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Re: [Synoptic-L] Luke knew Matthew: Three versions

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  • Mark Goodacre
    ... On the Farrer Theory (no advocate of the theory -- to my knowledge -- calls it Farrer-Goulder ), there are two other important advocates still living,
    Message 1 of 14 , Apr 10 6:41 AM
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      On 10 Apr 2001, at 14:06, Peter M. Head wrote:

      > i) Have I missed anyone important?

      On the Farrer Theory (no advocate of the theory -- to my knowledge
      -- calls it "Farrer-Goulder"), there are two other important advocates
      still living, Eric Franklin (see especially his 1994 work) and H.
      Benedict Green.

      > ii) Does anyone know anything about E. Simon, Hat der dritte
      > Evangelist den kanonischen Matthäus benutzt (Bonn: C. Georgi, 1880)?
      > Apparently influenced Holtzmann, mentioned in Farmer, Synoptic
      > Problem. Where does he fit into the typology?

      There are some useful comments on Simons in Edward Hobbs's
      article "A Quarter Century Without Q". This appeared in the
      Perkins School of Theology Journal 1980. Since this may be
      difficult to access, there is a web version available at:

      http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/q/hobbs.htm

      iii) If one was going to
      > argue the opposite (i.e. Luke's independence from Matthew) would it be
      > fair to treat the issue globally, or would one need a detailed
      > critique of each of the three options?

      The difficulty with treating the issue globally is that the Farrer
      Theory is more closely related to the Two-Source Theory than it is
      to the Griesbach Theory since both Two-Source and Farrer make
      Marcan Priority foundational. Discussing Farrer alongside
      Griesbach does tend to obscure the extent to which Marcan
      Priority is foundational for the Farrer theory (cf. my "A Monopoly on
      Marcan Priority? Fallacies at the Heart of Q").

      Always nice to talk to you Peter!
      Mark
      --------------------------------------
      Dr Mark Goodacre mailto:M.S.Goodacre@...
      Dept of Theology tel: +44 121 414 7512
      University of Birmingham fax: +44 121 414 6866
      Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom

      http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/goodacre
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    • Maluflen@aol.com
      In a message dated 4/10/2001 9:08:03 AM Eastern Daylight Time, pmh15@cam.ac.uk writes:
      Message 2 of 14 , Apr 10 7:38 AM
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        In a message dated 4/10/2001 9:08:03 AM Eastern Daylight Time,
        pmh15@... writes:

        << There seem to be three different views among those who think that Luke knew
        Matthew:

        a) Griesbach Hyp view: Lk used Mt as his major source (e.g. Old Griesbach
        School, Farmer, Q Impasse) >>

        The three examples cited here in the e.g. should probably be distinguished
        from each other in terms of their view that Luke knew and used Matthew, with
        significantly increasing awareness and exploitation of this fact from the
        first to the last named. I have not personally read through the whole of
        Griesbach's own treatise, but I have read in informed sources that he barely
        mentions Luke's knowledge and use of Matt. The entire treatise is focused on
        arguing that Mark's Gospel is best understood as a conflation of Matt and
        Luke. (My own approach has been from exactly the opposite direction from
        Griesbach: my emphasis has been on investigating the very complex web of
        evidence for Luke's profoundly respectful -- and critical -- use of Matthew,
        which can by no means be reduced to the picking up of a Matthean phrase here
        or there.) Farmer did more in the direction of thinking through Luke's use of
        Matt, and Q Impasse goes still further (but not far enough, in my view) in
        this direction.

        Leonard Maluf

        Synoptic-L Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/synoptic-l
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      • Maluflen@aol.com
        In a message dated 4/10/2001 9:43:05 AM Eastern Daylight Time, M.S.Goodacre@bham.ac.uk writes:
        Message 3 of 14 , Apr 10 7:56 AM
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          In a message dated 4/10/2001 9:43:05 AM Eastern Daylight Time,
          M.S.Goodacre@... writes:

          << Discussing Farrer alongside
          Griesbach does tend to obscure the extent to which Marcan
          Priority is foundational for the Farrer theory >>

          Indeed! This peculiar combination of responses to the Two Source Theory on
          the part of Farrerites has always puzzled me. From my point of view, they
          evidence (1) a profoundly critical rethinking of the Q hypothesis and (2) a
          seemingly uncritical acceptance of Markan priority as foundational to the
          solution of the Synoptic Problem. This is of course beginning to change in
          recent times, with the significant efforts and contributions of Mark G. and
          Peter Head, who have at least attempted to find some minimal solid support
          for Markan priority, the classical arguments for which have been demonstrated
          to be so hopelessly worthless, to state the point somewhat provocatively.
          But, to my knowledge, Farrerites have yet to address the significant
          arguments in favor of Markan posteriority that have been assembled by
          Griesbachians and others.

          Leonard Maluf

          Synoptic-L Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/synoptic-l
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        • Peter M. Head
          Thanks Mark for your helpful notes. Are there any interesting non-scientific commonalities among the British representatives of the Farrer-Goulder theory?
          Message 4 of 14 , Apr 10 10:05 AM
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            Thanks Mark for your helpful notes. Are there any interesting
            non-scientific commonalities among the British representatives of the
            Farrer-Goulder theory? Oxford is one. Did they all go to the same school or
            something?
            I'm not meaning to ignore your comment by the way, it is just that Farrer
            theory is much less clear than Farrer-Goulder (which non-advocates have
            been using for a while). Should advocates be given automatic rights of
            self-identification?

            Re
            >The difficulty with treating the issue globally is that the Farrer
            >Theory is more closely related to the Two-Source Theory than it is
            >to the Griesbach Theory since both Two-Source and Farrer make
            >Marcan Priority foundational. Discussing Farrer alongside
            >Griesbach does tend to obscure the extent to which Marcan
            >Priority is foundational for the Farrer theory (cf. my "A Monopoly on
            >Marcan Priority? Fallacies at the Heart of Q").

            The alternative problem is that much of the evidence is somewhat similar.
            It is hard to imagine any discussion not being very repetitious. Anyway
            I'll worry about later.

            Pete


            Dr. Peter M. Head
            Tyndale House
            36 Selwyn Gardens
            Cambridge CB3 9BA
            Tel: 01223 566607
            Fax: 01223 566608
            email: pmh15@...



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          • Peter M. Head
            Thanks Leonard, that is worth pondering, although there is a bit more stuff in inter alia de Wette, Bleek, Davidson. There may be some more detail again in old
            Message 5 of 14 , Apr 10 10:05 AM
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              Thanks Leonard, that is worth pondering, although there is a bit more stuff
              in inter alia de Wette, Bleek, Davidson. There may be some more detail
              again in old material from the T¨bingen school. By the way I find your
              confession re Griesbach somewhat surprising (although your sources are
              surely right at this point).

              Peter

              Dr. Peter M. Head
              Tyndale House
              36 Selwyn Gardens
              Cambridge CB3 9BA
              Tel: 01223 566607
              Fax: 01223 566608
              email: pmh15@...



              Synoptic-L Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/synoptic-l
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            • Stephen C. Carlson
              ... Yes. The Augustinians (Zahn, Jameson, Chapman, Butler, and Wenham in the 20th century). Although the Augustinians and Farrer theory Q skeptics disagree
              Message 6 of 14 , Apr 10 2:56 PM
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                At 02:06 PM 4/10/01 +0100, Peter M. Head wrote:
                >There seem to be three different views among those who think that Luke knew
                >Matthew:
                >
                >a) Griesbach Hyp view: Lk used Mt as his major source (e.g. Old Griesbach
                >School, Farmer, Q Impasse)
                >b) Farrer-Goulder Hyp view: Lk used Mt as supplement to Mk, therefore
                >dispense with Q (e.g. Farrer, Goulder, Drury, Ropes, Enslin [I think some
                >Americans have held this view!], Goodacre)
                >c) 2SH view: Lk exhibits occasional knowledge of Mt, but primary sources
                >were Mk & Q (Gundry, later Holtzmann, Morganthaler).
                >
                >Some questions:
                >i) Have I missed anyone important?

                Yes. The Augustinians (Zahn, Jameson, Chapman, Butler, and Wenham in
                the 20th century). Although the Augustinians and Farrer theory Q
                skeptics disagree on Markan priority, their views on Luke's use of
                Matthew and Mark are compatible. (Though the Q skeptics, who hold
                to Markan priority without Q, have the better psychological argument
                for Luke's preference for Mark: Luke had known Mark for longer.)

                >ii) Does anyone know anything about E. Simon, Hat der dritte Evangelist den
                >kanonischen Matthäus benutzt (Bonn: C. Georgi, 1880)? Apparently influenced
                >Holtzmann, mentioned in Farmer, Synoptic Problem. Where does he fit into
                >the typology?

                All I know is what Hobbs explained. Simons was like your view
                (c), which has been termed the Three Source Hypothesis (Mark, Q,
                and Matthew). Holtzmann worked with Simons on this issue, which
                allowed Holtzmann to abandon Ur-Markus.

                >iii) If one was going to argue the opposite (i.e. Luke's independence from
                >Matthew) would it be fair to treat the issue globally, or would one need a
                >detailed critique of each of the three options?

                I would argue them separately. They are different and raise different
                kinds of issues.

                Stephen Carlson
                --
                Stephen C. Carlson mailto:scarlson@...
                Synoptic Problem Home Page http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/synopt/
                "Poetry speaks of aspirations, and songs chant the words." Shujing 2.35

                Synoptic-L Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/synoptic-l
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              • Stephen C. Carlson
                ... If by treatise you are referring to his Commentatio qua Marci Evangelium totum e Matthaei et Lucae commentariis decerptum esse monstratur, then you are
                Message 7 of 14 , Apr 10 3:01 PM
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                  At 10:38 AM 4/10/01 EDT, Maluflen@... wrote:
                  >I have not personally read through the whole of
                  >Griesbach's own treatise, but I have read in informed sources that he barely
                  >mentions Luke's knowledge and use of Matt. The entire treatise is focused on
                  >arguing that Mark's Gospel is best understood as a conflation of Matt and
                  >Luke.

                  If by "treatise" you are referring to his Commentatio qua Marci
                  Evangelium totum e Matthaei et Lucae commentariis decerptum esse
                  monstratur, then you are right, except that I couldn't find
                  anything in it at all that refers to Luke's use of Matthew. Bo
                  Reicke claimed that in another work, Inquisitio in fontes, unde
                  Evangelistae suas de resurrectione Domini narrationes hauserint
                  (1783), Greisbach did assert that Luke used Matthew.

                  Stephen Carlson
                  --
                  Stephen C. Carlson mailto:scarlson@...
                  Synoptic Problem Home Page http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/synopt/
                  "Poetry speaks of aspirations, and songs chant the words." Shujing 2.35

                  Synoptic-L Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/synoptic-l
                  List Owner: Synoptic-L-Owner@...
                • Mark Goodacre
                  ... I think Oxford is one -- Farrer taught Goulder there in the 1950s and John Muddiman in the 1960s. Franklin was at St Stephen s House and was my tutor in
                  Message 8 of 14 , Apr 10 3:17 PM
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                    On 10 Apr 2001, at 18:05, Peter M. Head wrote:

                    > Thanks Mark for your helpful notes. Are there any interesting
                    > non-scientific commonalities among the British representatives of the
                    > Farrer-Goulder theory? Oxford is one. Did they all go to the same
                    > school or something?

                    I think Oxford is one -- Farrer taught Goulder there in the 1950s and
                    John Muddiman in the 1960s. Franklin was at St Stephen's House
                    and was my tutor in the 1980s; Muddiman was my doctoral
                    supervisor in the 1990s. John Drury was chaplain of Exeter
                    College (which, as it happens, was my college too) in the 1970s,
                    across the road from Trinity where Goulder was giving his
                    Speakers' Lectures published as _Midrash and Lection in
                    Matthew_ in 1974 (cf. the preface to Drury's 1976 _Tradition and
                    Design in Luke's Gospel_). E. P. Sanders was Dean Ireland
                    professor at Oxford in the 1980s, and it was while there that he
                    published (with Margaret Davies) his most Farrer-friendly piece,
                    _Studying the Synoptic Gospels_ (1989). I can't fit Benedict Green
                    in here. I wonder if he was taught by Farrer too? I'll have to ask
                    him.

                    No, I don't think the same school comes into it. They are all posh
                    (e.g. Goulder went to Eton) whereas I was just an ordinary bod who
                    went to the local comprehensive school in the East Midlands.

                    There's a minor Birmingham link too. Goulder has spent most of
                    his academic career in the University of Birmingham until his
                    retirement in 1994. Farrer was a Cadbury lecturer here in 1953-4
                    (and the book is _St Matthew and St Mark_). Margaret Davies was
                    an undergraduate here in the late '50s, early '60s. I've been here
                    since 1995 for my short career so far. Ed Sanders was the
                    Cadbury lecturer here last year!

                    However, there are now those who have no link with any of this who
                    are becoming Q sceptics simply because they are looking carefully
                    at the evidence : )

                    > I'm not meaning to ignore your comment by the
                    > way, it is just that Farrer theory is much less clear than
                    > Farrer-Goulder (which non-advocates have been using for a while).
                    > Should advocates be given automatic rights of self-identification?

                    No, but they should be given a hearing if the existing usage is in
                    some way potentially misleading. There are several problems with
                    the term "Farrer-Goulder": (1) it marginalises the contributions of
                    key figures like John Drury and Eric Franklin; (2) it tacitly suggests
                    that the theory of Marcan Priority + Luke's use of Matthew
                    necessarily involves Goulder's take on it, including the implausible
                    theory of no additional sources. Drury and Franklin each contribute
                    something of key importance unrepresented by Goulder: Drury's
                    stress on Luke as a literary artist picks up on Farrer's stress on
                    the same and is a useful antidote to Goulder's fundamentally
                    source- / redaction- critical approach. Franklin stresses Luke's
                    critical attitude to Matthew alongside a rejection of Goulder's no-
                    extra-sources view. If in spite of these considerations, one still
                    thinks that "Farrer-Goulder" is the best description

                    > The alternative problem is that much of the evidence is somewhat
                    > similar. It is hard to imagine any discussion not being very
                    > repetitious. Anyway I'll worry about later.

                    Some of it is, but I suppose that my point was that the fundamental
                    agreement between Farrer & Two-Source on Marcan Priority
                    renders these rather different theses than Griesbach.

                    Mark

                    Synoptic-L Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/synoptic-l
                    List Owner: Synoptic-L-Owner@...
                  • Mark Goodacre
                    ... add then so be it , or finish the sentence how you see fit! Sorry for the error. Seriously, I have not heard a good defence of the term Farrer-Goulder
                    Message 9 of 14 , Apr 10 3:32 PM
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                      On 10 Apr 2001, at 23:17, Mark Goodacre wrote:

                      > If
                      > in spite of these considerations, one still thinks that
                      > "Farrer-Goulder" is the best description

                      add "then so be it", or finish the sentence how you see fit! Sorry
                      for the error. Seriously, I have not heard a good defence of the
                      term "Farrer-Goulder" from those who use it and I would be
                      interested to hear it.

                      Mark
                      -----------------------------
                      Dr Mark Goodacre mailto:M.S.Goodacre@...
                      Dept of Theology tel: +44 121 414 7512
                      University of Birmingham fax: +44 121 414 6866
                      Birmingham B15 2TT
                      United Kingdom

                      http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/goodacre
                      Homepage
                      http://NTGateway.com
                      The New Testament Gateway

                      Synoptic-L Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/synoptic-l
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                    • Maluflen@aol.com
                      In a message dated 4/10/2001 1:06:09 PM Eastern Daylight Time, pmh15@cam.ac.uk writes:
                      Message 10 of 14 , Apr 10 5:53 PM
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                        In a message dated 4/10/2001 1:06:09 PM Eastern Daylight Time,
                        pmh15@... writes:

                        << Thanks Leonard, that is worth pondering, although there is a bit more stuff
                        in inter alia de Wette, Bleek, Davidson. There may be some more detail
                        again in old material from the T¨bingen school. By the way I find your
                        confession re Griesbach somewhat surprising (although your sources are
                        surely right at this point).>>

                        My thanks to Stephen Carlson for clearing up the business about Griesbach by
                        distinguishing between two of his major works that addressed the issue. It
                        might interest you to know, Peter, that my own strong adherence to the
                        Griesbach position is a result of work with the Greek texts of the Gospels,
                        not the result of having been pursuaded by the arguments of scholars. I am
                        probably considerably less literate in the writings of the so-called "Farmer
                        school" than is Stephen Carlson (and probably you) as well. To continue our
                        game of trivia in Synoptic source theories, I wonder if anyone on the list
                        (you, for instance) would be prepared to jump a century from Griesbach and
                        classify the position on the Synoptic Problem (and on the question of Luke's
                        knowledge and use of Matthew) of the great mid-19th century Erlangen scholar,
                        Franz Delitzsch? Hint: he did write on the topic, more or less explicitly.

                        Leonard Maluf

                        Synoptic-L Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/synoptic-l
                        List Owner: Synoptic-L-Owner@...
                      • Ron Price
                        ... Pete, I suggest the following: (1) The Temptation. Davies & Allison (_Matthew_, I, 350), refer to an article by Wilkens - Die Versuchung Jesu nach
                        Message 11 of 14 , Apr 11 1:09 AM
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                          Peter Head wrote:

                          > Would any of the advocates of the view that Luke knew Matthew like
                          > to suggest their best examples?

                          Pete,

                          I suggest the following:
                          (1) The Temptation. Davies & Allison (_Matthew_, I, 350), refer to an
                          article by Wilkens - "Die Versuchung Jesu nach Matthaus" NTS 28 (1982),
                          479-89, which argues for the Matthean version as largely redactional and
                          for Luke as dependent on Matthew here.
                          (2) John the Baptist's Inquiry
                          (3) The 'naming' and framing of the Sermon on the Plain, which looks
                          very much as if it was based on that of the Sermon on the Mount, for the
                          scenery was not in the sayings source.

                          Detailed arguments on the first two (amongst others) can be found on
                          my Web site.

                          Ron Price

                          Weston-on-Trent, Derby, UK

                          e-mail: ron.price@...

                          Web site: http://homepage.virgin.net/ron.price/index.htm


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                        • Peter M. Head
                          Thanks Mark, this is really helpful (and interesting). Peter ... Dr. Peter M. Head Tyndale House 36 Selwyn Gardens Cambridge CB3 9BA Tel: 01223 566607 Fax:
                          Message 12 of 14 , Apr 11 7:01 AM
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                            Thanks Mark,

                            this is really helpful (and interesting).

                            Peter

                            >On 10 Apr 2001, at 18:05, Peter M. Head wrote:
                            >
                            >> Thanks Mark for your helpful notes. Are there any interesting
                            >> non-scientific commonalities among the British representatives of the
                            >> Farrer-Goulder theory? Oxford is one. Did they all go to the same
                            >> school or something?
                            >
                            >I think Oxford is one -- Farrer taught Goulder there in the 1950s and
                            >John Muddiman in the 1960s. Franklin was at St Stephen's House
                            >and was my tutor in the 1980s; Muddiman was my doctoral
                            >supervisor in the 1990s. John Drury was chaplain of Exeter
                            >College (which, as it happens, was my college too) in the 1970s,
                            >across the road from Trinity where Goulder was giving his
                            >Speakers' Lectures published as _Midrash and Lection in
                            >Matthew_ in 1974 (cf. the preface to Drury's 1976 _Tradition and
                            >Design in Luke's Gospel_). E. P. Sanders was Dean Ireland
                            >professor at Oxford in the 1980s, and it was while there that he
                            >published (with Margaret Davies) his most Farrer-friendly piece,
                            >_Studying the Synoptic Gospels_ (1989). I can't fit Benedict Green
                            >in here. I wonder if he was taught by Farrer too? I'll have to ask
                            >him.
                            >
                            >No, I don't think the same school comes into it. They are all posh
                            >(e.g. Goulder went to Eton) whereas I was just an ordinary bod who
                            >went to the local comprehensive school in the East Midlands.
                            >
                            >There's a minor Birmingham link too. Goulder has spent most of
                            >his academic career in the University of Birmingham until his
                            >retirement in 1994. Farrer was a Cadbury lecturer here in 1953-4
                            >(and the book is _St Matthew and St Mark_). Margaret Davies was
                            >an undergraduate here in the late '50s, early '60s. I've been here
                            >since 1995 for my short career so far. Ed Sanders was the
                            >Cadbury lecturer here last year!
                            >
                            >However, there are now those who have no link with any of this who
                            >are becoming Q sceptics simply because they are looking carefully
                            >at the evidence : )
                            >
                            >> I'm not meaning to ignore your comment by the
                            >> way, it is just that Farrer theory is much less clear than
                            >> Farrer-Goulder (which non-advocates have been using for a while).
                            >> Should advocates be given automatic rights of self-identification?
                            >
                            >No, but they should be given a hearing if the existing usage is in
                            >some way potentially misleading. There are several problems with
                            >the term "Farrer-Goulder": (1) it marginalises the contributions of
                            >key figures like John Drury and Eric Franklin; (2) it tacitly suggests
                            >that the theory of Marcan Priority + Luke's use of Matthew
                            >necessarily involves Goulder's take on it, including the implausible
                            >theory of no additional sources. Drury and Franklin each contribute
                            >something of key importance unrepresented by Goulder: Drury's
                            >stress on Luke as a literary artist picks up on Farrer's stress on
                            >the same and is a useful antidote to Goulder's fundamentally
                            >source- / redaction- critical approach. Franklin stresses Luke's
                            >critical attitude to Matthew alongside a rejection of Goulder's no-
                            >extra-sources view. If in spite of these considerations, one still
                            >thinks that "Farrer-Goulder" is the best description
                            >
                            >> The alternative problem is that much of the evidence is somewhat
                            >> similar. It is hard to imagine any discussion not being very
                            >> repetitious. Anyway I'll worry about later.
                            >
                            >Some of it is, but I suppose that my point was that the fundamental
                            >agreement between Farrer & Two-Source on Marcan Priority
                            >renders these rather different theses than Griesbach.
                            >
                            >Mark
                            >
                            >Synoptic-L Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/synoptic-l
                            >List Owner: Synoptic-L-Owner@...

                            Dr. Peter M. Head
                            Tyndale House
                            36 Selwyn Gardens
                            Cambridge CB3 9BA
                            Tel: 01223 566607
                            Fax: 01223 566608
                            email: pmh15@...



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                            List Owner: Synoptic-L-Owner@...
                          • Jack Kilmon
                            ... From: Ron Price To: Synoptic-L Sent: Wednesday, April 11, 2001 1:09 AM Subject: Re: [Synoptic-L] Luke
                            Message 13 of 14 , Apr 11 8:19 AM
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                              ----- Original Message -----
                              From: "Ron Price" <ron.price@...>
                              To: "Synoptic-L" <Synoptic-L@...>
                              Sent: Wednesday, April 11, 2001 1:09 AM
                              Subject: Re: [Synoptic-L] Luke knew Matthew: Three versions


                              > Peter Head wrote:
                              >
                              > > Would any of the advocates of the view that Luke knew Matthew like
                              > > to suggest their best examples?
                              >
                              > Pete,
                              >
                              > I suggest the following:
                              > (1) The Temptation. Davies & Allison (_Matthew_, I, 350), refer to an
                              > article by Wilkens - "Die Versuchung Jesu nach Matthaus" NTS 28 (1982),
                              > 479-89, which argues for the Matthean version as largely redactional and
                              > for Luke as dependent on Matthew here.
                              > (2) John the Baptist's Inquiry
                              > (3) The 'naming' and framing of the Sermon on the Plain, which looks
                              > very much as if it was based on that of the Sermon on the Mount, for the
                              > scenery was not in the sayings source.

                              I find none of these arguments supporting Lukan use of Matthew. Luke's
                              use of more "primitive" forms of material found in Matthew; Luke's tendency
                              to use the Aramaic idiom accurately over Matthew's translational Greek
                              sources....all equals Mark > Luke > Matthew with Matthew using a
                              translational Greek "Q" and Luke having used an Aramaic document. It
                              is Luke's Aramaic Q that keeps me out of the "no Q" club. A fictional
                              document doesn't come in two languages.

                              Jack


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