Re: [talk-about-sy] AUFKLARUNG II
- "What is Elightenment? Man getting out of his minority, of which he is the only responsible. Minority, that is, incapacity of accessing his own understanding without intervention of someone else, minority of which he is the sole responsible because its cause resides not in a lack of understanding but in a lack of decision and courage to use it...Sapere aude! * Have the courage to access your own understanding. This is the motto of enlightenment."
(NB - of course this translation can be improved, but the essence is there. Kant spoke of "Klarung" which may be translated as "Light" or "The Lights".
This famous statement - which shines with great clarity - was the stepping stone for all the Illuminism, the Philosophical movement which adhered to Reason and spread all over Europe during the 18 century.
The "Critique of the Pure Reason" and "Critic of the Practical Reason" were indeed 2 fundamental books that shaped the face of Europe (and helped to shake off "Absolutism", autocratic regimes and monarchical tyrannies) till today.)
The "Collective Insect" state of mind relies in instructions (belief systems, behaviour rules, moral) from others, on "guidance" provided by a third party, in allegiance to some (or several) authorities - and it invites to a suicide of the intellect, consequently to the anihilation of the capacity to think and thus to philosophize. It makes slaves like cult followers or Al-Caeda martyrs.
Kant invites everyone to dare relying in his'her own powers of understanding. In a certain sense way there are no kantians (just post-kantians)- as Kants encourages to "think by yourself", without recourse to anyone.
Kant. (XVIII century)
Three centuries before SY Kant is totally contemporary and will be so, forever.
* Sapere aude! (Latin) = Dare to know!
miguel de castro henriques <migcah2003@...> wrote:"To learn to philosophize is to learn to think"
Kant. XVIII century.
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