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MT 28 in Sinai Arabic 28

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  • Jean Valentin
    Dear TC-ers, Here I am again with my dear Arabic manuscript from the Xth century. Today, another sample: the whole chapter 28 from Matthew. I give you an
    Message 1 of 3 , May 2 2:31 PM
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      Dear TC-ers,

      Here I am again with my dear Arabic manuscript from the Xth century.
      Today, another sample: the whole chapter 28 from Matthew. I give you
      an English translation together with a few annotations. I add a word
      about another manuscript that apparently has the same version, though
      in a revised form: the lectionary Sinai arabic 133 (dated 1102), which
      might be precious as Sin arb 71 is fragmentary (has only Mt23-Lk8).
      As you will see, this version has most of its affinities with the
      "cesarean" group of Greek mss and versions, though it reserves us also
      some surprises.
      I'd be delighted to have your comments!



      TEXT

      1 And in the evening of the sabbath, morning ot the first of the week,
      came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to look at the sepulchre.
      2 And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord
      descended from heaven, and approached from the sepulchre and rolled
      the stone from the mouth of the sepulchre, and sat upon it.
      3 And his appearance was like the lightning, and his raiment white as
      the snow.
      4 And of his fear the keepers trembled, and became like the dead.
      5 And the angel answered and said to the women: You, and fear not. I
      have known that for Jesus who was crucified you are searching.
      6 He is not here. He is risen, like he said. Come in and look at the
      place where he was.
      7 Go, and say to his disciples that he is risen from among the dead.
      And he, he preceds you to Galilee. There you will see him. Here I am,
      I have said to you.
      8 And they departed from the sepulchre with fear and great joy, to
      announce to his disciples.
      9 And behold, Jesus met them, and said: Peace to you. And they
      approached him and took his feet, and worshipped him.
      10 After that, Jesus said to them: Fear not, but go and announce my
      brothers that they depart to Galilee. There they shall see me.
      11 And when they went, behold, some of the guards came to the city,
      and announced to the elders all that had been.
      12 And they, they took counsel, and took much money and gave to those
      soldiers,
      13 and said to them: Say that his disciples came by the night, and
      stole him, and we (were) asleep.
      14 And if the governor hears that, we, we will dissimulate, and you
      without trouble we will put.
      15 And when they took the money, they did as they were [taught]: and
      this saying spread itself in the Jews to this day.
      16 And as to the eleven disciples, they departed to Galilee, to the
      mountain that Jesus had commanded them.
      17 And when they saw him, they worshipped him. And of them someone
      stumbled.
      18 And the Lord Jesus came and spoke to them, and said: I was given
      all the power of the heaven and the earth.
      19 Go now, and disciple all the nations, and baptize them in the name
      of the Father, and the Son, and the Spirit of holiness.
      20 And teach them (that) they keep all that I have commanded you: and
      here I am with you all the days, and to the end of the world. Amen.

      NOTES
      - v.2: Sin. arb. 71 adds a complement ("from the sepulchre") to the
      verb "approached". I found the same in another Arabic version found in
      lectionaries (the oldest one being Sin. Arb. 138, dated AD 1117).
      - v.2: "from the mouth of the sepulchre". A free ("mouth" for "door"
      translation of the longuest text extant in Greek, with Theta, fam1
      fam13 and several versions (sypal, bo, mae, geo-Tbeth-Opiza). As a
      comparison, Byz has "from the sepulchre", Aleph-B have nothing.
      - v.5: "You, don't fear": the order is the same as in sy.s, sy.p as
      against all greek and syropalestinian witnesses.
      - v.5: The Greek mss have "OIDA GAR". Sin. Arb omit GAR, with the
      georgian versions, armenian-vulgate (that's how we call Zohrab), the
      persian harmony and many Arabic versions (including the oldest ones,
      that of Sin. arb. 72 and 74, IXth century).
      - v.6: The Greek mss have "HGERQH GAR". Here again, the omission of
      the GAR is attested by Sin. arb. 71 with sy.s, the old latin ff2 and
      many Arabic versions.
      - v.6: omission of "O KYRIOS" with Aleph-B, Theta, sy.s, old-latin e,
      geo-Tbeth-Opiza, armenian-vulgate.
      - v.7: omission of the KAI at the beginning of the verse, with sy.s
      and several Arabic versions.
      - v.7: "from among the dead" is an aramaism. We find it also in sy.s,
      sypal and several other Arabic versions. It's not obligatory to
      conclude that it reveals an aramaic/syriac vorlage though, as this
      version is in a dialectal Arabic quite influenced by aramaic.

      note: after this verse, we have no more old syriac witness.

      - v.9: Sin. Arb. 71 doesn't have the byzantine addition at the
      beginning of the verse (ws de eporeuonto apaggeilai tois maqhtais
      autou). In this respect, it goes with Aleph-B, D, Theta, fam 13 in
      greek, and several versions (sy.p latin sypal geo-Adysh-Tbeth-Opiza
      and armenian-vulgate).
      - v. 11: strangely, the "elders" have replaced the high priests.
      Probably one of the many blunders of the translator.
      - v.13: "and said TO THEM" : addition of "to them" with sy.p only. I
      wouldn't make too much of it, since I have noticed that in such
      formulae of speech introduction the translator is very often free.
      - v.14: omission of AUTON with Aleph-B, Theta, sypal and
      geo-Tbeth-Opiza.
      - v.17: prosekunhsan: adds AUTW with Theta Byz fam1 fam13
      geo-Adysh-Tbeth-Opiza armenian-vulgate.
      - v.18: THE LORD Jesus. This is a recurrent trait of the
      syropalestinian version. It need not be taken directly from it though,
      as this version is melkite and probably palestinian. Liturgical
      influnece of the syropalestinian lectionary is enough to explain this
      addition (and many other passages show that when the translator
      doesn't understand his Greek text, he doesn't even look at syriac or
      syropalestinian texts that would have helped him).
      - v.18 "all the power of the heaven and the earth". Free rendition? We
      should note that it corresponds to many syriac and arabic quotations
      that were inventoried by A. Voobus (Studies in the History of the
      Gospel Text in Syriac, vol. 1, CSCO 128, Louvain 1951, p.198) and L.
      Leloir (L'Evangile d'Ephrem d'apres les oeuvres editees, CSCO 180, Louvain 1958, p.59 n° 378). If the parallel is correct, we would be
      going back to the time of Ephrem.
      - v.18 Sin. arb. 71 doesn't have the harmonization from Jn 21.20 found
      in Theta, syp, geo-Adysh and armenian-vulgate.
      - v.20: "AND to the end of the world": the addition of "and" isn't
      found in Greek, but we have it also in sypal geo-Tbeth-Opiza and in
      many other Arabic versions.

      A LITTLE SUPPLEMENT
      There is another ms that seems quite close to Sin Arb 71. It is a
      lectionary, Sin arb. 133, dated from 1102. It has many common
      readings, even it keeps many of the liberties in translation or
      blunders that are so typical of Sin arb 71. But it shows also traces
      of revision according to a text close to Byz or sy.p (I favor the
      second one for the moment, but I haven't studied its text enough to be
      too categorical).
      This lectionary has been signalled by J. Nasrallah (Histoire du
      mouvement litteraire dans l'Eglise melkite..., vol. III, tome 1,
      Louvain 1983) p. 377 as the ONLY Arabic sinaitic lectionary that has
      the pericope sequence of the old hyerosolymitan liturgy - all the
      others have a later, Byzantinized, system. It might be a clue to the
      early date of this version.
      For Mt 28, we only have verses 16-20. Here they follow:

      16 In that time, the eleven disciples went to Galilee, that Jesus had
      commanded them to go there.
      17 And when they saw him, they worshipped him. And of them someone
      stumbled in him.
      18 And the Lord Jesus came and spoke to them, and said this: I was
      given all the power of the heaven and the earth.
      19 Go now, and disciple the nations, and baptize them in the name of
      the Father, and the Son, and the Spirit of holiness.
      20 And teach them that they keep all that I have commanded you: and
      here I am with you all the days, to the end of the century. Amen.

      There are divergences, but there are also coincidences. A few notes:
      - v.16: omission of "to the mountain" is probably a graphical incident
      in Arabic: ila al-Jalil [ila al-Jabal] - don't forget that the vowels
      are not written in arabic, and the long i of Jalil and the b of Jabal
      look quite the same (the first has two points under it, the second has
      one).
      - v.16: "to go there" precizes the meaning of the preceding verb. In
      fact, this verb is ambiguous, it can mean "to command" or "to ordain
      (in a function)".
      - v.18: the lectionary has kept the syropalestinian influence shown in
      adding the "the LORD". By the way, there _are_ annotations in the
      syropalestinian alphabet (but in arabic language) in this lectionary,
      which is why I think the version was used and probably produced by
      palestinian melkites.
      - v.19: "teach the nations" with omission of ALL. I see no graphical
      reason in Arabic for the omission. is there a theological bias in the
      mind of the scribe? The "ALL" seems to put more emphasis on the
      globality, its omission has, as a result, a little anti-judaistic
      tone: the Apostles are sent to the nations instead of being sent to
      Israel. Who knows, may be here it's the lectionary that has the
      original reading of the version, as it is attested nowhere else. I
      just don't know...
      - v.20: the lectionary has omitted the "AND" before "to the end..."
      and is aligned on the greek and syriac texts. And, it renders
      differently (perhaps more literal, but also more difficult) the AIWNOS
      of the greek / (olmo of the syriac. It's interesting that the revisor
      has changed such a little thing, but didn't change larger variants
      like the "all the power of heaven and earth" in verse 18.

      Salaam (alaykum!

      ---------------------------------------------------------
      Jean Valentin - Brussels - Belgium
      ---------------------------------------------------------
      email : jgvalentin@... /// netmail : 2:291/780.103
      ---------------------------------------------------------
      "Ce qui est trop simple est faux, ce qui est trop complique est
      inutilisable"
      "What's too simple is wrong, what's too complicated is unusable"
      ---------------------------------------------------------
    • Jean Valentin
      Woops, my subject line doesn t show the correct number for the manuscript!! So sorry! Of course, it was in Sin arb 71 and not 28 (probably an internal
      Message 2 of 3 , May 2 3:22 PM
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        Woops, my subject line doesn't show the correct number for the manuscript!!
        So sorry! Of course, it was in Sin arb 71 and not 28 (probably an internal
        harmonization - we learn about Tc from our own mistakes... :-)


        On Sam 3 Mai 1997 0:52, Jim West <mailto:jwest@...> wrote:

        >
        > >- v.7: "from among the dead" is an aramaism. We find it also in sy.s,
        > >sypal and several other Arabic versions. It's not obligatory to
        > >conclude that it reveals an aramaic/syriac vorlage though, as this
        > >version is in a dialectal Arabic quite influenced by aramaic.
        > >
        >
        > would not the fact that Arabic and Aramaic are semitic languages also
        have a
        > bearing on this apparent semitism quite apart from any putative Vorlage?
        >
        In fact, many Arabic versions tranlsate simply "from the dead". I don not
        think this might come from tranlsating too litterally from Greek. The
        general level of correction of a version is indicative. For example, the
        so-called "alexandrian vulgate" which is in a very correct literary Arabic
        has "from the dead" (min al-amwaat).
        Arabic is a semitic language indeed. Nevertheless, it is a south-western
        semitic language.By that I mean this: Hebrew and Aramaic are north-west
        semitic languages, and learning one when knowing already the other is quite
        easy as they are close to each other in their means of expression. But then
        if you want to learn Arabic, it takes much more effort. It has a much more
        elaborated and subtle grammar than its northern sisters. For example, greek
        LEGWN cannot be translated by a participle in nhebrew or syriac. We should
        use wayyomer in hebrew, or wa-amar in syriac. In Arabic, it is perfectly
        correct to use a participle in the accusative-adverbial qaa'ilan (though
        wa-qaala, equivalent to the hebrew and syriac forms, would be correct too).
        You see, Arabic has quite a much richer vocabulary and syntax. A very
        souple and complex language, compared to which hebrew and aramaic are quite
        rigid.

        > >note: after this verse, we have no more old syriac witness.
        > >
        >
        > Is this because there are no Syriac texts which contain the rest? Or
        just
        > no more old ones?
        I mean by this that sy.s, the only vetus syra ms for this chapter, stops
        here.

        >
        > >- v.9: Sin. Arb. 71 doesn't have the byzantine addition at the
        > >beginning of the verse (ws de eporeuonto apaggeilai tois maqhtais
        > >autou). In this respect, it goes with Aleph-B, D, Theta, fam 13 in
        > >greek, and several versions (sy.p latin sypal geo-Adysh-Tbeth-Opiza
        > >and armenian-vulgate).
        >
        > Again, the Byz redactors at work?
        This is a question that people who work on the greek mss should answer...

        >
        > >- v. 11: strangely, the "elders" have replaced the high priests.
        > >Probably one of the many blunders of the translator.
        >
        > Unless the terms are synonymous?
        Normally, the presbuteroi of the greek are rendered by this word
        (mashaa'ikh), while the high priest have another one (rusa al-kahunna).
        This is really a deviation from the usual vocabulary of the translator.

        >
        > >- v.18 Sin. arb. 71 doesn't have the harmonization from Jn 21.20 found
        > >in Theta, syp, geo-Adysh and armenian-vulgate.
        >
        > Jean, does this Arabic ms have a great number of harmonizations?
        There are quite a lot, specially those we find in Theta and, surprisingly,
        the middle-egyptian version (mae). I work very few in the coptic area, so I
        don't know what this is suposed to mean.

        >
        > >- v.20: "AND to the end of the world": the addition of "and" isn't
        > >found in Greek, but we have it also in sypal geo-Tbeth-Opiza and in
        > >many other Arabic versions.
        > >
        >
        > Could this simply be because of a desire for a "smooth" translation?
        Possibly indeed. I don't want to rush on the possibility of variants when I
        know that my translator is rather free in his renderings. But the alliance
        of georgian and arabic versions is usual, that's why I don't want to
        exclude totally that there might have been a 'kai' in some lost greek ms.

        >
        > Jean,
        >
        > excellent work! thanks.
        >
        > Jim

        Thank you for this encouragement!

        ---------------------------------------------------------
        Jean Valentin - Brussels - Belgium
        ---------------------------------------------------------
        email : jgvalentin@... /// netmail : 2:291/780.103
        ---------------------------------------------------------
        "Ce qui est trop simple est faux, ce qui est trop complique est
        inutilisable"
        "What's too simple is wrong, what's too complicated is unusable"
        ---------------------------------------------------------
      • Jim West
        Jean, At 11:31 PM 5/2/97 +0200, you wrote: (translation snipped)- ... I am fascinated by this one. That translators of the 10th c. would leave out such a
        Message 3 of 3 , May 2 3:52 PM
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          Jean,
          At 11:31 PM 5/2/97 +0200, you wrote:

          (translation snipped)-

          >- v.6: omission of "O KYRIOS" with Aleph-B, Theta, sy.s, old-latin e,
          >geo-Tbeth-Opiza, armenian-vulgate.

          I am fascinated by this one. That translators of the 10th c. would leave
          out such a phrase if they had it in their mss seems extremely unlikely.
          That it appears in Byz. mss seems to me to be another indication that the
          Byz. tradents were busy redactors.

          >- v.7: "from among the dead" is an aramaism. We find it also in sy.s,
          >sypal and several other Arabic versions. It's not obligatory to
          >conclude that it reveals an aramaic/syriac vorlage though, as this
          >version is in a dialectal Arabic quite influenced by aramaic.
          >

          would not the fact that Arabic and Aramaic are semitic languages also have a
          bearing on this apparent semitism quite apart from any putative Vorlage?

          >note: after this verse, we have no more old syriac witness.
          >

          Is this because there are no Syriac texts which contain the rest? Or just
          no more old ones?

          >- v.9: Sin. Arb. 71 doesn't have the byzantine addition at the
          >beginning of the verse (ws de eporeuonto apaggeilai tois maqhtais
          >autou). In this respect, it goes with Aleph-B, D, Theta, fam 13 in
          >greek, and several versions (sy.p latin sypal geo-Adysh-Tbeth-Opiza
          >and armenian-vulgate).

          Again, the Byz redactors at work?

          >- v. 11: strangely, the "elders" have replaced the high priests.
          >Probably one of the many blunders of the translator.

          Unless the terms are synonymous?

          >- v.18 Sin. arb. 71 doesn't have the harmonization from Jn 21.20 found
          >in Theta, syp, geo-Adysh and armenian-vulgate.

          Jean, does this Arabic ms have a great number of harmonizations?

          >- v.20: "AND to the end of the world": the addition of "and" isn't
          >found in Greek, but we have it also in sypal geo-Tbeth-Opiza and in
          >many other Arabic versions.
          >

          Could this simply be because of a desire for a "smooth" translation?


          >Jean Valentin - Brussels - Belgium

          Jean,

          excellent work! thanks.

          Jim

          +++++++++++++++++++++++
          Jim West, ThD
          Pastor, Petros Baptist Church
          jwest@...
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