Re: Future subjunctive
- On Sat, 3 Feb 1996, James R. Adair wrote:
> I'm going to respond to a couple of points, then I plan to let the topicIf the horse isn't already dead *:-) I of course would be pleased to
> rest for now. I think perhaps we've ridden this particular horse far enough!
move on to other topics as well.
> I have a problem with your historical conclusion here. Why should weSo long as the copying and cross-correction were being performed in
> believe that continuous copying and correcting of mss from different
> locales would restore the text to a state approximating its original form?
relatively distinct areas and situations without an imposed control, one
would expect nothing more to arise than the various "local texts".
Transmissionally, the situation would continue to devolve more and more
away from the autograph in such a process, and this fits in quite well
with the "uncontrolled popular text of the second century" concept of
Colwell, as well as with the "local text" theory of Streeter.
The Old Latin MSS would provide the best analogy, since they tended more
and more toward chaos as their transmissional history progressed.
Once either controls were imposed (for which I see no historical
evidence) or when increased communication became possible in a
church-state relationship after Constantine, it would be natural that MSS
which differed from one another would be compared with one another during
the copying process and cross-correction would occur. By no "normal"
means of transmission in such a model would any of the local texts be
able to gain the ascendancy, but rather all competing local texts would
slowly "mellow out" to a common pre-existing text which permeated the
bulk of the tradition. Thus, without formal controls, a process would
occur which would inevitably result in the elimination of local text
differences and which would tend back to the common text which originally
> By the same rationale, one could argue that as a result of the theologicalThis analogy breaks down since there was definite forward progress in
> disputes from Nicea to Chalcedon, Constantinople, and beyond the church
> was able to reconstruct and restore the doctrinal system of the early
doctrinal theology which occurred at each of these historical points, and
one cannot go backward from a known historical innovation to thereby
reconstruct previous theology. On the other hand, when scholars wanted
to restore Jerome's original Vulgate text, they did go backward,
systematically eliminating all the known alterations and corruptions
which occurred during the various revision periods (these of course were
historically known revisions), and I think that would reflect a closer
analogy to the situation, except that there was no systematic project to
reconstruct the autograph text during the era of Byzantine MS transmission.
> I for one don't believe that is what happened.Nor does anyone from the eclectic school *:-) Obviously, presuppositions
rather than history or methodology causes the dichotomy between the
differing approaches and their conclusions. Were I to grant the eclectic
presuppositions, I would hold precisely the view you do (which in fact is
what I once held before I began detailed study into the situation).
> just because Jerome was able to produce aNor do I. A revision of the text during the transmissional period by a
> single, consistent text, does that mean that it reflected the original
> readings, either Latin or Greek? I don't think so.
single person or even by a committee would at best produce only a useful
and adequate version of the text. Even though most of that text would
reflect the autograph, the chances of it fully equaling the autograph
are slim. On the other hand, the "process" view of text-restoration done
apart from formal control and formal revision would stand a far better
likelihood of reverting back to the autograph, and this is what I have
been maintaining in the discussion. There is nothing implausible about
such a scenario.
> have transpired in the transmission of the text. Thus, I don't think anyOne of the strongest assertions Kenneth Clark made to me was that the
> text-type, Byzantine or Alexandrian, can be established as preferable on a
> historical basis. I realize that this position calls into question to
> some extent the value of external evidence in evaluating textual variants.
original text HAD to be located in one specific texttype. He did not know
which one, of course, but he was dead certain that this had to be the
case. Otherwise (as he noted), we would have to believe that the
transmission of the text was like the Isis-Osiris legend, in which the
original text was chopped into numerous pieces and scattered to the winds,
and we -- like lamenting Isis -- must attempt to pick the pieces out one
by one from the various MS repositories they now inhabit.
His further complaint was that, given any critical edition of the text,
when compared with any select group of known MSS, one will soon discover
that what the critical editors are attempting to pass off as the autograph
is in fact a text which is not found in any single MS or texttype (even as
a reconstructed entity). Indeed, one cannot often find even ten verses in
a row in the current critical editions which read that way in any known
MS. (of course, an edition of the Byzantine text can easily demonstrate
numerous sequential verses without variation in almost all MSS comprising
Clark admitted that he and Colwell had considered the Alexandrian text to
be the texttype closest to the autograph; however, Clark changed his
opinion on that score after he and Colwell abandoned as hopeless their
project to reconstruct the Alexandrian texttype in a planned edition.
Clark still maintained that the original text must be localized in a
single texttype, and admitted that the Byzantine was the only real
remaining candidate (draw your own conclusions from that). One of the
last things Clark told me before his death was that he would like to have
another lifetime to reconstruct his entire textual theory, and that his
inclinations toward the authenticity of the text which in fact was that
traditionally perpetuated would be able to be well supported. Basically
he told me he was far too old for that (he died shortly thereafter), but
encouraged me to pursue that goal (which I mention merely so you can see
some of where I am coming from text-critically).
> In light of my earlier comments, I believe that what you suggest is exactlyI will concur with this, but with the reminder that eclectic methodology
> what must be done: each reading must be evaluated one by one, with more
> emphasis placed on internal than on external evidence.
which proceeds without a well-defined history of transmission of the text
will prove ultimately unfruitful and unsupported. If apart from such a
transmissional history I could argue favorably for every single Byzantine
reading (as mentioned previously), this would not be anywhere near as
convincing as having first a solid transmissional history as the working
hypothesis on which to base conclusions.
> readings in one witness or tradition will need to be compared to otherYoder's work on Codex Bezae in Acts is a good model of that approach. I
> readings in that witness/tradition to see if any patterns emerge that
> would indicate a theological or transcriptional Tendenz.
think it valid when dealing with single MSS or with families and minor
textual grouping, but I have serious doubts as to whether it can be
applied on the texttype level, even to the Alexandrian text. As for the
autograph text (whatever it might be), it obviously from the point of
composition had its own "tendency" as well -- one which cannot be blamed
on copyists or revisers.
> However, noNo a priori assumption of superiority should be made; only a conclusion
> appeal should be made to the "superiority" of one family of mss over
> another, since this appeal just begs the text-critical question.
of such after a careful study of all the data. Modern eclecticism still
errs greatly in their presupposition of what comprises the "best" MSS,
and from there the "best text" etc. What is dearly needed for almost all
textual scholars is to divest themselves of all such presuppositions
which they adopted axiomatically, and begin to evaluate the evidence
wholly afresh, and thereby to construct a new and different methodology
which will do more than simply repeat the same slogans and canons of
Maurice A. Robinson, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Greek and New Testament
Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary
Wake Forest, North Carolina
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