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[Fwd: [free_energy] The New wizard Of the West]

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  • erickrieg@verizon.net
    ... The New Wizard of the West An interview with Tesla, the Modern Miracle-Worker, who is Harnessing the Rays of the Sun; has Discovered Ways of Transmitting
    Message 1 of 1 , May 3, 2004

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      The New Wizard of the West
      An interview with Tesla, the Modern Miracle-Worker, who is Harnessing the
      Rays of the Sun; has Discovered Ways of Transmitting Power without Wires and
      of Seeing by Telephone; has Invented a Means of Employing Electricity as a
      Fertiliser; and, Finally, is Able to Manufacture Artificial Daylight.

      By Chauncy Montgomery M'Govern
      From Pearson's Magazine, May 1899


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      Tesla's proposed arrangement of balloon stations
      for transmitting electricity without wires

      NOT to stagger on being shown through the laboratory of Nikola Tesla
      requires the possession of an uncommonly sturdy mind. No person can escape a
      feeling of giddiness when permitted to pass into this miracle-factory and
      contemplate for a moment the amazing feats which this young man can
      accomplish by the mere turning of a hand.

      Fancy yourself seated in a large, well- lighted room, with mountains of
      curious-looking machinery on all sides. A tall, thin young man walks up to
      you, and by merely snapping his fingers creates instantaneously a ball of
      leaping red flame, and holds it calmly in his hands. As you gaze you are
      surprised to see it does not burn his fingers. He lets it fall upon his
      clothing, on his hair, into your lap, and, finally, puts the ball of flame
      into a wooden box. You are amazed to see that nowhere does the flame leave
      the slightest trace, and you rub your eyes to make sure you are not asleep.

      The odd flame having been extinguished as miraculously as it appeared, the
      tall, thin young man next signals to his assistants to close up all the
      windows. When this has been done the room is as dark as a cave. A moment
      later you hear the young man say in the laboured accentuation of the
      foreigner: " Now, my friends, I will make for you some daylight." Quick as a
      flash the whole laboratory is filled with a strange light as beautiful as
      that of the moon, but as strong as that of old Sol. As you glance up at the
      closed shutters on each window, you see that each of them is as tight as a
      vice, and that no rays are coming through them. Cast your eyes wherever you
      will you can see no trace of the source of the odd light.

      Scarcely have you begun to marvel when the light goes out by a touch on a
      button by the young man's hand. The room is in darkness again until the same
      laboured accentuation causes the reopening of all the shutters. Some animal
      is now brought out from a cage, it is tied to a platform, an electric
      current is applied to its body and in a second the animal is dead. The tall
      young man calls your attention to the fact that the indicator registers only
      one thousand volts, and the dead animal being removed, he jumps upon the
      platform himself, and his assistants apply the same current to the dismay of
      the spectators.

      You feel a creeping sensation course up your back, and you see the indicator
      slowly mounting up to nine hundred, and then one thousand volts, and you
      involuntarily close your eyes, expecting the young man to fall dead before
      you the very next minute. But he does not budge. Quickly the indicator goes
      up, up, up, until presently it shows that ten thousand volts, then two
      million volts of electricity are pouring through the frame of the tall young
      man, who does not move a muscle.

      Nikola Tesla holding in his hands balls of flame

      At a sign, the current is stopped, the room is again made dark as night, and
      presently the visitor sees the sharply-defined black silhouette of the young
      man, with a beautiful halo of electricity in the background, formed by
      myriads of tongues of electric flame which are darting out from every
      quarter of the tall, thin frame. The place is lighted once more, and as the
      young man comes up to you and shakes your hand, you twist it about in the
      same fashion as you have seen people do who hold the handles of a strong
      electric battery. The young man is literally a human electric " live wire."

      To tell of these and a thousand other wonders that Tesla does in a trice
      gives only a faint conception of their effect on the visitor. To really
      appreciate them one must see, hear, and feel them in the flesh. It is a
      scientific treat of a lifetime, but it is a treat that few can enjoy, for
      the laboratory of Tesla is securely locked against everyone not provided
      with an introduction from a personal friend of the audacious wizard.

      "Oh, pshaw! these are only a few play- things," Nikola Tesla replies when
      the visitor puts into words the astonishment he has experienced; " none of
      these amount to anything--they are of no value to the great world of
      science. But come over here and I will show you something that will make a
      big revolution in every business and home as soon as I am able to get the
      thing into working form," and then he leads the way through a forest of
      queer-looking discs and mysterious coils of copper and steel, until the
      party reaches a raised wall of masonry, on which reposes a long cylinder of
      glass filled with water, and surrounded by a circle of large mirrors. The
      roof over this apparatus is of glass, and as the sun pours its rays through
      this, the rays strike the mirrors and are reflected again towards the glass
      cylinder, magnifying glasses intensifying the heat of the rays before they
      strike the cylinder.

      Nikola Tesla

      "This is the experimental model of the apparatus with which I hope some day
      to so harness the rays of the sun that heavenly body will operate every
      machine in our factories, propel every train and carriage in our streets,
      and do all the cooking in our homes, as well as furnish all the light that
      man may need by night as well as by day. It will, in short, replace all wood
      and coal as a producer of motive power and heat and electric lighting

      The plan of Nikola Tesla to harness the rays of the sun to do man's bidding
      is probably the boldest engineering feat that he or anyone else has ever
      attempted. Though the idea is so great, its principle is so simple that a
      schoolboy can readily comprehend it. It consists of concentrating the heat
      of the sun on one spot (the glass cylinder) by the series of complicated
      mirrors and magnifying glasses until the resulting heat is something
      terrific.

      This manufactured heat is directed upon the cylinder filled with water. This
      water is chemically prepared so that in a short time the water has
      evaporated into steam and has passed from the cylinder through a pipe and
      into another chamber, In the latter place this sun-made steam is made to
      operate a steam-engine of ordinary construction, the horse-power of which
      will be determined by the size of the apparatus by which the sun generates
      steam in that spot. This steam-engine is used to generate electricity. And
      this electricity can be either used at once or else stored up in storage
      batteries to be used on days when there is no sunlight.

      It will be seen that the object of this plan of Tesla is to do away with
      coal, wood, or other fuel, in the manufacture of steam. The remainder of his
      invention calls for the use of this sun-made steam-pressure, as
      steam-pressure made from coal is at present in use, throughout the world.
      The advantage of this Tesla invention is that the cost of manufacturing
      steam to generate electricity, which would propel say one hundred tram cars,
      would be infinitely smaller than the cost of the coal required to produce
      the power to do the same work. The cost of manufacturing the electricity to
      operate these one hundred tram cars by the Tesla plan, when once the sun
      station has been completed, would only be a sufficient amount to pay the
      salaries of a few engineers in charge of the sun-station.

      "In this way electricity will be so cheapened," says Mr. Tesla," that it
      will be possible for the poorest factory-owner to use it as a power at a
      smaller cost than steam. Electricity will in this way supplant steam as a
      motive power on all railways and -- in the shape of storage batteries -- on
      all water vessels. And the humblest citizen will profit by the new system of
      producing electricity; for he can have it in his home to do all his cooking
      and lighting and heating. and it will be even cheaper for him than coal,
      wood, or petroleum."

      It is, of course, not the intention of Mr. Tesla that one sun-station will
      provide all the electricity for the whole world. His scheme is that in every
      city and town the local authorities shall build one or more of these
      sun-stations by public taxation for the use of the whole population, just as
      these cities now have waterworks and gas plants. Each factory and home will
      then get its supply of electricity from the nearest sun-station by ordinary
      electric wires.

      Any person can appreciate the big boon that Tesla will confer on humanity by
      the early completion of this master task. Among other things it will solve a
      question that has been occupying the minds of scientific men for a long
      time, viz: As the supply of coal in the earth will be exhausted in about:
      thousand years, what are we going to do for fuel?" It was when Tesla first
      thought about the question that he turned his mind to the invention of some
      form of making power that would not depend upon coal. The plan to harness
      the sun's rays is the result.

      Quite independent of his scheme to harness old Sol, but yet capable of
      cooperation with it, is Tesla's invention to transmit electrical power
      without the use of wires, this consists of a means of generating electricity
      in one spot, where it can be done with little cost, and transmitting the
      electricity to some other spot where it is impossible to generate
      electricity except at a big outlay of money.

      Of course, it is now possible to transmit electrical power from one place to
      another by the use of electrical cables, but the cost of these transmitting
      cables is nearly as great as would be the cost of generating the electricity
      itself in the locality to which it is desired to transmit it. By the use of
      Tesla's invention, the atmosphere takes the place of the electrical cables
      in the transmission of the power, and as the use of the atmosphere would be
      free, the cost of the transmission of electricity from one city to another
      would be merely nominal.

      To make the atmosphere take the part of the costly cables, Tesla's plan is
      to erect large power stations at every spot where a great waterfall like
      Niagara, for instance, makes the cost of generating electricity only
      trifling when the apparatus has once been constructed.

      Above each of the stations Tesla wants to build a high tower, over which
      will be suspended a large balloon. As the electricity is generated in the
      station below it is conveyed by cables to the tower, and thence to the
      balloon, where the electricity is set free into the atmosphere. As the
      atmosphere at this height is much rarefied, and as Tesla has demonstrated
      rarefied atmosphere to be a good conductor of electricity, the electricity
      which is thus set free will be carried on by the atmosphere to any
      indefinite distance.

      The second part of the Tesla plan for transmitting electrical power without
      wires calls for the erection of receiving stations wherever desired. These
      will act as sort of receivers and storage houses for the electricity set
      free into the atmosphcre at the generating station miles away. Over each of
      the receiving stations will be put up a tower and a balloon, which will be
      equipped with the apparatus necessary to absorb the free electricity in the
      atmosphere and send it to the receiving station below, from which it can be
      sent out on wires to light the surrounding country and drive all the
      machinery of that particular district.

      It will be observed that in this scheme Tesla depends on getting his
      electricity through the agency of the waterfalls, while in the previous
      scheme he depends upon the agency of the sun for the same purpose but the
      inventor is far from believing that the two schemes will conflict. He
      believes that when both inventions come into popular use they will work
      together for the common good of man. "The agency of waterfalls to generate
      electricity could be used when that agency is most convenient in view of
      natural conditions," says Tesla, "and the agency of the sun could be used in
      all other cases. But my scheme of transmitting electrical energy without
      wires can be applied with equally good results to both systems."

      Of all the great inventions which Tesla has well on the way towards that
      point where they can be given to the world for every-day use, his wireless
      telegraphy invention is the furthest advanced, All that is necessary now is
      the formation of a company to put up the public station. The principle of
      this invention is almost too well known now to bear extended explanation.
      Briefly described, it consists of constructing an apparatus to stir up the
      electric currents in the earth in such a way that their disturbance will be
      felt on a second apparatus fitted up in a different part of the world.
      Different disturbances of the electric currents produce correspondingly
      different impressions on the second apparatus --the receiver--and in this
      way an intelligible code is readily arranged.

      For the benefit of non-scientific people the great inventor has described
      for me his wire-less telegraphy invention in the following words:

      "Imagine you have on a table before you an immense rubber bag snugly filled
      with water. I take a rubber tube with a piston-rod in it and insert the tube
      into the rubber bag. When I press on the piston-rod I compress the water in
      the bag so that it expands the bag.

      "When I withdraw the piston," continued Tesla, " the bag will shrink just so
      much as there is water drawn up into my tube; and now if I put a second tube
      with a piston-rod into the bag at the other end, at every pressure of the
      first piston-rod the effect will be felt and measured in the second tube.
      Now if a certain action of one piston-rod indicates a certain word or a
      certain sentence, if you watch the other piston-rod carefully you may easily
      read it. This is exactly what takes place in wireless telegraphy," concluded
      Tesla; " let the rubber bag stand for the earth, the water for the electric
      currents in the earth, and the two tubes and piston-rods for a sending
      oscillator and receiving oscillator. One sort of disturbance by one
      oscillator means a certain sentence, and when this particular disturbance is
      recorded on the second oscillator the operator there knows exactly how to
      interpret it."

      The "oscillators" to which the inventor refers are huge discs on which are
      insulated hundreds of coils of copper wire whose ends connect with the
      centre of the disc, where there is a huge round copper ball. They are really
      the only apparatus required for wireless telegraphy. To operate them Tesla
      simply turns the transmitting oscillator face downwards, and turns on a
      current which causes immense tongues of visible electric flashes to leap
      from the ball into the ground. The receiving oscillator has a delicate
      contrivance which throbs with each disturbance of the earth's electric
      currents and records them on a specially contrived apparatus.

      Not the least fascinating of Tesla's numerous inventions is one to which he
      has given the name of "visual telegraphy." With this apparatus one person
      has only to look into the receiver of an ordinary telephone in one city,
      and, while talking to a friend a thousand miles away, he can watch the
      expression on the other's face, criticise the cut of his new suit of
      clothing, or advise him what to do for that tired look about the eyes. In
      this invention the experimental apparatus has proved thoroughly successful.
      The principle of this invention is that just as much as sound-waves make an
      impression on the immediate atmosphere, so do light waves make their
      impression.

      Nikola Tesla's wireless telegraphy apparatus

      "Now, as sound waves of the human voice are transmitted miles and miles by
      the present telephone after their impression is made on the telephone
      transmitter," says Mr. Tesla, "just so my experiments have demonstrated that
      the light waves of the human body can be transmitted by a different sort of
      telephone miles and miles away. All we need is the invention of a new
      transmitter. As the impressions of light waves are so many times more
      delicate than the impressions of sound waves, it follows that to transmit
      the impression of the human face, for instance, we require a transmitter
      many times more delicate. Now, selenium being an extremely sensitive
      substance, I have utilised this material in the construction of the
      transmitter which I have just described, and I have found it to be perfectly
      satisfactory."

      To make our homes, our offices, and the streets at midnight as light as day,
      is another of the great tasks which Mr. Tesla set out for himself many years
      ago. His hope was to invent a new kind of electric light which would have
      the strong, steady glow of sunlight.

      That Tesla has succeeded in his dream to make artificial daylight there can
      be no doubt. To every visitor of his laboratory he shows numerous balls of
      glass of different sizes which look like miniature suns. The glass balls are
      perfectly empty, there are no wires in them, nor are there any wires on the
      outside of them. They do not burn the fingers when they are touched. The
      light does not hurt the eyes as sunlight and ordinary electric light do.

      By the time this article is published, a number of the leading New York and
      Chicago photographers will have their studios supplied with the new
      artificial daylight.

      The hand of Nikola Tesla, taken by his wonderful artificial daylight, just
      perfected. This is the first photograph made by the light of the future

      "The reason I have chosen to introduce the new daylight to the photographers
      first," says the inventor, " is that I believe them to be the severest
      critics, and most hard to please in the matter of light. If it succeeds with
      them, a new light will succeed everywhere."

      Not the least ingenious of Tesla's great schemes is his invention to
      fertilise impoverished land by electricity. When Tesla has a company formed
      to put this invention on the market it will no longer be necessary for the
      farmer to spend half his year's receipts in purchasing fertilisers. He has
      only to buy an electric fertiliscr of his own, which he can secure for a
      trifle at the nearest town.

      Dumping a few loads of loose earth into the fertiliser, it comes out at the
      other end, ready to be spread over the surface of the impoverished ground,
      where it will insure for the following season the luxurious crop of the
      virgin soil.

      The explanation which Mr. Tesla gives of just why so simple a piece of work
      should be productive of such wonderful results is not difficult to
      comprehend. " Everyone knows," says he, " that the constituent of a
      fertiliser which makes the ground productive is its nitrogen. Everybody
      knows also that nitrogen forms four-fifths of the volume of the atmosphere
      above that piece of unfertile land. This being the case it occurred to me:
      'Where is the sense in the farmer buying expensive nitrogen when he has it
      free of cost at his own door? All the agriculturist needs is some method by
      which he can separate some of this nitrogen from the atmosphere above the
      ground and place it on the surface.' And it was to discover this means that
      I set to work."

      As far as the non-technical eye can perceive, the working model of the
      electric fertiliser consists of nothing but an upright copper cylinder with
      a removable top, with a spiral coil of wire running throughout the length of
      the cylinder. Through the bottom of the cylinder are two wires, which
      connect with a specially constructed dynamo. A quantity of loose earth,
      treated by a secret chemical preparation in liquid form, is shovelled into
      the cylinder, an electric current is passed through the confined atmosphere;
      the oxygen and hydrogen are thus expelled, and the nitrogen which remains is
      absorbed into the loose earth. There is thus produced as strong a fertiliser
      for a nominal price at home as it is possible to purchase at a large cost
      miles and miles away.

      Mention is made in this paper of only those inventions of Mr. Tesla which
      have passed beyond the experimental stage. But there are hundreds of other
      promised wonders in the yet incipient stage of development in the great
      inventor's miracle-factory. As I have heard one of his admirers express it,
      an enumeration of these " sounds like the dream of a half-intoxicated god."
      Signalling to other planets, raising of certain of the dead by electricity,
      ending all wars by a terrible machine -- these are a few suggestions
      selected at random.

      Nikola Tesla is a young man yet, and on this account many of his promises
      have been looked upon by older scientists as but fanciful dreams of a
      youthful mind. He has scarcely ever made any invention whichthe scientific
      world has accepted as possible on the first public announcement. But sooner
      or later the scientific wiseacres have been compelled to admit that Tesla
      has proven their theories to be wrong.

      How these conservative scientists sneered at Tesla's "Utopian audacity" when
      he first suggested that man should harness the great Niagara Falls! But they
      humbled their pride sufficiently to be present when the enterprise was
      formally completed. Again, when he announced the invention of the "Tesla
      coil" they set him down as "pipe-dreamer." But a few of the brightest of
      them set to work seriously on the "coil" with the result that one of them --
      Rontgen -- discovered his famous X-Rays. No one who is privileged to know
      Tesla personally, to have heard him explain his plans, and to have been
      shown through his unique workshop, has the slightest doubt that every one of
      his promises will be fulfilled in an equally successful way.


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