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Passover accounts in the Synoptics

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  • Maluflen@aol.com
    In a message dated 98-12-05 15:13:20 EST, Robert.Schacht@nau.edu writes:
    Message 1 of 1 , Dec 6, 1998
      In a message dated 98-12-05 15:13:20 EST, Robert.Schacht@... writes:

      Notice that in Matthew's version (assuming Markan priority), "guest room"
      becomes simply a "house", and reference to the "large room upstairs,
      furnished and ready" is omitted. Why? so as not to offend the 'am ha'aretz?>>

      I'm afraid your comments depend too much on an English translation of the
      text. The evidence also works better on the 2 GH, than on a theory of Marcan
      priority. There is no word "house" in Matt's text (so "guest room" has not
      "become" house in Matt). Matt uses the expression pros se (chez vous, in
      French). Matt's account is modelled here on Exod 12 (LXX) and its formulas
      regarding the execution of commands pertaining to Passover (cf. Exod 12:28,
      35, 50 and Matt 26:19). Only in this case, as usual in Matt, the commands are
      those of Jesus instead of being those of God (Exod 12:1ff) or of Moses (Exod
      12:21ff). Shades of the Sermon on the Mount?

      It makes good sense to think of Luke writing second after Matt and making the
      following important changes, based on his imagination, influenced perhaps by
      the eating habits of his Hellenistic upper-class associates. A house (oikia,
      occurring twice), and an oikodespotes are introduced into the text as the
      place and its owner where the passover dinner is to occur (these elements are
      of course implicit in Matt's "pros se"). But then, Luke wants Jesus and his
      apostles (22:14) to be alone for passover and last supper (which is NOT
      implied by Matt's "pros se"), so he distinguishes, within the house that
      belongs to the oikodespotes, between downstairs (where he himself resides) and
      the large, furnished upper-room (anagaion, also referred to as the guest room,
      katalyma, a term found elsewhere in the NT only in Lk 2:7 and the Marcan
      parallel to the present text) upstairs. As he does elsewhere, Luke, in this
      scene, also transforms Jesus' word of command, which is obeyed, in Matt, into
      a word of prophecy, which is fulfilled. Furthermore, as is also his custom,
      Luke introduces into the text echoes of the somewhat similar circumstances of
      an (in this sense, "parallel") OT story (1 Sam 10:3).


      <<Notice that Luke here retains the Markan references to the guest room, and
      the "large room upstairs, furnished and ready" with only minor word
      changes. But he has also added a new word: the table (cf. John 13:4,12,28).
      In Mark and Matthew, Jesus and the disciples merely 'take their places.' Is
      there anything about the Greek idiom here that implies the presence of a
      table? >>

      Much more likely that the closely similar language of Lk and Mk (diff. Matt)
      in this passage are to be attributed to Lk (see above), with Mark copying them
      later. The term "table" of course also comes in (in 22:14, though cf. v. 21)
      through the English translation, and is only implicit in the Greek verb
      anapipto, which Luke takes here from the "parallel" scene of the feeding of
      the four thousand (Matt 15:35, and cf. Mk 8:6 and 6:40). Note that Lk only has
      a parallel in his gospel to the feeding of the five thousand in Matt 14, where
      this term was not used. So Lk's last supper, as it were, takes the place for
      him, of Matt's feeding of the four thousand, complete with the use of the term
      anapipto from that passage (see also Lk 11:37, 14:10, 17:7). It may be that
      especially for Luke (see the other Lucan texts just cited) the term anapipto
      does imply the presence of a table (because of his own social level and
      customary eating atmosphere). Thus he alone does not use the term in the
      outdoor situation of the miraculous feeding story, and does use it in
      circumstances of indoor, civilized, upper-class dining.

      Leonard Maluf
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