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Re: Markan Priority: Argument from Length

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  • Mark Goodacre
    ... Although a strong advocate of Markan Priority, I do not think that this argument, Mark would not have omitted this or that is convincing. Its underlying
    Message 1 of 25 , Jun 1, 1998
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      Stephen Carlson wrote (some omitted):

      > After a series of rhetorical questions about specific materials
      > allegedly omitted by Mark under Markan posteriority (e.g. infancy
      > narratives, Sermon on the Mount, much teaching, Lord's Prayer,
      > etc.), Stein argues that "[i]t is hard to conceive of any reason why
      > Mark would omit much material from his Gospel, if it all lay before
      > him as copied Matthew and/or Luke." [49]

      Although a strong advocate of Markan Priority, I do not think that
      this argument, "Mark would not have omitted this or that" is
      convincing. Its underlying assumption is one that has been
      criticised by Ed Sanders, the assumption that no evangelist would
      have omitted anything of any substance that he found in his sources.
      He speaks of that as being a major, underlying presupposition of the
      2ST. Arguably, it emerges from an old-fashioned,
      scissors-and-paste way of looking at the Gospels.

      > If there is a tendency for the tradition to expand (a point
      > virtually presupposed by form criticism), then it is apparent that
      > the evidence is contradictory: Matthew and Luke expand the content
      > of Mark, but Mark expands the wording of Matthew and Luke. However,
      > I've been convinced by E.P.Sanders that there is no such tendency:
      > the post-canonical synoptic tradition exhibits both expansion and
      > contraction.

      I agree that Sanders has put the kibosh (sp.?) on this argument. And
      one doesn't even need the extra-canonical material to see it. Some
      of the relevant data from _Tendencies_ is as follows:

      Triple tradition material: c. 83 pericopes

      Mark: c. 8598 words; Matt.: 8325

      Difference: 273 words.

      Of the 83 pericopes, Mark is longer than Matt. in 44; Matt is
      longer than Mark in 37.

      Of those 273 words, 190 (just over one third of them) are in the
      Gerasene Demoniac

      > Furthermore, asking what is likely for a first century
      > Christian to do is too subjective for my taste, especially since
      > most of our understanding of first-century Christianity over the
      > past 135 years is derived from the acceptance of the Two Source
      > Hypothesis in one form or another. Thus, I feel that the arguments
      > from length offer little probative weight.

      I agree with Stephen on this one; for a good argument for Markan
      Priority we need to look elsewhere.

      All the best

      Mark
      --------------------------------------
      Dr Mark Goodacre M.S.Goodacre@...
      Dept of Theology, University of Birmingham
      Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/goodacre
    • Stephen C. Carlson
      ... You are of course correct. To some extent, the argument from length classically is an attempt to reconcile these two different phenomena. To the
      Message 2 of 25 , Jun 1, 1998
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        At 12:11 6/1/98 -0000, James R. Covey wrote:
        >I think that when we talk about Matthean and Lukan "length"
        >versus Markan "length", we are talking about two different
        >things.

        You are of course correct. To some extent, the argument from
        length classically is an attempt to reconcile these two different
        phenomena. To the adherents of the Markan Hypotheses (2SH, etc.),
        the additional content (e.g. the Great Sermon) trumps the verbal
        expansion of Mark. Sometimes, it is suggested that Matthew and
        Luke compressed Mark's verbiage to get their own gospels to fit
        in a scroll. To the adherents of the Griesbach Hypotheses, on
        the other hand, the verbal expansion on the part of Mark trumps
        the relative lack of content in Mark.

        My own view, being influenced by E.P.Sanders, THE TENDENCIES OF
        THE SYNOPTIC TRADITION (Cambridge: U. Press, SNTSMS 9, 1969), is
        that the arguments from length prove very little about the relative
        priority of the Synoptics. If one wants to argue that either
        Matthew and Luke compressed Mark's accounts, it seems that this
        argument is more sustainable for Luke than for Matthew.

        Stephen Carlson
        --
        Stephen C. Carlson : Poetry speaks of aspirations,
        scarlson@... : and songs chant the words.
        http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/ : -- Shujing 2.35
      • Stephen C. Carlson
        ... ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ [Note the source critical implications! ;-)] ... I believe there are better arguments for Markan Priority. Having been taught that a good
        Message 3 of 25 , Jun 1, 1998
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          At 04:21 6/1/98 GMT, Mark Goodacre wrote:
          >Stephen Carlson wrote (some omitted):
          ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
          [Note the source critical implications! ;-)]

          >> Thus, I feel that the arguments
          >> from length offer little probative weight.
          >
          >I agree with Stephen on this one; for a good argument for Markan
          >Priority we need to look elsewhere.

          I believe there are better arguments for Markan Priority. Having
          been taught that a good advocate puts the strongest argument first,
          I am disappointed that this argument has the pride of place, being
          the very first argument mentioned in many treatments of Markan
          Priority. I can document Streeter (1924), Kuemmel (1965), Fitzmyer
          (1970), Stein (1987, 1992), Stanton (1989), Tuckett (ABD 1992), and
          the Jesus Seminar (1994) as those who present the argument from
          length first. To be fair, some of these scholars explicitly reassess
          Streeter's argument in light of recent criticism, thereby following
          Streeter's order of presentation.

          Stephen Carlson

          --
          Stephen C. Carlson : Poetry speaks of aspirations,
          scarlson@... : and songs chant the words.
          http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/ : -- Shujing 2.35
        • James R. Covey
          ... All right, you have my interest. I haven t read the Sanders text, I admit. So perhaps you could set out a short synopsis of your own -- a brief summary
          Message 4 of 25 , Jun 2, 1998
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            re missive of 01/06/98 11:14 PM signed -Stephen C. Carlson- :

            >My own view, being influenced by E.P.Sanders, THE TENDENCIES OF
            >THE SYNOPTIC TRADITION (Cambridge: U. Press, SNTSMS 9, 1969), is
            >that the arguments from length prove very little about the relative
            >priority of the Synoptics.

            All right, you have my interest. I haven't read the Sanders text,
            I admit. So perhaps you could set out a short synopsis of your
            own -- a brief summary of his argument. I'd love to know what he
            says. My own understanding of the argument from length is
            a fairly standard one... I'll append Daniel Wallace's version
            to the end of this email and perhaps you could skim it an comment
            as to whether that is what Sanders means by the "argument from
            length"? And perhaps mention briefly how he counters it?

            >If one wants to argue that either
            >Matthew and Luke compressed Mark's accounts, it seems that this
            >argument is more sustainable for Luke than for Matthew.

            Perhaps so, but I still would put Matthew clearly ahead of
            Mark on the grammatical-finesse scale, even if he doesn't
            quite reach the Lukan heights. And if he can be shown to
            be finessing Markan texts, some compression should be
            expected. (This is aside from other possible redactional
            interests.)

            James

            [ source: http://www.bible.org/docs/soapbox/synoptic.htm ]

            >Mark's Shortness: The Argument from Length
            >
            >Mark's brevity can be measured in terms of verses or words:
            >
            > VERSES WORDS
            > MATTHEW 1068 18,293
            > MARK 661 11,025
            > LUKE 1149 19,376
            >
            >When one compares the synoptic parallels, some startling results
            >are noticed. Of Mark's 11,025 words, only 132 have no parallel
            >in either Matthew or Luke. Percentage-wise, 97% of Mark's Gospel
            >is duplicated in Matthew; and 88% is found in Luke. On the other
            >hand, less than 60% of Matthew is duplicated in Mark, and only
            >47% of Luke is found in Mark.
            >
            >What is to account for the almost total absorption of Mark into
            >Matthew and Luke? The Griesbach hypothesis suggests that Mark
            >was the last gospel written and that the author used Matthew and
            >Luke. But if so, why did he omit so much material? What Mark
            >omits from his gospel cannot be considered insignificant: the
            >birth of Jesus, the birth of John the Baptist, the Sermon on the
            >Mount, the Lord's Prayer, the resurrection appearances by Jesus,
            >much teaching material, etc. Further, he has abbreviated
            >accounts of the Lord's temptation and baptism. There are two
            >reasons usually given as to why Mark would omit so much
            >material: (1) Mark wanted to provide an abridged gospel for use
            >in the churches; (2) Mark only wanted to record material that
            >was found in both Matthew and Luke, perhaps on the analogy of
            >Deut 17:6-7/19:15 (the voice of at least two witnesses confirmed
            >a truth). Both of these reasons seem inadequate however, for the
            >following reasons.
            >
            >(1) Mark's Gospel is not really an abridgment: "whereas Mark is
            >considerably shorter in total length than Matthew and Luke, when
            >we compare the individual pericopes that they have in common,
            >time and time again we find that Mark is the longest!" In other
            >words, Mark's Gospel, where it has parallels with Matthew and
            >Luke, is not an abridgment, but an expansion. Not only this, but
            >the very material he omits would have served a good purpose in
            >his gospel. For example, Mark attempts to emphasize Jesus' role
            >as teacher (cf. 2:13; 4:1-2; 6:2; 8:31; 12:35, 38, etc.), yet he
            >omits much of what he actually taught. The best explanation of
            >this would seem to be that he was unacquainted with some of
            >these sayings of Jesus, rather than that he intentionally
            >omitted so much‹in particular, the Sermon on the Mount. "An
            >abridged work becomes shorter by both eliminating various
            >materials and abbreviating the accounts retained." But the
            >material which Mark eliminates is quite inexplicable on the
            >assumption of Markan posteriority; and the accounts which he
            >retains are almost always longer than either Luke's or
            >Matthew's.
            >
            >(2) It is fallacious to argue that Mark only wanted to record
            >material found in both Matthew and Luke. Yet, W. R. Farmer comes
            >close to this view when he writes that Mark's Gospel was created
            >as:
            >
            > a new Gospel out of existing Gospels on an "exclusive"
            > principle. . . . [It was written for liturgical purposes
            > as] a new Gospel [composed] largely out of existing Gospels
            > concentrating on those materials where their texts bore
            > concurrent testimony to the same Gospel tradition. The
            > Gospel of Mark to a considerable extent could be understood
            > as just such a work . . .
            >
            >There is a threefold problem with this. First, it is rather
            >doubtful that Mark intended to write his gospel by way of
            >confirming what was found in both Matthew and Luke. There is
            >little evidence in his gospel that this was an important motif.
            >Rather, if any gospel writer employed this motif, it was Matthew
            >not Mark.
            >
            >Second, there is much material‹and very rich material‹found in
            >both Matthew and Luke that is absent in Mark. In particular, the
            >birth narrative, Sermon on the Mount, Lord's Prayer, and
            >resurrection appearances. If Mark only produced material found
            >in both Matthew and Luke, why did he omit such important
            >passages which are attested by these other two gospels?
            >
            >Third, it is quite an overstatement to say that Mark only
            >produced material found in the other two: much of his gospel
            >includes pericopes which are found in only one other gospel.
            >
            >For examples of exclusively Mark-Luke parallels, note the
            >following: the healing of the demoniac in the synagogue (Mark
            >1:23-28/Luke 4:33-37); the widow's mite (Mark 12:41-44/Luke
            >21:1-4).
            >
            >For examples of exclusively Mark-Matthew parallels, note the
            >following: the offending eye/hand (Matt. 5:29-30 and 18:8-9/Mark
            >9:43-47); the details about the death of John the Baptist (Matt.
            >14:3-12/Mark 6:17-29); Jesus walking on the water (Matt
            >14:22-33/Mark 6:45-52); Isaiah's prophecy about a hypocritical
            >people and Jesus' application (Matt 15:1-20/Mark 7:1-23); the
            >Syrophoenicean woman pericope (Matt 15:21-28/Mark 7:24-30); the
            >healing of the deaf-mute (Matt 15:29-31/Mark 7:31-37); the
            >feeding of the four thousand (Matt 15:32-39/Mark 8:1-10);
            >Elijah's coming (Matt 17:10-13/Mark 9:11-13); the withering of
            >the fig tree (Matt 21:20-22/Mark 11:20-26); the soldiers'
            >mockery of Jesus before Pilate (Matt 27:28-31/Mark 15:17-20).
            >
            >What these double-gospel parallels reveal is two things: (1)
            >Mark did not follow the principle of exclusivity, for he
            >includes quite a bit of material which is found only in one
            >other gospel; (2) Mark parallels Matthew far more often than he
            >does Luke (only two pericopes in Mark-Luke vs. ten in
            >Mark-Matthew), negating Farmer's claim that where Mark only
            >followed one gospel he did so in a balanced way, preferring
            >neither Matthew nor Luke.
            >
            >Against a theory of Matthean priority stands the supposition
            >that Luke and Matthew used additional source(s). If so, then the
            >reason they shortened the pericopes they shared with Mark was so
            >that they might include other materials within the length of
            >their scrolls.
            >
            >In sum, we could add the now famous statement of G. M. Styler:
            >"given Mk, it is easy to see why Matt. was written; given Matt.,
            >it is hard to see why Mk was needed."


            -------------------------
            James R. Covey
            WWW Systems Developer
            Cochran Interactive Inc.
            http://www.cochran.com
            direct ph. # 902.422.8915
            office fax # 902.425.8659
            jrcovey@...
          • Yuri Kuchinsky
            On Mon, 1 Jun 1998, Stephen C. Carlson wrote: ... Dear Stephen, The proto-Mk theory explains all of this very nicely. You should look into this sometime. I ve
            Message 5 of 25 , Jun 2, 1998
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              On Mon, 1 Jun 1998, Stephen C. Carlson wrote:

              ...

              > If there is a tendency for the tradition to expand (a point virtually
              > presupposed by form criticism), then it is apparent that the evidence is
              > contradictory: Matthew and Luke expand the content of Mark, but Mark
              > expands the wording of Matthew and Luke. However, I've been convinced
              > by E.P.Sanders that there is no such tendency: the post-canonical
              > synoptic tradition exhibits both expansion and contraction.
              > Furthermore, asking what is likely for a first century Christian to do
              > is too subjective for my taste, especially since most of our
              > understanding of first-century Christianity over the past 135 years is
              > derived from the acceptance of the Two Source Hypothesis in one form or
              > another. Thus, I feel that the arguments from length offer little
              > probative weight. It is barely mentioned in Sander & Davies textbook,
              > for example. Yet, it seems to be often the first argument in the more
              > popularizing material, e.g. Tuckett's ANCHOR BIBLE DICTIONARY article,
              > Stanton's THE GOSPELS & JESUS, Stein's article in DICTIONARY OF JESUS &
              > THE GOSPELS.
              >
              > So, if I may ask the list, how persuasive for Markan priority is and
              > ought to be the arguments from length?

              Dear Stephen,

              The proto-Mk theory explains all of this very nicely. You should look into
              this sometime. I've already talked about this before, but people holding
              on to their entrenched positions are so slow to note obvious answers to
              such problems.

              On the protoMk theory, many of the canonical Mk's passages are late
              expansions. But these valid arguments are so often neglected. So often
              commentators fall into the trap of assuming the "basic textual unity of NT
              texts". I said it before, and will say it again: There's little more than
              unreasoned faith on which to base our myth of the "basic textual unity of
              the gospels".

              Because of this, any wholesale comparison e.g. of "the unity of Mt"
              against the "unity of Mk" seems rather naive to me. In this sense, the
              "Synoptic Problem", as such, is a myth in so far as these questionable
              assumptions are adhered to.

              Best wishes,

              Yuri.

              Yuri Kuchinsky || Toronto

              http://www.trends.net/~yuku/bbl/bbl.htm

              The goal proposed by Cynic philosophy is apathy, which is
              equivalent to becoming God -=O=- Julian
            • Mark Goodacre
              James Covey quoted Dan Wallace s article, which featured the ... This is not really correct in the light of Sanders. The figures from _Tendencies_ which I
              Message 6 of 25 , Jun 2, 1998
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                James Covey quoted Dan Wallace's article, which featured the
                following:

                > > But the
                > >material which Mark eliminates is quite inexplicable on the
                > >assumption of Markan posteriority; and the accounts which he
                > >retains are almost always longer than either Luke's or
                > >Matthew's.

                This is not really correct in the light of Sanders. The figures from
                _Tendencies_ which I quoted yesterday are:

                Triple tradition material: c. 83 pericopes

                Mark: c. 8598 words; Matt.: 8325

                Difference: 273 words.

                Of the 83 pericopes, Mark is longer than Matt. in 44; Matt is
                longer than Mark in 37.

                Of those 273 words, 190 (just over one third of them) are in the
                Gerasene Demoniac

                I believe strongly in Markan Priority, but this means that the
                importance of finding adequate arguments for it is all the stronger.
                Exposing weak arguments for Markan Priority has been one of the most
                important contributions made by neo-Griesbachians (among others,
                like Sanders) to synoptic study.

                I am happy with the two matters proposed by Jeff Peterson. The term
                "inconcinnities", by the way, is used in this context also by Davies
                and Allison in their ICC commentary on Matthew.

                Mark
                --------------------------------------
                Dr Mark Goodacre M.S.Goodacre@...
                Dept of Theology, University of Birmingham
                Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/goodacre
              • Stephen C. Carlson
                ... Yuri s point is a good one to extent that hypothetical documents such as Loisy s protoMk (is it any different from Ur-Markus?) are not often considered at
                Message 7 of 25 , Jun 2, 1998
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                  At 09:10 6/2/98 -0400, Yuri Kuchinsky wrote:
                  >On the protoMk theory, many of the canonical Mk's passages are late
                  >expansions. But these valid arguments are so often neglected. So often
                  >commentators fall into the trap of assuming the "basic textual unity of NT
                  >texts".

                  Yuri's point is a good one to extent that hypothetical documents such
                  as Loisy's protoMk (is it any different from Ur-Markus?) are not often
                  considered at all when investigating the Triple Tradition. The most
                  that happens is the consideration and subsequent dismissal of Ur-Markus
                  as a possible explanation for the Minor Agreements. Failure to
                  consider all possible explanations (and unfortunately there are many
                  possible explanations) may prejudge the outcome. The only real
                  difficulty I would have with an hypothetical document is a lack of any
                  real controls that an attested text has.

                  Stephen Carlson



                  --
                  Stephen C. Carlson : Poetry speaks of aspirations,
                  scarlson@... : and songs chant the words.
                  http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/ : -- Shujing 2.35
                • Stephen C. Carlson
                  ... Dan Wallace is expressly dependent on Robert H. Stein, whom I ve been discussing in detail. Thus, Wallace does not add much over Stein except he pays more
                  Message 8 of 25 , Jun 3, 1998
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                    At 12:01 6/2/98 -0000, James R. Covey wrote:
                    >re missive of 01/06/98 11:14 PM signed -Stephen C. Carlson- :
                    >>My own view, being influenced by E.P.Sanders, THE TENDENCIES OF
                    >>THE SYNOPTIC TRADITION (Cambridge: U. Press, SNTSMS 9, 1969), is
                    >>that the arguments from length prove very little about the relative
                    >>priority of the Synoptics.
                    >
                    >All right, you have my interest. I haven't read the Sanders text,
                    >I admit. So perhaps you could set out a short synopsis of your
                    >own -- a brief summary of his argument. I'd love to know what he
                    >says. My own understanding of the argument from length is
                    >a fairly standard one... I'll append Daniel Wallace's version
                    >to the end of this email and perhaps you could skim it an comment
                    >as to whether that is what Sanders means by the "argument from
                    >length"? And perhaps mention briefly how he counters it?

                    Dan Wallace is expressly dependent on Robert H. Stein, whom I've
                    been discussing in detail. Thus, Wallace does not add much over
                    Stein except he pays more attention to the Griesbach Hypothesis,
                    for which see Longstaff's post.

                    What Sanders did was that he actually looked at the evidence instead
                    of relying on intuitive concerns. He proposed a variety of ways in
                    which a text can be expanded or compressed (e.g. add/omit OT quotes,
                    add/omit to/from speeches, add/omit speeches, add/omit dialogue,
                    creation of new scenes, etc.). In other chapters, he did with detail
                    (e.g. explicit subjects, objects, explanations, etc.) and with
                    Semiticisms. Then he looked that the post-canonical Synoptic tradition
                    (manuscript tradition, patristic quotations, and apocryphal gospels)
                    and determined which of the phenomena is actually probative of
                    secondary developments (not much). Finally, he examined how the
                    synoptic gospels relate to one another under these criteria, and found
                    that the indicators were largely contradictory. Therefore, his
                    conclusion is mostly a negative conclusion, that the many of the
                    standard proofs do not hold up.

                    As for Streeter's argument that Mark cannot be an abbreviation because
                    he expands the Triple Tradition, Sanders first denies the linkage
                    between the two phenomena (p.85) because " Mark's 'purely verbal
                    expansions' are in no way equivalent in bulk to Matthew's teaching
                    material." Second, Sanders argues that Matthew did not compress
                    Mark in order to add new teaching material, because Matthew is not
                    consistently shorter than Mark (Luke is though), Matthew oftens adds
                    narrative material, and in particular instances proposed examples of
                    Matthew's abbreviation runs counter to his favortie themes: e.g., the
                    worship of Jesus (Mk5:6) and the testimony of a healed man (Mk5:18-20).
                    [p.86]

                    In sum, for the category of length as an indicator for priority,
                    Sanders concludes that it does not indicates Mark's priority to Matthew
                    and that Mark's priority to Luke supportable if Luke is an abbreviator.
                    [p.87]

                    Stephen Carlson
                    --
                    Stephen C. Carlson : Poetry speaks of aspirations,
                    scarlson@... : and songs chant the words.
                    http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/ : -- Shujing 2.35
                  • Yuri Kuchinsky
                    ... I m glad you agree with me on this, Stephen. Loisy s pMk hypothesis is actully very close to what Koester has been proposing for at least 20 years or so. I
                    Message 9 of 25 , Jun 5, 1998
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                      On Tue, 2 Jun 1998, Stephen C. Carlson wrote:
                      > At 09:10 6/2/98 -0400, Yuri Kuchinsky wrote:

                      > >On the protoMk theory, many of the canonical Mk's passages are late
                      > >expansions. But these valid arguments are so often neglected. So often
                      > >commentators fall into the trap of assuming the "basic textual unity of NT
                      > >texts".
                      >
                      > Yuri's point is a good one to extent that hypothetical documents such as
                      > Loisy's protoMk (is it any different from Ur-Markus?) are not often
                      > considered at all when investigating the Triple Tradition.

                      I'm glad you agree with me on this, Stephen.

                      Loisy's pMk hypothesis is actully very close to what Koester has been
                      proposing for at least 20 years or so. I have no idea to what extent if at
                      all Koester is aware of Loisy's research.

                      > The most that happens is the consideration and subsequent dismissal of
                      > Ur-Markus as a possible explanation for the Minor Agreements.

                      Ur-Markus hypothesis, I think, is something quiet different. In my
                      understanding, this hypothesis was seeking to identify some
                      Aramaic-language sources for Mk, supposing that the first version of Mk
                      was written in the Aramaic. Myself, I do not subscribe to this view.

                      > Failure to consider all possible explanations (and unfortunately there
                      > are many possible explanations) may prejudge the outcome. The only real
                      > difficulty I would have with an hypothetical document is a lack of any
                      > real controls that an attested text has.

                      Yes, there is the question whether or not there's enough controlling
                      evidence to establish that there was a pMk. Nevertheless, some good
                      evidence does exist, such as the Great Omission in Lk.

                      I think there is enough evidence to conlude with Loisy and Koester that
                      there was a pMk. But I would agree that we probably do not have enough
                      evidence to reconstruct the text of pMk in many places.

                      Best,

                      Yuri.

                      Yuri Kuchinsky || Toronto

                      http://www.trends.net/~yuku/bbl/bbl.htm

                      The goal proposed by Cynic philosophy is apathy, which is
                      equivalent to becoming God -=O=- Julian
                    • Tim Reynolds
                      ... Pericope-for-pericope brevity relative to the original is diagnostic of aurally pirated texts. The Bad Quartos of ]Shakespeare s most popular plays are
                      Message 10 of 25 , Jul 28, 1998
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                        In June I e-mailed Dr. Carlson a suggestion regarding his initial question:
                        >
                        > So, if I may ask the list, how persuasive for Markan priority is and
                        > ought to be the arguments from length?
                        >
                        Pericope-for-pericope brevity relative to the original is diagnostic of aurally pirated texts. The "Bad Quartos" of ]Shakespeare's most popular plays are the best known example. A second characteristic is pervasive minor verbal disagreement with the original. (Sanders, whom you mention, performed a service in demonstrating that the Synoptic microvariants serve no discernible function.)

                        Clement, in Morton Smith's letter, describes the situation normally generating such bootlegs, the original "under guard" and "read only to advanced catechumens". The Shakespeare originals were kept backstage in a locked trunk. ]You remember as well as you can and transcribe as soon as you can.

                        The aural piracy genre exists. It may be worth discussing whether Mt and Lk are of it.

                        Tim Reynolds
                        kumo997029

                        ***

                        The genre exists, there's a whole literature on the Shakespearean end of it. Thomas Heywood, in a preface to his Lucrece of 1608, speaks of early plays of his having "accidentally come into the printers hands and therefore so corrupt and mangled (coppied only by the eare) that I have been as vnable to know them, as ashamed to chalenge them". In 1851 Paris "such eminent preachers as Lacordaire and De Ravignan" complained:

                        "More than ever do we see the spread of enterprises aiming, as they directly announce, to publish verbatim issues of sermons, lectures, instructions, delivered in the churches of Paris by the most celebrated preachers; and this against the express wish of these preachers, against their incontestable rights, and to the prejudice of the dignity and liberty of the sacred Word. Consequently, the priests undersigned, who more than others have had to suffer from this lamentable industry, avow that not only are they averse to these reproductions, but that the same are generally inexact, marred, and even so deformed as to compromise, in outward opinion, the purity of their orthodoxy ..."

                        Today's pirates use tape recorders.

                        There are other indications. Streeter, Four Gospels:

                        "A study of mixed texts belonging to other families than the Alexandrian shows that it is not the exception but the rule for the Gospel of Mark to have a much smaller proportion of Byzantine readings than the other Gospels."

                        It's our carbon dating: the older the text the greater the Byzantine infection. (This would seem, on the face of it, to tell against Marcan priority. Streeter perceives it as a difficulty. I'm surprised Farmer and all never picked up on it.) Unless the text was unavailable for redaction.

                        And if Mk is so prior, where are the papyri?

                        The Great Omission, mentioned by Dr. Kuchinsky, represents a reading, or two, or three (an interesting and investigatable question) which Luke missed ( "because he had the flew or something", Koester once wrote.) Luke was in Alexandria in 85 (App. Const.), which is about right.

                        There has been a failure to distinguish composition and publication of texts. Your own opera are normally published soon after completion, but not Newton's Principia or Gurdjieff's Life is Real Only Then When I Am, for example. Mark was indeed completed first (apud this model), but wasn't published until (to anticipate) c. 150. For all those years access to the text was only via inhouse readings to "advanced catechumens" (and, I presume, visiting Christian firemen), though after Mt was in circulation no one particularly cared. Hence the piracy(ies). Hence the inexact verbal transmission. Hence the relative pericope-by-pericope brevity of Mt and Lk.

                        If this hypothesis proves to be incorrect, I hope you will do me the courtesy of shooting it down.

                        Tertium datur,

                        Tim Reynolds
                        kumo997029


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                      • Tim Reynolds
                        ... See the original message at http://www.egroups.com/list/synoptic-l/?start=717
                        Message 11 of 25 , Dec 28, 1998
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                          In June I e-mailed Dr. Carlson a suggestion regarding his initial question:
                          > >
                          > > So, if I may ask the list, how persuasive for Markan priority is and
                          > > ought to be the arguments from length?
                          > >
                          > Pericope-for-pericope brevity relative to the original is diagnostic of aurally pirated texts. The "Bad Quartos" of ]Shakespeare's most popular plays are the best known example. A second characteristic is pervasive minor verbal disagreement with the original. (Sanders, whom you mention, performed a service in demonstrating that the Synoptic microvariants serve no discernible function.)
                          >
                          > Clement, in Morton Smith's letter, describes the situation normally generating such bootlegs, the original "under guard" and "read only to advanced catechumens". The Shakespeare originals were kept backstage in a locked trunk. ]You remember as well as you can and transcribe as soon as you can.
                          >
                          > The aural piracy genre exists. It may be worth discussing whether Mt and Lk are of it.
                          >
                          > Tim Reynolds
                          > kumo997029
                          >
                          > ***
                          >
                          > The genre exists, there's a whole literature on the Shakespearean end of it. Thomas Heywood, in a preface to his Lucrece of 1608, speaks of early plays of his having "accidentally come into the printers hands and therefore so corrupt and mangled (coppied only by the eare) that I have been as vnable to know them, as ashamed to chalenge them". In 1851 Paris "such eminent preachers as Lacordaire and De Ravignan" complained:
                          >
                          > "More than ever do we see the spread of enterprises aiming, as they directly announce, to publish verbatim issues of sermons, lectures, instructions, delivered in the churches of Paris by the most celebrated preachers; and this against the express wish of these preachers, against their incontestable rights, and to the prejudice of the dignity and liberty of the sacred Word. Consequently, the priests undersigned, who more than others have had to suffer from this lamentable industry, avow that not only are they averse to these reproductions, but that the same are generally inexact, marred, and even so deformed as to compromise, in outward opinion, the purity of their orthodoxy ..."
                          >
                          > Today's pirates use tape recorders.
                          >
                          > There are other indications. Streeter, Four Gospels:
                          >
                          > "A study of mixed texts belonging to other families than the Alexandrian shows that it is not the exception but the rule for the Gospel of Mark to have a much smaller proportion of Byzantine readings than the other Gospels."
                          >
                          > It's our carbon dating: the older the text the greater the Byzantine infection. (This would seem, on the face of it, to tell against Marcan priority. Streeter perceives it as a difficulty. I'm surprised Farmer and all never picked up on it.) Unless the text was unavailable for redaction.
                          >
                          > And if Mk is so prior, where are the papyri?
                          >
                          > The Great Omission, mentioned by Dr. Kuchinsky, represents a reading, or two, or three (an interesting and investigatable question) which Luke missed ( "because he had the flew or something", Koester once wrote.) Luke was in Alexandria in 85 (App. Const.), which is about right.
                          >
                          > There has been a failure to distinguish composition and publication of texts. Your own opera are normally published soon after completion, but not Newton's Principia or Gurdjieff's Life is Real Only Then When I Am, for example. Mark was indeed completed first (apud this model), but wasn't published until (to anticipate) c. 150. For all those years access to the text was only via inhouse readings to "advanced catechumens" (and, I presume, visiting Christian firemen), though after Mt was in circulation no one particularly cared. Hence the piracy(ies). Hence the inexact verbal transmission. Hence the relative pericope-by-pericope brevity of Mt and Lk.
                          >
                          > If this hypothesis proves to be incorrect, I hope you will do me the courtesy of shooting it down.
                          >
                          > Tertium datur,
                          >
                          > Tim Reynolds
                          > kumo997029
                          >
                          >
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                          >



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                        • Brian E. Wilson
                          Tim Reynolds wrote - ... Any observed lengths are consistent with Mark having been written first, or second, or third. To see this, you only have to consider
                          Message 12 of 25 , Dec 29, 1998
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                            Tim Reynolds wrote -
                            >
                            >So, if I may ask the list, how persuasive for Markan priority is and
                            >ought to be the arguments from length?
                            >

                            Any observed "lengths" are consistent with Mark having been written
                            first, or second, or third.

                            To see this, you only have to consider the hypothesis that all three
                            synoptists independently copied from a common documentary source. Why
                            should the synoptist who wrote last not have retained the wording of the
                            common source more faithfully than each of the other two synoptists?

                            Priority and primitivity are independent phenomena.

                            The argument from length does not exist.

                            Best wishes,
                            BRIAN WILSON

                            E-MAIL: brian@... HOMEPAGE http://www.twonh.demon.co.uk
                            SNAILMAIL: Rev B. E. Wilson,
                            10 York Close, Godmanchester,
                            Huntingdon, Cambs, PE18 8EB, UK
                          • Kumo997029@aol.com
                            Subj: Non-existence of the Argument from Length Date: 98-12-29 15:17:52 EST From: brian@TwoNH.demon.co.uk (Brian E. Wilson) To: Synoptic-L@bham.ac.uk ...
                            Message 13 of 25 , Jan 2, 1999
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                              Subj: Non-existence of the Argument from Length
                              Date: 98-12-29 15:17:52 EST
                              From: brian@... (Brian E. Wilson)
                              To: Synoptic-L@...

                              >Tim Reynolds wrote -
                              >
                              >>So, if I may ask the list, how persuasive for Markan priority is and
                              >>ought to be the arguments from length?

                              Actually, I didn't write that, Carlson did, back in June. I was proposing an
                              answer to his question.

                              >Any observed "lengths" are consistent with Mark having been written
                              >first, or second, or third.

                              >To see this, you only have to consider the hypothesis that all three
                              >synoptists independently copied from a common documentary source. Why
                              >should the synoptist who wrote last not have retained the wording of the
                              >common source more faithfully than each of the other two synoptists?

                              But suppose your hypothesis is incorrect. Sanday presents it in fuller form:

                              "It is very generally agreed that the 'most assured result' of the
                              investigations which have been going on for the best part of a century [as of
                              1910, ed], and with concentrated energy for the last fifty or sixty years, has
                              been the proof of what is commonly called 'the priority of St. Mark'; in other
                              words, the proof that our St. Mark actually lay before the authors of the
                              First and Third Gospels and was used by them in the construction of their own
                              works."

                              There are two undistinguished hypotheses here: first, that Mt and Lk "used"
                              Mk, and secondly, that they "copied" Mk. Sanday himself suggests that
                              "copying" may be misleading:

                              " . . . the ancient writer . . . would not have his copy before him, but would
                              consult it from time to time. He would not follow it clause by clause and
                              phrase by phrase, but would probably read through a whole paragraph at once,
                              and trust to his memory to convey the substance of it safely from one book to
                              the other.

                              "We see here where the opening for looseness of reproduction comes in. There
                              is a substantial interval between reading and writing. During that interval
                              the copy is not before the eye, and in the meantime the brain is actively,
                              though unconsciously, at work. Hence all those slight rearrangements and
                              substitutions which are a marked feature in our texts as we have them. Hence,
                              in a word, all those phenomena which simulate oral transmission. There is a
                              real interval during which the paragraph of text is carried in the mind,
                              though not a long one. The question may be not one of hours or days but only
                              minutes."

                              It would probably be a couple of hours anyway before Matthew or Luke could get
                              off by himself and reproduce, as best he could, the text he had heard read.
                              Still, Sanday has, in principle, solved the Synoptic Problem. He was lacking
                              a convincing mechanism by which memory got involved in the transcription
                              process. Morton Smith's Clement letter provides that mechanism.

                              >Priority and primitivity are independent phenomena.<

                              Uh, okay.

                              >The argument from length does not exist.<

                              Let me rephrase Carlson: Is the pericope-by-pericope brevity of Mt and Lk
                              relative to Mk a clue to Synoptic provenance?

                              Yes, it suggests that Mt and Lk are auditory bootlegs of Mk.

                              Do other clues point in the same direction?

                              Yes, the lack of early Mk papyri, the relative absence of Byzantine infection
                              of the Mk texts, the "great lacuna" in Lk (of which discussion with Bruce
                              Brooks is still hanging). Most decisively, the pervasive textual
                              microvariants in the three texts point to the *existence* of piracy; relative
                              brevity indicates the *direction* of piracy. Once more, the question is not
                              whether this auditory piracy genre exists. The question is whether Lk and Mk
                              are of it.

                              Morton Smith asked me to stop writing him, he'd had a multiple bypass and I
                              gave him a headache. It wasn't me. Those neoHeideggerean spectacles were
                              never intended for looking at the real world.

                              >Best wishes,
                              >BRIAN WILSON

                              Tertium datur,

                              Tim Reynolds
                            • Stephen C. Carlson
                              ... I m interested in learning more about the concept of auditory bootlegs. Do you have a recommendation of a good source explaining what auditory bootlegs
                              Message 14 of 25 , Jan 3, 1999
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                                At 10:56 PM 1/2/99 EST, Kumo997029@... wrote:
                                >Let me rephrase Carlson: Is the pericope-by-pericope brevity of Mt and Lk
                                >relative to Mk a clue to Synoptic provenance?
                                >
                                >Yes, it suggests that Mt and Lk are auditory bootlegs of Mk.
                                >
                                >Do other clues point in the same direction?

                                I'm interested in learning more about the concept of "auditory bootlegs."
                                Do you have a recommendation of a good source explaining what auditory
                                bootlegs are and whether relative brevity is a touchstone of auditory
                                piracy?

                                Stephen Carlson

                                --
                                Stephen C. Carlson mailto:scarlson@...
                                Synoptic Problem Home Page http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/synopt/
                                "Poetry speaks of aspirations, and songs chant the words." Shujing 2.35
                              • Kumo997029@aol.com
                                Dr. Carlson, There s no one source, no Encyclopedia Brit entry. The phenomenon has been under Shakespearean attention since Greg: A.S. Cairnross tells us
                                Message 15 of 25 , Jan 9, 1999
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                                  Dr. Carlson,

                                  There's no one source, no Encyclopedia Brit entry. The phenomenon has been
                                  under Shakespearean attention since Greg:

                                  "A.S. Cairnross tells us that Q1 [first quarto, ed] 'has all the recognized
                                  features of . . . a report -- abbreviation, transposition of material, the use
                                  of synonyms, recollections external and internal; with inferior metre, and
                                  verse wrongly divided as prose'."

                                  Cited from the most recent relevant study, Maguire, *Shakespearean Suspect
                                  Texts: the 'Bad' Quartos and their Contexts*. She isn't, for methodological
                                  reasons, comparing texts, which is how what you detect what she calls
                                  "omissions, so she's not much help. Background in Hart, *Stolne and
                                  Surreptitious Copies: a comparative study of Shakespeare's bad quartos*, and
                                  Pollard, *Shakespeare's Fight With the Pirates and the Problem of the
                                  Transmission of the Text*.

                                  This isn't what you requested. But you really don't need a "good source" at
                                  all:

                                  To be, or not to be, I there's the point,
                                  To Die, to sleepe, is that all? I all:
                                  No, to sleepe, to dreame, I mary there it goes,
                                  For in that dreame of death, when wee awake,
                                  And borne before an euerlasting Iudge,
                                  From whence no passenger euer retur'nd,
                                  The vndiscouered country, at whose sight
                                  The happy smile, and the accursed damn'd.
                                  But for this, the ioyfull hope of this,
                                  Whol'd beare the scornes and flattery of the world,
                                  Scorned by the right rich, the rich curssed of the poore?
                                  The widow being oppressed, the orphan wrong'd,
                                  The taste of hunger, or a tirants raigne,
                                  And thousand more calamities besides,
                                  To grunt and sweate vnder this weary life,
                                  When that he may his full Quietus make,
                                  With a bare bodkin, who would this indure,
                                  But for a hope of something after death?
                                  Which pusles the braine, and doth confound the sence,
                                  Which makes vs rather beare those euilles we haue,
                                  Than flie to others that we know not of.
                                  I that, O this conscience makes cowardes of vs all,
                                  Lady in thy orizons, be all my sinnes remembred.

                                  Compare this 22-line First Quarto version with the 35-line Folio version in
                                  your bookcase and I think you'll get the picture.

                                  SUNERGOS SOU,

                                  Tim Reynolds
                                • Brian E. Wilson
                                  Tim Reynolds wrote - ... I can see that relative brevity might indicate the absence of piracy in one direction, but not the presence of piracy in the opposite
                                  Message 16 of 25 , Jan 10, 1999
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                                    Tim Reynolds wrote -
                                    >
                                    >relative brevity indicates the *direction* of piracy.
                                    >
                                    I can see that relative brevity might indicate the absence of piracy in
                                    one direction, but not the presence of piracy in the opposite direction.
                                    For where one version is briefer than another, each could be briefer
                                    than a version prior to both of them. If one version of a Shakespearean
                                    speech is longer than another, it simply does not follow that the
                                    shorter version was formed by pirating the longer.

                                    The pericope-by-pericope brevity of Mt and Lk relative to Mk might
                                    indicate that Mark used neither Matthew nor Luke. It is a logical
                                    howler, however, to infer from this that therefore Matthew and Luke used
                                    Mark. It is perfectly consistent with the pericope-by-pericope brevity
                                    of Mt and Lk relative to Mk that no synoptic gospel was dependent on any
                                    other synoptic gospel.

                                    I think Tim's statement should read -

                                    >-- relative brevity indicates the *absence of piracy* in the direction
                                    >-- from the shorter to the longer version.
                                    >--

                                    Best wishes,
                                    BRIAN WILSON

                                    E-MAIL: brian@... HOMEPAGE http://www.twonh.demon.co.uk
                                    SNAILMAIL: Rev B. E. Wilson,
                                    10 York Close, Godmanchester,
                                    Huntingdon, Cambs, PE18 8EB, UK
                                  • Kumo997029@aol.com
                                    In a message dated 99-01-10 11:26:35 EST, you write:
                                    Message 17 of 25 , Jan 12, 1999
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                                      In a message dated 99-01-10 11:26:35 EST, you write:

                                      <<
                                      Tim Reynolds wrote -
                                      >
                                      >relative brevity indicates the *direction* of piracy.
                                      >
                                      I can see that relative brevity might indicate the absence of piracy in
                                      one direction, but not the presence of piracy in the opposite direction.
                                      For where one version is briefer than another, each could be briefer
                                      than a version prior to both of them. If one version of a Shakespearean
                                      speech is longer than another, it simply does not follow that the
                                      shorter version was formed by pirating the longer.

                                      The pericope-by-pericope brevity of Mt and Lk relative to Mk might
                                      indicate that Mark used neither Matthew nor Luke. It is a logical
                                      howler, however, to infer from this that therefore Matthew and Luke used
                                      Mark. It is perfectly consistent with the pericope-by-pericope brevity
                                      of Mt and Lk relative to Mk that no synoptic gospel was dependent on any
                                      other synoptic gospel.

                                      I think Tim's statement should read -

                                      >-- relative brevity indicates the *absence of piracy* in the direction
                                      >-- from the shorter to the longer version.
                                      >--

                                      Best wishes,
                                      BRIAN WILSON
                                      >>
                                      Brian,

                                      You're right as far as you go, but you have only one piece of a three-piece
                                      problem.

                                      Consider, if you will, the First Quarto [Q1] chunk I sent to Dr. Carlson on a
                                      few days ago. We have:

                                      1. Textual scrambling, what I've been calling "pervasive textual
                                      microvariants". So we know the relation between the Q1 and Folio *may* be
                                      auditory piracy.

                                      2. The Q1 version is significantly shorter. So we know that *if* AP is
                                      involved, the direction is from F to Q1.

                                      3. Finally, we know the situation of the F text, locked in a trunk backstage
                                      at the Globe while tickets to Hamlet were scalped outside. The case for AP
                                      is, I believe, conclusive.

                                      Compare the synoptic situation. Minor textual infidelity is the most striking
                                      feature of the three texts, the Mt and Lk versions are regularly shorter than
                                      their Mk counterparts, and Clement tells us the Mk holograph was "very well
                                      guarded" and accessible only through inhouse readings. If this isn't QED, I
                                      believe it deserves consideration.

                                      A friend suggests I may have overlooked something:

                                      Subj: Re: Non-existence of the Argument from Length
                                      Date: 99-01-10 17:37:21 EST
                                      From: TTalley532
                                      To: Kumo997029

                                      Tim,
                                      Seems a good parallel to the argument from length. It does not explain
                                      "auditory piracy," though. Wasn't that what he was asking about?
                                      Tom

                                      "Auditory piracy" is appropriating a text available only in a public recital
                                      venue by listening as hard as you can to a performance and then reconstructing
                                      it as well as possible as soon as possible.

                                      Tertium datur,

                                      Tim
                                    • Bob Schacht
                                      ... recital ... reconstructing ... I am intrigued by the examples from Shakespeare, and the auditory piracy concept, but the label does not transport well.
                                      Message 18 of 25 , Jan 12, 1999
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                                        At 07:24 PM 1/12/99 -0500, Kumo997029@... wrote:
                                        >...
                                        >..."Auditory piracy" is appropriating a text available only in a public
                                        recital
                                        >venue by listening as hard as you can to a performance and then
                                        reconstructing
                                        >it as well as possible as soon as possible.
                                        >
                                        >Tertium datur,
                                        >
                                        >Tim
                                        >

                                        I am intrigued by the examples from Shakespeare, and the "auditory piracy"
                                        concept, but the label does not transport well. The purposes of the
                                        performances were different: Shakespeare had every reason to want to
                                        control his intellectual capital. The evangelists, however, were more
                                        interested in *spreading* the good news. They would be well pleased at the
                                        efforts of an auditor to hear the Word and spread the News. This makes the
                                        concept all the more interesting, although a different label is needed.
                                        Contrast the following: Imagine a member of the audience coming up to the
                                        actor who portrayed Hamlet and saying, "That was a great soliloquy you did
                                        there; I got the 'To be, or not to be, that is the question! Whether tis
                                        nobler..." etc etc. for several lines, and then saying "but I lost track
                                        after that. Could you repeat what you said after that?" Well, the actor
                                        might not be to eager to recite the same lines for the benefit of the
                                        memorizer. But now imagine the same scene with an evangelist: "That sermon
                                        on the plain was really great, but I can only remember the first three
                                        blessings. What were the other ones?" The reader in this case would
                                        probably be happy to supply the information-- orally. One might even say
                                        that among the evangelists, 'auditory piracy' would have been encouraged?
                                        So in the case of the Synoptics, back-checking might have been an
                                        acceptable practice, whereas in the case of auditory piracy, back-checking
                                        would have been difficult. On the other hand, the distance between
                                        performances might have been greater if a whole gospel were to be heard
                                        only from the bishop's copy as he toured his domain.

                                        Nevertheless, the statistics on the mechanics of similarity between
                                        Shakespearean copies might make interesting comparisons regarding the
                                        Synoptics-- but one should also include statistics on textual variants
                                        within a text tradition.

                                        Would one of the trademarks of auditory piracy be confusion of homonyms? Do
                                        we have any examples of that?

                                        Bob
                                        Robert Schacht
                                        Northern Arizona University
                                        Robert.Schacht@...

                                        "This success of my endeavors was due, I believe, to a rule of 'method':
                                        that we should always try to clarify and to strengthen our opponent's
                                        position as much as possible before criticizing him, if we wish our
                                        criticism to be worth while." [Sir Karl Popper, The Logic of Scientific
                                        Discovery (1968), p. 260 n.*5]
                                      • Brian E. Wilson
                                        Tim Reynolds wrote - ... Tim, sorry if I am labouring the point, but no, we do not know this at all. I would suggest your statement should read - ... The
                                        Message 19 of 25 , Jan 13, 1999
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                                          Tim Reynolds wrote -
                                          >
                                          >The Q1 version is significantly shorter. So we know that *if* AP is
                                          >involved, the direction is from F to Q1.
                                          >
                                          Tim, sorry if I am labouring the point, but no, we do not know this at
                                          all. I would suggest your statement should read -
                                          >
                                          >The Q1 version is significantly shorter. So we know that *if* AP is
                                          >involved, the direction is NOT FROM Q1 TO F.
                                          >
                                          The conclusion that the direction is not from Q1 to F is consistent both
                                          with AP in the direction from F to Q1, and also with *no* AP in the
                                          direction from F to Q1. If AP is involved, what can be inferred is the
                                          negative conclusion that the AP is not in a given direction. The
                                          positive conclusion, that AP is in a given direction, cannot be inferred
                                          from the data.

                                          Q1 being significantly shorter than F is a directional NON-indicator.

                                          Of course, if "F" is the original autograph, then the direction cannot
                                          be from Q1 to F in any case. We would know this, however, without even
                                          looking at Q1, and it would not follow from a comparison of F and Q1,
                                          but would be true even if Q1 was significantly longer than F. The
                                          special situation of "F" being an autograph manuscript is hypothetical,
                                          however, since we do not have any autograph manuscripts of the works of
                                          Shakespeare. Indeed, the whole point of arguing from the occurrence of
                                          AP arises from the original autographs having been lost. If we had the
                                          autographs, the non-original parts of the dependent scripts would be
                                          obvious irrespective of arguments from the occurrence of AP.

                                          In my view the distinction between a directional indicator and a
                                          directional non-indicator is by no means trivial. It seems to me that a
                                          great deal of synoptic criticism founders on this point. It is not at
                                          all easy to show that the writer of document Y used document X. Very
                                          often the data adduced shows *not* that the writer of document Y used X,
                                          but that the writer of document X did not use Y. The crucial point is
                                          that X not using Y is not the same as Y using X. Showing that Matthew
                                          did not use Luke does not show that Luke used Matthew, and so on. I have
                                          yet to see an argument that Luke used Matthew which does not attempt to
                                          use a directional non-indicator as a directional indicator.

                                          Best wishes,
                                          BRIAN WILSON

                                          E-MAIL: brian@... HOMEPAGE http://www.twonh.demon.co.uk
                                          SNAILMAIL: Rev B. E. Wilson,
                                          10 York Close, Godmanchester,
                                          Huntingdon, Cambs, PE18 8EB, UK
                                        • Mark Goodacre
                                          Like Bob I am intrigued by the possibility that the first quarto of Hamlet (etc.) and its relationship to the folio version might shed light on the synoptic
                                          Message 20 of 25 , Jan 13, 1999
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                                            Like Bob I am intrigued by the possibility that the first quarto of Hamlet
                                            (etc.) and its relationship to the folio version might shed light on the
                                            synoptic problem and I am grateful to Tim for bringing it up. I once went to
                                            see a performance of the first quarto of Hamlet, a real curiosity the most
                                            memorable part of which was indeed "To be or not to be; aye, there's the
                                            point". I seem to remember too that the line "O that this too too solid flesh
                                            would melt" was rendered "O that this too too sullied flesh would melt" (or
                                            vice versa?), which would be well explained by auditory piracy -- either word
                                            would make good sense.

                                            However in relation to the Synoptic Problem, and specifically the argument from
                                            length, several qualifications need to be made:

                                            (1) It is not the case that Matthew and Luke are consistently shorter than Mark
                                            in indvidual pericopae as Sanders demonstrated in _Tendencies_ (see several
                                            previous messasges on this).

                                            (2) The first quarto of Hamlet is overall shorter than the folio version. I
                                            remember this clearly because we had time to get a couple of rounds in before
                                            closing time (often the most memorable part of the evening). Now this means
                                            that the first quarto is shorter both in overall length and in individual
                                            particulars like the famous soliloquy (22 lines vs. 35 by Tim's count). This,
                                            then, is different from the situation in the Synoptics where Mark is overall
                                            shorter but sometimes in indvidual percipae longer.

                                            The following qualification from Bob is also right, I think, and all the more
                                            so if one accepts the conclusions of the recent book by Bauckham (ed.) on
                                            Gospel Audiences:

                                            > I am intrigued by the examples from Shakespeare, and the "auditory piracy"
                                            > concept, but the label does not transport well. The purposes of the
                                            > performances were different: Shakespeare had every reason to want to control
                                            > his intellectual capital. The evangelists, however, were more interested in
                                            > *spreading* the good news. They would be well pleased at the efforts of an
                                            > auditor to hear the Word and spread the News. This makes the concept all the
                                            > more interesting, although a different label is needed.

                                            But I for one would be interested to hear any more reflections on how this
                                            analogy from Shakespeare might help us get our nose out of the Synopsis.

                                            Mark
                                            --------------------------------------
                                            Dr Mark Goodacre M.S.Goodacre@...
                                            Dept of Theology, University of Birmingham

                                            Homepage: http://www.bham.ac.uk/theology/goodacre
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                                          • Kumo997029@aol.com
                                            In a message dated 99-01-12 23:47:05 EST, you write:
                                            Message 21 of 25 , Jan 16, 1999
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                                              In a message dated 99-01-12 23:47:05 EST, you write:

                                              << Subj: "auditory piracy"
                                              Date: 99-01-12 23:47:05 EST
                                              From: Robert.Schacht@... (Bob Schacht)
                                              To: Synoptic-L@...

                                              At 07:24 PM 1/12/99 -0500, Kumo997029@... wrote:
                                              >...
                                              >..."Auditory piracy" is appropriating a text available only in a public
                                              recital
                                              >venue by listening as hard as you can to a performance and then
                                              reconstructing
                                              >it as well as possible as soon as possible.
                                              >
                                              >Tertium datur,
                                              >
                                              >Tim
                                              >

                                              I am intrigued by the examples from Shakespeare, and the "auditory piracy"
                                              concept, but the label does not transport well. The purposes of the
                                              performances were different: Shakespeare had every reason to want to
                                              control his intellectual capital. The evangelists, however, were more
                                              interested in *spreading* the good news. They would be well pleased at the
                                              efforts of an auditor to hear the Word and spread the News. This makes the
                                              concept all the more interesting, although a different label is needed.
                                              Contrast the following: Imagine a member of the audience coming up to the
                                              actor who portrayed Hamlet and saying, "That was a great soliloquy you did
                                              there; I got the 'To be, or not to be, that is the question! Whether tis
                                              nobler..." etc etc. for several lines, and then saying "but I lost track
                                              after that. Could you repeat what you said after that?" Well, the actor
                                              might not be to eager to recite the same lines for the benefit of the
                                              memorizer. But now imagine the same scene with an evangelist: "That sermon
                                              on the plain was really great, but I can only remember the first three
                                              blessings. What were the other ones?" The reader in this case would
                                              probably be happy to supply the information-- orally. One might even say
                                              that among the evangelists, 'auditory piracy' would have been encouraged?
                                              So in the case of the Synoptics, back-checking might have been an
                                              acceptable practice, whereas in the case of auditory piracy, back-checking
                                              would have been difficult. On the other hand, the distance between
                                              performances might have been greater if a whole gospel were to be heard
                                              only from the bishop's copy as he toured his domain.

                                              {I wish I could work the response business in the list.

                                              {This just in (AP!):

                                              {CHURCH REPORTS THEFT OF SACRED BONES

                                              {CHANDLER, Ariz.--Centuries-old sacred bone fragments and the reliquary box in
                                              which they were displayed have disappeared from a Greek Orthodox Church. The
                                              pebble-sized fragments date from the 3rd and 4th centuries.

                                              {"These are very highly venerated," said the Rev. Philip Armstrong, priest of
                                              St. Katherine Greek Orthodox Church. "The relics of saints are considered to
                                              be sources for healings, for answered prayers and for the blessing of
                                              premises. It is really a grave loss spiritually to us."
                                              --Associat
                                              ed Press

                                              {While the Church wanted Christians to share in these benefits, the idea was
                                              that they'd do it in Chandler. Matthew had to steal Mark's text for the same
                                              reason the Venetians had to steal his body. The only difference I can see is
                                              that the Hamlet pirate did it for money and Mt did it to make this unique
                                              recruitment tool available to Christendom at large, exhibiting that zeal you
                                              posit of the evangelists, which difference doesn't affect the texts.}

                                              Nevertheless, the statistics on the mechanics of similarity between
                                              Shakespearean copies might make interesting comparisons regarding the
                                              Synoptics-- but one should also include statistics on textual variants
                                              within a text tradition.

                                              {Let's not get over-involved with Shakespeare. It's more or less an accident
                                              that AP scholarship is more or less confined to Shakespeare studies. Once
                                              sensitized to the phenomenon one runs across it from time to time. In 1851
                                              Paris "such eminent preachers as Lacordaire and De Ravignan" complained:

                                              {"More than ever do we see the spread of enterprises aiming, as they
                                              directly announce, to publish verbatim issues of sermons, lectures,
                                              instructions, delivered in the churches of Paris by the most celebrated
                                              preachers; and this against the express wish of these preachers, against
                                              their incontestable rights, and to the prejudice of the dignity and
                                              liberty of the sacred Word. Consequently, the priests undersigned, who
                                              more than others have had to suffer from this lamentable industry, avow
                                              that not only are they averse to these reproductions, but that the same
                                              are generally inexact, marred, and even so deformed as to compromise, in
                                              outward opinion, the purity of their orthodoxy ..."}

                                              Would one of the trademarks of auditory piracy be confusion of homonyms? Do
                                              we have any examples of that?

                                              {Morton Smith suggested I go after itacisms. My snotty feeling (I was
                                              younger) was that if he couldn't see what was going on a couple of itacisms
                                              wouldn't enlighten him. But yes, homonyms would be "trademarks of auditory
                                              piracy". I haven't looked. Thesis topic.}

                                              Bob
                                              Robert Schacht
                                              Northern Arizona University
                                              Robert.Schacht@... >>

                                              {Tim}
                                            • Maluflen@aol.com
                                              Dear list, I don t know who started it, but I do hope we have seen the last for a while of discourse on auditory piracy. I think it is an extremely unpromising
                                              Message 22 of 25 , Jan 17, 1999
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                                                Dear list,

                                                I don't know who started it, but I do hope we have seen the last for a
                                                while of discourse on auditory piracy. I think it is an extremely unpromising
                                                avenue to pursue, especially as an explanation for the gospels of Matthew and
                                                Luke, understood as deriving from a presumed "heard" Mark. The authors of both
                                                these Gospels are manifestly persons who had intimate, hands-on familiarity
                                                with numerous books, and it is unlikely in the extreme that, even in the (also
                                                unlikely) event that the Gospel of Mark already existed when they wrote, they
                                                were reduced to the exigency of picking up what they could of it from random
                                                auditory events. The theory simply doesn't merit the further exercise of our
                                                collective mental resources, in my never-too-humble view. Requiescat in pace.
                                                Amen.

                                                By the way, happy New Year, everyone!

                                                Leonard Maluf
                                              • Antonio Jerez
                                                ... AMEN to each and everyone of those words of wisdom! Best wishes Antonio Jerez
                                                Message 23 of 25 , Jan 17, 1999
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                                                  Leonard Maluf wrote:

                                                  >Dear list,
                                                  >
                                                  > I don't know who started it, but I do hope we have seen the last for a
                                                  >while of discourse on auditory piracy. I think it is an extremely unpromising
                                                  >avenue to pursue, especially as an explanation for the gospels of Matthew and
                                                  >Luke, understood as deriving from a presumed "heard" Mark. The authors of both
                                                  >these Gospels are manifestly persons who had intimate, hands-on familiarity
                                                  >with numerous books, and it is unlikely in the extreme that, even in the (also
                                                  >unlikely) event that the Gospel of Mark already existed when they wrote, they
                                                  >were reduced to the exigency of picking up what they could of it from random
                                                  >auditory events. The theory simply doesn't merit the further exercise of our
                                                  >collective mental resources, in my never-too-humble view. Requiescat in pace.
                                                  >Amen.
                                                  >
                                                  >By the way, happy New Year, everyone!
                                                  >
                                                  >Leonard Maluf


                                                  AMEN to each and everyone of those words of wisdom!

                                                  Best wishes

                                                  Antonio Jerez
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