Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

[Synoptic-L] Mattean fatigue?

Expand Messages
  • Marc Turnage
    Notley wrote: According to our approach, occasions of Matthean superiority to Luke pose no problems and indeed are to be expected—when Matthew is free from
    Message 1 of 3 , Apr 1, 2002
    • 0 Attachment
      Notley wrote:
      According to our approach, occasions of Matthean
      superiority to Luke pose no problems and indeed are to
      be expected�when Matthew is free from Markan
      influences (particularly�but not always�in double
      tradition).

      While as Notley allows (correctly I feel) that Matthew
      can receive superior material when he is independent
      of Mark, the case of the "Healing of the Centurion's
      Servant" (Matt. 8:5-13/ Luke 7:1-10) seems to contain
      a Matthean fatigue from Luke indicating Matthew knew
      the good source used by Luke.

      Note: in Luke the Jewish elders come to Jesus on
      behalf of the Centurion (vv. 3-5). The request of the
      Jewish elders does not appear in Matthew; in fact,
      only the Centurion and Jesus appear alone. Luke 7:6
      has Jesus going "with them" (SUN AUTOIS, i.e., the
      Jewish elders), but in Matthew when Jesus suggests
      that he accompany the Centurion, the Centurion balks
      at Jesus coming and request he heal him at a distance
      (Note: Luke has the Centurion send servants when he
      hears Jesus is coming). At this point in Matthew,
      Jesus speaks to "those following" him (TOIS
      AKOLOUTHOUSIN), yet in Matthew there have been no
      crowds only Jesus and the Centurion. On the other
      hand, Luke has crowds around Jesus and going with him
      to the home of the Centurion.

      According to the definition of a "fatigue" given by
      Goodacre, this episode seems to fit as one in which
      Matthew knew the longer account found in Luke (most
      probably not from Luke) and abbreviated it but
      retained the influence of his source which probably
      looked like what we find in Luke. The Greek of this
      pericope in both Matthew and Luke evidences editing by
      both of the Evangelists.

      One wonders whether or not Matthew abbreviated his
      account of the coming of the Jewish elders to Jesus in
      light of the strongly anti-Jewish statement he
      concludes his account with (vv. 11-12), but this is
      simply reasonable speculation. One thing does seem
      evident, however, is that he had to retain Jesus'
      turning to those following him because Jesus' comments
      wouldn't make too much sense directed solely to the
      Centurion.

      In light of this passage, it does seem that Matthew in
      double tradition also preserves a fatigue from Luke,
      who in this episode seems to preserve certain superior
      elements.

      Have a good Easter Monday. SHA'LU SHALOM YERUSHALAIM.

      Blessings,
      Marc Turnage
      Continental Theological Seminary
      Belgium

      __________________________________________________
      Do You Yahoo!?
      Yahoo! Greetings - send holiday greetings for Easter, Passover
      http://greetings.yahoo.com/

      Synoptic-L Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/synoptic-l
      List Owner: Synoptic-L-Owner@...
    • Maluflen@aol.com
      In a message dated 4/1/2002 5:13:35 AM Eastern Standard Time, marcturnage@yahoo.com writes:
      Message 2 of 3 , Apr 1, 2002
      • 0 Attachment
        In a message dated 4/1/2002 5:13:35 AM Eastern Standard Time,
        marcturnage@... writes:

        << Note: in Luke the Jewish elders come to Jesus on
        behalf of the Centurion (vv. 3-5). The request of the
        Jewish elders does not appear in Matthew; in fact,
        only the Centurion and Jesus appear alone. Luke 7:6
        has Jesus going "with them" (SUN AUTOIS, i.e., the
        Jewish elders), but in Matthew when Jesus suggests
        that he accompany the Centurion, the Centurion balks
        at Jesus coming and request he heal him at a distance
        (Note: Luke has the Centurion send servants when he
        hears Jesus is coming). At this point in Matthew,
        Jesus speaks to "those following" him (TOIS
        AKOLOUTHOUSIN), yet in Matthew there have been no
        crowds only Jesus and the Centurion. On the other
        hand, Luke has crowds around Jesus and going with him
        to the home of the Centurion. >>

        This is clever, but not quite convincing. The following points should noted:

        1. What I would call the royalist template in Matthew's thought pattern: this
        means that when Matthew speaks of a person with royal authority he is likely
        to attribute action directly to him without mentioning the inevitably implied
        intermediaries and/or retinue. I gave an example of this yesterday on this
        list with the story of the beheading of John the Baptist. Matthew says that
        Herod beheaded John the Baptist (14:10). All sensible readers of Matt,
        beginning with Mark, know enough not to take Matthew ad litteram here. Thus
        Mk 6:27, without any need whatsoever of supplementary historical information,
        can tell us what really happened: namely, that a speculator (good Latin word
        for his Roman audience, which Mark transliterates into Greek) was ordered by
        Herod to carry out the gruesome crime.


        2. The present pericope (Matt 8:5-13) is written within the framework of this
        royalist template. The story tells, in fact, of the meeting of two royal (or
        "authority") figures, Jesus the royal messiah of Israel, and an authority in
        the Roman imperial system, the centurion. Probably both of them, but
        certainly Jesus, should be assumed to be accompanied by a normal retinue.
        Matt 8:8 confirms that this is indeed the perspective of this text: "I TOO --
        though myself a subject -- am a man with soldiers under my authority..." In
        verse 10, therefore, Jesus is thought of as speaking to those who have
        followed his authoritative call and become his disciples (4:20, 22) (Matthew
        does not mention "crowds" here, only followers). These are not mentioned at
        the beginning of the pericope for the reason noted: the royalist template of
        Matt according to which actions are often attributed to a monarch alone,
        where it is assumed that the monarch is accompanied by his retinue. Notice
        that this happens as early as 4:23, immediately after we have been told that
        the first-called disciples "followed" Jesus. In the very next verse Matthew
        is summarizing the royal, messianic activity of Jesus in Galilee, and does so
        by speaking of Jesus alone, with verb in the sing. (KAI PERIHGEN...). Even in
        5:1 a singular verb ANEBH describes Jesus going up the mountain. That his
        disciples actually accompanied him there is clear from the remainder of the
        same verse. Matthew's account of the centurion, therefore, does not imply he
        is copying from a source.

        3. You are probably correct in not assuming that TOIS AKOLOUQOUSIN alludes to
        the crowds who follow Jesus in 8:1 since this is part of a framework
        surrounding the great sermon of Jesus in Matt 5-7, and should therefore
        probably be read with reference to the corresponding statement in 4:25 rather
        than as looking forward to the following two healing accounts.

        Leonard Maluf

        Synoptic-L Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/synoptic-l
        List Owner: Synoptic-L-Owner@...
      • John Lupia
        Synoptic-L@bham.ac.uk Dear Marc Turnage & Leonard: I am pleased you mentioned the Curing of the Centurion s Slave (-boy) (Mt 8:5-13//Lk 7:1-10). However,
        Message 3 of 3 , Apr 1, 2002
        • 0 Attachment
          Synoptic-L@...

          Dear Marc Turnage & Leonard:

          I am pleased you mentioned the Curing of the
          Centurion's Slave (-boy) (Mt 8:5-13//Lk 7:1-10).
          However, Leonard, it does not actually perform the
          motifs you suggest in Mt, but rather, Marc Turnage is
          almost correct but still fails to see it as Mt's
          fatigue derived from changes to Lk.


          Curing of the Centurion's Slave (-boy) (Mt 8:5-13//Lk
          7:1-10)

          I. Geographic Location

          Lk 7:1 Jesus arrives in Capernaum. Jesus had been in
          Capernaum since Lk 4:31. There he entered the local
          synagogue Lk 4:33; Simon's house Lk 4:38; a deserted
          place Lk 4:42. But Jesus leaves to preach to the
          cities of Judea Lk 4:44. The fastest route is to sail
          down the Jordan, go to Jericho and the neighboring
          cities. Jesus and the disciples are on the shore of
          lake Gennesaret from Lk 5:1-6:49 where we should
          expect him to make his voyage south. In Lk 5:12 the
          trip to Judea is delayed by Jesus' compassion for the
          sick Lk 5:12 "KAI EGENETO EN TW EINAI AUTON EN MIA TWN
          POLEWN" So, although Jesus was supposed to be in one
          of those cities he was delayed and the mission to
          Judea was temporarily aborted due to the pity Jesus
          took on those whom he encountered along the way.
          Apparently he did not go very far. So, since Jesus
          could not get to them they came to him Lk 5:15-17.
          Jesus taught in a local house Lk 5:18, then in the
          house of Levi Lk 5:29. He had only traveled within
          that vicinity moving to the grainfields Lk 6:1 , the
          local synagogue Lk 6:6, the mountains to pray Lk 6:12,
          the plain there Lk 6:17. Now in Lk 7:1 Jesus reenters
          Capernaum where he had been all along since Lk 4:31
          on, only traveling about the outskirts mainly along
          the shore, fields, plain, mountain and for brief
          episodes through the city.

          Mt 8:5 also has Jesus and the disciples arrive and
          reenter Capernaum. Like Luke they too had been there
          all along Mt 4:13 on. However, Mt 4:13-8:5 is very
          difficult to read regarding their location due to Mt's
          style that gets a bit frilly in Mt 4:25. In Mt 5:1 we
          wonder what mountain he is talking about? Where is he?
          This is due to his frilly summary n Mt 4:25. The
          reader needs to get past this to see it was nothing
          more than a summary of future events encapsulated here
          as an ornament that acts more like a boulder in the
          path interrupting the smooth flow of the transition of
          the text. Mt does this because he belongs to a later
          artistic period than Lk. Lk belonged to the period
          that had what is called the Fist, Second and Third
          Style painting. Whereas, Mt belonged to the Fourth
          Style painting period that first emerged in the late
          50's AD. It was characteristic to add frilly details
          deviating from the simpler, cleaner, and clearer
          images of the first three styles. The Fourth Style
          painting period was the first Baroque-like period when
          imagery became cluttered and driven by "horror vacui"
          which Mt 4:25 exemplifies here and throughout his
          Gospel as does Mk clearly demonstrating that they
          belong to this new artistic period and are later than
          both Lk and Jn. (See John A. Clarke, The Houses of
          Roman Italy. 100 B.C. --A.D. 250 (Berkeley:
          University of California Press, 1991); Roger Ling,
          Roman Painting. (Cambridge, Cambridge University
          Press, 1991); Alexander G. McKay, Houses, Villas, and
          Palaces in the Roman World. (Ithica, NY: Cornell
          University Press, 1975); Amedeo Maiuri, Roman
          Painting. (Geneva, Skira, 1953); Jerome J. Pollitt,
          The Art of Rome, 753 B.C.--A.D. 337. Rev. ed.
          (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983). For the
          parallels in literature see J. Wight Duff, A Literary
          History of Rome In the Silver Age, 3rd ed. (N. Y.,
          1964):3-19.

          2. The Centurion

          Lk 7: 2 says "a centurion there" indicating he lived
          in Capernaum. Lk tells us that this centurion has a
          slave whom he cherished (ENTIMOS) and was deadly ill.
          The centurion hears about Jesus and dispatches a small
          delegation of Jewish elders to appeal to him for help
          on the slave's behalf. They convince him of the
          centurion's worthiness and goes with them to see him
          and the slave. Before Jesus arrives to the
          centurion's home a second delegation of friends greets
          Jesus with the message: "I am not worthy that you
          should come under my roof . . .But only speak the
          word, and let my servant be healed." Then, they give
          the centurion's analogy of his power to dispatch
          commands (already obvious by the 2 delegations) to
          Jesus who can do likewise.

          Mt 8:5 has the centurion also living in Capernaum
          personally come to Jesus as soon as he enters the
          city. He tells him his slave-boy is bedridden,
          paralyzed and in terrible pain. Now this is curious
          since Lk has traditionally been characterized as a
          physician (a position which I do not hold) who if he
          read Mt would surely have delighted in the physical
          diagnosis and copied it. Even if Lk is not a
          physician there is a tendency for him to relish in
          medical details. Yet, none of this appealing material
          is found in Lk which suggests he never saw it.
          Further, Mt's description of the slave-boy's illness
          is one that would have been long-term and he must have
          had this condition for some time, not so in Lk. As we
          have seen Jesus and the disciples were in the
          immediate area all along Mt 4:13-8:5// Lk 4:31-7:1.
          So, if this powerful commanding centurion could
          dispatch servants why did he not do so, and sooner?
          Instead he comes himself when convenient upon Jesus'
          reentering the city. Hence, the logic to the story
          becomes strained due to changes Mt gives to Lk's
          narrative. Moreover, Jesus is prevented from going to
          the slave-boy by the centurion who nearly quotes Lk
          "I am not worthy that you should come under my roof .
          . .But only speak the word, and let my servant be
          healed." Now the foible in Mt that shows him up with
          fatigue changing Lk is what follows in Mt 8:9 which
          makes far less sense here than in Lk. In Mt the
          centurion's protestations seem somewhat ingenuine
          since he does not exemplify the power to give commands
          as the centurion in Lk who sent 2 delegations, that
          do. Further, the ill person in Mt is a slave-boy
          (PAIS) suggesting a pederastic relationship. The
          awkwardness here is the reader's wonderment of (1) the
          centurion's intentions. Is he upset that he can no
          longer have sex with the boy because he is ill
          preventing it? (2) He shamelessly comes to Jesus
          face-to-face speaking about his unworthiness also
          suggested by the pederastic relationship, but instead
          of sending delegations as would seem appropriate here
          more so than in Lk, who has no pederastic relationship
          suggested, the centurion goes himself to be
          embarrassed and humiliated, hardly the behavior we
          would expect of a powerful commanding centurion.
          Finally, Jesus' amazement is followed by Mt 8:11 that
          brings to mind Mt 28:19 and clearly shows a late
          written account.

          Best reagrds,
          John


          =====
          John N. Lupia
          501 North Avenue B-1
          Elizabeth, New Jersey 07208-1731 USA

          __________________________________________________
          Do You Yahoo!?
          Yahoo! Greetings - send holiday greetings for Easter, Passover
          http://greetings.yahoo.com/

          Synoptic-L Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/synoptic-l
          List Owner: Synoptic-L-Owner@...
        Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.