The explanatory power of the 3ST is exemplified by the short saying in
Mt 12:30 // Lk 11:23:
"He who is not with me is against me. and he who does not gather with
In what follows I am indebted to Davies & Allison, _Matthew_, II,
p.343, though not to the extent of accepting everything written there.
D&A refer to the saying's "present placement", and that it was "tacked
on at the end of the Beelzebul controversy to draw out the consequences
of Jesus' battle with Satan". Thus they hint at the slightly artificial
Matthean context. But neither Farrer nor the 2ST (where it is allocated
to Q but still appended to the Beelzebul controversy) can provide a more
In the 3ST the saying is allocated to sQ. The Greek parallels referred
to above are word for word the same in Matthew and Luke, and two
identical translations from Aramaic would seem a little strange. I am
proposing that this is one of two instances where Luke took an sQ saying
from Matthew (the other being Lk 19:26), for Luke retains the saying's
position after the Beelzebul controversy. (Gundry also takes Lk 11:23 to
have drawn on Matthew.) So here Luke was copying from Greek to Greek.
Jeremias has suggested a possible Aramaic original for the saying,
which would fit with an Aramaic sQ.
The metaphor of gathering and scattering most naturally refers to a
harvest. In section B of sQ we thus have a frame formed by B3
('Harvest') and the last saying B14 (Mt 12:30 // Lk 11:23).
Turning to Mark, I've long been convinced (against D&A) that Mk 9:40
is Mark's version of the same saying reversing the allegiance of
neutrality, a typical Markan alteration to make the saying more
inclusive. sQ sayings B13 ('Whoever welcomes') and B14 are then the
clearest case where Mark is alone among the synoptic authors in
essentially retaining two adjacent sayings together (Mk 9:37 and 9:40,
separated only by Markan redaction). Note that Matthew and Luke both
retain the mission context for the former saying (Mt 10 and Lk 10
Thus only through the lens of the 3ST can we penetrate 40 years prior
to Matthew to our saying located in the mission context it had when it
was first set in writing.
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