secondary capacity to be determined by these
      unenergized field tests to be noted next. In that case after the TC
      primary was redesigned and the correct C value used, it was noted that
      by sending a third of an amp through the field, this created three
      phases of 7.1 volts with no load attached, but then attaching the TC
      primary to the pole pig secondary resulted in the primary stator
      voltage now going up 60 % to 11.5 volts. Thus at only a 7 volt
      unloaded stator it becomes 11.5 volts conducting 10 amps into the pole
      pig primary, and the alternator can be pressed to do triple this duty
      for short periods of time, sending near 30 amps into the pole pig primary.
      Now getting back to the un-energized field tests, the next thing
      to be explored was the value of primary amperage consumption once the
      registered level of 184 volts at the pole pig secondary was shorted,
      and this yielded only a 1 amp primary consumption, when in fact a
      direct short of the stator lines connected to the current limited
      supply of the alternator yielded 1.35 A. This at first puzzled me so
      then obviously the next thing to do was to try various values of
      capacity for a pole pig secondary load. The capacities being used are
      a series string of five .1 uf values yeilding 20 nf. Taking one out of
      the string yields 25 nf, two taken out yeilds 33nf, and next a value
      of 50 nf. Note how the adjacent stator phase voltages having no load
      are influenced by phase 2's pole pig primary load.

      Un-energized field tests initially yield three phases of 1.6 volts.
      With 20 nf pole pig secondary load the stator voltages and amperages

      Stator phase 1; 1.6 volts
      Stator phase 2; 2.2 volts yielding .66 A to pole pig primary

      Stator phase 3; 2.0 volts
      Using 25 nf phase 2 then outputs .9 A
      with its stator voltage rising to 2.3 volts, showing 204 volts at the
      arc bars. Using 33 nf;

      Stator phase 1) 1.5 volts
      Stator phase 2) 2.8
      volts yields 1.55 A primary draw, it has exceeded its short value of
      1.35A and also yielding 253 volts at arc bars
      Stator phase 3) 2.5 volts

      Using 50 nf;
      This begins to load down stator phase
      1, which along with phase 3 is unloaded, so we wonder why the
      dramatic loss here on phase 1 which gets now get reduced to what the
      rms voltage meter interprets as 0.7 volts and now some scopings are
      made of the phase angle differences between the affected phases.
      Initially it is assumed that the 3 phase alternator distributes three
      maximum voltages 120 degrees out of phase and an unloaded scoping of
      phases 2 and 3 as a dual channel scoping shows this fact, but first
      the proper procedure for making these scope observations is noted.
      First an isolated ground for the scope itself is desired which is
      enabled by using a 2 prong plug into the wall voltage instead of three
      prong plug for the oscilloscope which is simply achieved by use of a
      two prong adapter. Now it is also observed that the common ground
      connection between the scope leads themselves is in fact a common
      ground point, except for perhaps very expensive scopes having dual
      isolated grounds on each channel. What this means is that the first
      channel to be scoped uses both the probe ending and the smaller clip
      as the ground. But the second channel when added only uses the probe
      lead, and its ground connection is left open. The attachments for
      the measurement of the adjacent phase once the first two connections
      are made must be referenced to the placement of the ground clip on the
      initial connection, which becomes channel 1 making a voltage
      measurement of phase 2. The alternator delta output has three points
      of voltage delivery, and to reference the phase 2's primary connection
      to be loaded by the pole pig secondary load of 50 nf, to the phase 3
      which also sees a voltage rise from phase 2's reactive loading, the
      common ground clip of the first channel is made to be the point of
      delivery on the delta stator where both phase 2 and 3 have in common,
      and channel 2's probe lead is given the remaining delta point not yet
      attached with its common ground lead unattached. In other words the
      common ground leads must not be shorted in making the dual channel
      scoping observations, and since there are three points of voltage
      reference and four points available to make these voltage reference
      observations, one of the common leads must be omitted. To reference
      phase 2 and 3 the common ground of only one channel is placed on the
      delta triangle on the point where the phases themselves are in common,
      and thus to measure the referenced voltage between the other
      combination of phases 1 and 2 the common lead is changed to the point
      in common on the delta triangle that the measured phases themselves
      have in common. The first two dual channel scopings are referenced
      between phases 2 and 3, both of which receive a voltage rise after
      phase 2's addition of the pole pig primary load.
      Three Wire/ Dual Channel Scoping of 3 phase Alternator between phases
      2 and 3.

      After addition of the pole pig to phase two the following changes in
      actual phase angle shown by scoping between the phases are noted;

      Stator phase 2 shows
      2.6 volts yielding 2.4 A primary draw, a 80 % increase in the
      alternator established current limitation and 262 volts at the arc
      bars! Note here another discrepancy in that the pole pig normally
      gives a 64/1 voltage rise ratio but here it has become 100 fold. A
      measurement of the actual current that should ensue for a 50 nf
      capacitive reactance at 456 hz having an ohmic resistance of 6984
      ohms @ 262 volts however shows that these values are in agreement with
      current meter readingsof 37.5 ma on the secondary end, and it is seen
      that although the voltage rise ratio has been expanded, the current
      ratio of primary amperage consumption and secondary amperage output
      has been preserved at 64/1. Note here also that the open circuit
      voltage vs capacitively loaded operating voltage has been increased
      some 60 %/ in reference to the previous dual channel scoping
      Stator phase 3) 2.6 volts
      Phase Angle Change between phases 2 & 3 with Pole Pig Ferromagnetic
      Note the pulsed nature on phase 2, and the stretching of the former
      120 phase angle towards that of a 180 one. This scoping shows
      something initially incomprehensible. EVIDENTLY THE THREE FOLD
      ALTERED IN TIME THEMSELVES! As an apparent result of this the
      voltage normally available on phase 1 has been robbed from to provide
      an excess of voltage on its adjacent phases, where its rms voltage
      reading shows only .7 volts. We might expect that since the timings
      of voltage delivery have been brought near 180 degrees between phases
      2 and 3, this leaves very little phase angle difference left in 360
      degrees of total time available between cycles on phase 1 which we
      then term a “neutrally” timed phase because of its loss of voltage;
      however we still wish to investigate this timing issue by making a
      scoping to be made referencing phase 1 to the other phases where here
      phase 1 is referenced to the pig draw of phase 2:
      Near 180 phase shift referenced to neutral angle in time
      What becomes odd here is the non sinusoidal shape of the neutral
      phase which the rms voltage meter interprets as .7 volts,and all the
      scopings are made at 2/volts/div. Because of this waveform shape the
      phasing angle difference of the adjacent phase is hard to determine,
      but we would certainly expect that the peaks of each waveform should
      co-incide better. In fact the smaller dual peaked portion of phase 1's
      waveform does this, but its larger one peaking at some 1.8 volts
      appears in the timing reference point when the adjacent phase is
      producing 2 volts in opposite polarity!??... Thus here the
      presentation of an incredible premise can be made;
      What I have just shown is two oppositely phased voltages whose highest
      peaks deliver almost opposite polarities in time, thus the net
      difference between the voltages is almost the sum of their individual
      voltages. Next I showed the voltage reference points to the neutral
      phasing showing that the adjacent phase voltage can still have better
      then an equal and opposite simultaneously created voltage in time. I
      have also been able use pancake coils positioned in space at certain
      angles to each other to interact to show an impossible phase angle
      greater then 180 degrees as we define it, in that the net difference
      between the individual voltages in time is greater then the sum of
      these quantities, but this issue has not been scoped out yet to see
      what nuances of waveforms may exist there. Again the analogy of
      dimensional progression is applied here. A two dimensional flat
      equilateral triangle has three internal 60 degree angles, adding to
      180. If we instead expand the internal area of this triangle by
      superimposing it on the 3-D curvature of a sphere, we find that now
      the individual angles become greater then the sum adding to 180,
      according to the ratio of the triangles internal area vs the total
      surface area of the sphere. If we just use a small portion of the
      sphere's surface area for the triangle the internal angle change is
      negligible, but if the triangle is expanded to encompass 1/8th of the
      total surface area of the sphere, its internal 60 degree angle will
      have increased 50% to 90 degrees. Now the analogy becomes expanding
      the three 120 degree phase angles in time 50 % greater to that of
      three 180 phase angles in time. Somehow we presume that now a 4th
      dimensional coordinate has been added, with the result that time has
      been expanded, and a circle in time of phase angle differences no
      longer adds to 360 degrees, but in excess to that. A 440 degree
      phasing measurement is shown at
      13 meter reading of 3 DSR's(Delta Series Resonances of .15 Henry)/
      showing interphasal voltage differences between phasings.

      Using 100nf now the demand begins to exceed the supply and the stator
      phases are all reduced to
      1) 0.7 volts
      2) 0.5 volts yielding .68 A primary draw producing 91 volts at
      secondary, showing perhaps another unusual thing where we cannot
      predict the secondary voltage output merely by the primary amperage
      draw but must also consider the input primary voltage.
      3) 1.4 volts.

      So obviously 50 nf becomes the first convenient value to select and by
      downsizing the primary from the previous NST design, superior arcing
      and power input seems available from the alternator 456 hz pole pig
      combination vs a single 60 hz NST. A higher power stator voltage
      reading shows that sending .8 A through field yields
      1) 8.8 volts
      2) 32.6 volts to pole pig primary where if we assume linearity of the
      10 amp measurement @ 11.5 volts, this becomes a 28 amp draw at 32
      volts input yeilding 924 watts possible input power vs the noted 112
      watts for the NST example.
      3) 29 volts

      Note that phase 3's voltage has not yet been severely loaded down, so
      our next piece of work will be to add a TC system to that phase, so
      that two somewhat oppositely phased TC's can be interacted together at
      their top terminals. It now does not seem far off in speculation for a
      three phase TC application with three identical TC's powered by a
      three phase high voltage transformer, which is also at my disposal for
      these experiments.
      To close here let us consider the voltage differences available
      from the NST vs pole pig/alternator combo. We might assume that 32
      volts input becomes 62 fold through the pole pig transformer becomes
      near 2000 volts so the ratio to 15,000 volts would be 13 %. But then
      again this amount of energy transfers 7.6 times faster at 456 hz and
      multiplying .13 by 7.6 yields the original amount. But since the V
      term is exponential it would seem that 60 hz @ 15,000 volts should
      have more energy transfer, however it may be true that since the 20 nf
      value being used is over four times the rated current limitation of
      the NST secondary, that it may only charge those caps to 1/4 of its
      15,000 voltage rating? And additionally the value of capacity used for
      the alternator pole pig combination is 2.5 times higher at 50 nf,
      which the NST may not even be able to fire. In any case I have made
      my argument that that alternator can out-power the NST with the 456 hz
      driven TC here shown at
      Harvey D Norris
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