Written by David Hatcher Childress
The Wireless Transmission of Electrical Energy Using Schumann Resonance
It has been proven that electrical energy can be propagated around the world between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere at extreme low frequencies in what is known as the Schumann Cavity. The Schumann cavity surrounds the Earth between ground level and extends upward to a maximum 80 kilometres. Experiments to date have shown that electromagnetic waves of extreme low frequencies in the range of 8 Hz, the fundamental Schumann Resonance frequency, propagate with little attenuation around the planet within the Schumann Cavity. Knowing that a resonant cavity can be excited and that power can be delivered to the cavity similar to the methods used in microwave ovens for home use, it should be possible to resonate and deliver power via the Schumann Cavity to any point on the Earth. This will result in practical wireless transmission of electrical power.
Although it was not until 1954 - 1959 when experimental measurements were made of the frequency that is propagated in the resonant cavity surrounding the Earth, recent analysis shows that it was Nikola Tesla who, in 1899, first noticed the existence of stationary waves in the Schumann cavity. Tesla's experimental measurements of the wave length and frequency involved closely match Schumann's theoretical calculations. Some of these observations were made in 1899 while Tesla was monitoring the electromagnetic radiations due to lightning discharges in a thunderstorm which passed over his Colorado Springs laboratory and then moved more that 200 miles eastward across the plains. In his Colorado Springs Notes, Tesla noted that these stationary waves " can be produced with an oscillator," and added in parenthesis, "This is of immense importance." 1 The importance of his observations is due to the support they lend to the prime objective of the Colorado Springs laboratory. The intent of the experiments and the laboratory Tesla had constructed was to prove that wireless transmission of electrical power was possible.
Schumann Resonance is analogous to pushing a pendulum. The intent of Project Tesla is to create pulses or electrical disturbances that would travel in all directions around the Earth in the thin membrane of non-conductive air between the ground and the ionosphere. The pulses or waves would follow the surface of the Earth in all directions expanding outward to the maximum circumference of the Earth and contracting inward until meeting at a point opposite to that of the transmitter. This point is called the anti-pode. The travelling waves sent out would be reflected back from the anti-pode to the transmitter to be reinforced and sent out again.
At the time of his measurements Tesla was experimenting with and researching methods for " power transmission and transmission of intelligible messages to any point on the globe." Although Tesla was not able to commercially market a system to transmit power around the globe, modern scientific theory and mathematical calculations support his contention that the wireless propagation of electrical power is possible and a feasible alternative to the extensive and costly grid of electrical transmission lines used today for electrical power distribution.
The Need for a Wireless System of Energy Transmission
A great concern has been voiced in recent years over the extensive use of energy, the limited supply of resources and the pollution of the environment from the use of present energy conversion systems. Electrical power accounts for much of the energy consumed. Much of this power is wasted during transmission from power plant generators to the consumer. The resistance of the wire used in the electrical grid distribution system causes a loss of 26-30% of the energy generated. This loss implies that our present system of electrical distribution is only 70-74% efficient.
A system of power distribution with little of no loss would conserve energy. It would reduce pollution and expenses resulting from the need to generate power to overcome and compensate for losses in the present grid system.
The proposed project would demonstrate a method of energy distribution calculated to be 90-94% efficient. An electrical distribution system, based on this method would eliminate the need for an inefficient, costly, and capital intensive grid of cables, towers and substations. The system would reducer the cost of electrical energy used by the consumer and rid the landscape of wires, cables and transmission towers.
There are areas of the world where the need tor electrical power exists, yet there is no method for delivering power. Africa is in need of power to run pumps to tap into the vast resources of water under the Sahara Desert . Rural areas, such as those in China , require the electrical power necessary to bring them into the 20th century and to equal standing with western nations.
As first proposed by Buckminster Fuller, wireless transmission of power would enable world wide distribution of off peak demand capacity. This concept is based on the fact that some nations, especially the United States , have the capacity to generate much more power than is needed. This situation is accentuated at night. The greatest amount of power available during the night could be sold to the side of the planet where it is day time. Considering the huge capacity of power plants in the United States , this system would provide a saleable product which could do much to aid our balance of payments.
Of the 56 billion dollars spent for research by the U.S. government in 1987, 64% was for military purposes, only 8% was spent on energy related research. More efficient energy distribution systems and sources are needed by both developed and under developed nations. In regards to Project Tesla, the market for wireless power transmission systems is enormous. It has the potential to become a multi-billion dollar per year market.
The increasing demand for electrical energy in industrial nations is well documented. If we include the demand of third world nations, pushed by increasing rate of growth, we could expect an even faster rise in the demand for electrical power in the near future.
In 1971, nine industrialised nations, (with 25% of the worlds population), used 690 million kilowatts, 76% of all power generated. The rest of the world used only 218 million kilowatts. By comparison, China generated only 17 million kilowatts and India generated only 15 million kilowatts (less than 2% each). 2 If a conservative assumption was made that the three quarters of the world which is only using one quarter of the current power production were to eventually consume as much as the first quarter, then an additional 908 million kilowatts will be needed. The demand for electrical power will continue to increase with the industrialisation of the world.
The Energy Information Agency (EIA), based in Washington D.C. , reported the 1985 net generation of electric power to be 2,489 billion kilowatt hours. At a conservative sale price of $.04 per kilowatt hour that, results in a yearly income of 100 billion dollars. The EIA also reported that the 1985 capacity according to generator name plates to be 656,118 million watts. This would result in a yearly output of 5,740 billion kilowatt hours at 100% utilisation. What this means is that we use only about 40% of the power we can generate (an excess capability of 3,251 billion kilowatt hours).
Allowing for down time and maintenance and the fact that the night time off peak load is available, it is possible that half of the excess power generation capability could become utilised. If 1,625 billion kilowatt hours were sold yearly at $.06/kilowatt hours, income would total 9.7 billion dollars.
PROJECT TESLA: OBJECTIVES
The objectives of Project Tesla are divided into three areas of investigation.
- Demonstrating that the Schumann Cavity can be resonated with an open air, vertical dipole antenna;
- Measurement of power insertion losses;
- Measurement of power retrieval losses, locally and at a distance.
A full size, 51 foot diameter, air core, radio frequency resonating coil and a unique 130 foot tower, insulated 30 feet above ground, have been constructed and are operational at an elevation of approximately 11,000 feet. This system was originally built by Robert Golka in 1973-1974 and used until 1982 by the United States Air Force at Wendover AFB in Wendover , Utah . The USAF used the coil for simulating natural lightning, for testing and hardening fighter aircraft. This system has a capacity of over 600 kilowatts. The coil, which is the largest part of the system, has already been built, tested and is operational.
A location at a high altitude is initially advantageous for reducing atmospheric losses which work against an efficient coupling to the Schumann Cavity. The high frequency, high voltage output of the coil will be half wave rectified using a uniquely designed single electrode X-ray tube. The X-ray tube will be used to charge a 130 ft. tall, vertical tower which will function to provide a vertical current movement. The mast is topped by a metal sphere 30 inches in diameter. X-rays emitted by the tube will ionise the atmosphere between the Tesla coil and the tower. A circulating current of 1,000 ampres in the system will create an ionisation and corona causing a large virtual electrical capacitance in the medium surrounding the sphere. The total charge around the tower will be in the range of between 200-600 coulombs. Discharging the tower 7-8 times per second through a fixed or rotary spark gap will create electrical disturbances, which will resonantly excite the Schumann Cavity, and propagate around the entire Earth.
The propagated wave frount will be reflected from the antipode back to the transmitter site. The reflected wave will then be reinforced and again radiated when it returns to the transmitter. As a result, an oscillation will be established and maintained in the Schumann Cavity. The loss of power in the cavity has been estimated to be about 6% per round trip. If the same amount of power is delivered to the cavity on each cycle of oscillation of the transmitter, there will be a net energy gain which will result in a net voltage, or amplitude increase. This will result in reactive energy storage in the cavity. As long as energy in delivered to the cavity, the process will continue until the energy is removed by heating, lightning discharges, or as is proposed by this project, loaded by tuned circuits at distant locations for power distribution.
The resonating cavity field will be detected by stations both in the United States and overseas. These will be staffed by engineers and scientists who have agreed to participate in the experiment.
Measurement of power insertion and retrieve losses will be made at the transmission site and at distant receiving locations. Equipment constructed especially for measurement of low frequency electromagnetic waves will be employed to measure the effectiveness of using the Schumann Cavity as a means of electrical power distribution. The detection equipment used by project personnel amplifiers and active band pass filters.
In addition to project detection there will be a record of the experiment recorded by a network of monitoring stations that have been set up specifically to monitor electromagnetic activity in the Schumann Cavity.
The project will be evaluated by an analysis of the data provided by local and distant measurement stations. The output of the transmitter will produce a 7-8 Hz sine wave as a result of the discharges from the antenna. The received is a result of the operation of the transmitter.
Power insertion and retrieval losses will be analysed after the measurement taken during the transmission are recorded. Attenuation, field strength, and cavity Q will be calculated using the equations presented in Dr. Corum's papers. These papers are noted in the references. If recorded results indicate power can be efficiently coupled into or transmitted in the Schumann Cavity, a second phase of research involving power reception will be initiated.
The extreme low frequencies (ELF), present in the environment have several origins. The time varying magnetic fields produced as a result of solar and lunar influences on ionospheric currents are on the order of 30 nanoteslas. These magnetic fields reach a maximum of 0.5 microteslas (uT). The magnetic fields produced as a result of lightning discharges in the Schumann Cavity peak at 7, 14, 20 and 26 Hz. The magnetic flux densities associated with these resonant frequencies vary from 0.25 to 3.6 picoteslas, per root hertz (pT/Hz1/2).
Exposure to man made sources of ELF can be up to 1 billion (1000 million or 1x109) times stronger than that of naturally occurring fields. Household appliances operated at 60 Hz can produce fields as high as 20 uT. Video display terminals produce fields of 2 uT, 1,000,000 times the strength of the Schumann Resonance frequencies. 3
Project Tesla will use a 150 kw generator to excite the Schumann cavity. Calculations predict that the field strength due to this excitation at 7.8 Hz will be on the order of 46 picoteslas.
The successful resonating of the Schumann Cavity and wireless transmission of power on a small scale resulting in proof of principle will require a second phase of engineering, the design of receiving stations. On completion of the second phase, the third and fourth phases of the project involving further tests and improvements and a large scale demonstration project will be persued to prove commercial feasibility. Total cost from proof of principle to commercial prototype is expected to total $3 million. Interest in participation in this project may be directed to the author.
The following [four papers] were presented at the 1984 Tesla Centennial Symposium and the 1986 International Tesla Symposium.
"The Transient Propagation of an ELF Pulses in the Earth-Ionosphere Cavity", by A-Ahamid Aidinejad and James F. Corum.
"Disclosures Concerning the Operation of an ELF Oscillator", by James F. Corum and Kenneth L Corum.
"A Physical Interpretation of the Colorado Springs Data", by James F. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum.
Critical Speculations Concerning Tesla's Invention and Applications of Single Electrode X-Ray Directed Discharges for Power Processing, Terrestrial Resonances and Particle Beam Weapons" by James F. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum.
1. Colorado Springs Notes, 1899-1900, Nikola Tesla, Nikola Tesla museum, Beograd, Yugoslavia, 1978, Pg 62.
2. Van Nostrands Scientific Encyclopedia, Fith Edition, Page 899
3. "Artificially Stimulated Resonance of the Earth Schumann Cavity Waveguide", Toby Grotz, Proceedings of the Third International New Energy Technology Symposium/Exhibition, June 25th-28th, 1988, Hull, Quebec, Planetary Association for Clean Energy, 191 Promenade du Portage/600, Hull Quebec J8X 2X6 Canada.
Reproduced with permission from the Author,
Toby Short 11 - 7 - 2005