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[Synoptic-L] Lk's Calling/Sending the Twelve/the Seventy

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  • Tim Lewis
    Looking for literary dependence in the Mt-Lk double tradition (i.e. from Q or Mt), I am willing to accept the procedure required by Farrer (“On Dispensing
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 22, 2005
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      Looking for literary dependence in the Mt-Lk double
      tradition (i.e. from Q or Mt), I am willing to accept
      the procedure required by Farrer (“On Dispensing with
      Q”) seriously:

      “…our first supposition is not that both draw upon a
      lost document for which there is no independent
      evidence, but that one draws upon the other. It is
      only when the latter supposition has proved untenable
      that we have recourse to the postulation of a
      hypothetical source.”

      Previously (message 9923, Nov 17 2004) I looked at the
      evangelists’ “Judgment Day” expressions, hoping to
      find that Mt=Q. I found that Mt’s most used expression
      "at/on Day of Judgment" (EN ‘HMERA KRISEWS) is without
      parallel in Lk (or elsewhere in NT). Without knowing
      the source of the expression in Mt (LXX Psalm 1:5
      merely gives “with/at judgment” EN KRISEI) I suppose
      it to be ‘Matthean’ (Mt 10:15; 11:22 , 24; esp.12:36).
      Lk’s parallel, for example, to Mt 11:22 (Lk 10:14)
      uses the more Lukan "at the judgment" (EN TH KRISEI)
      indicating against the saying being taken from Mt

      Jim Deardorff wrote
      "But I presume you're aware that the (modified)
      Augustinian hypothesis
      can [explain the pattern of expressions in Mt]. I.e.,
      with Matthew first in Hebrew/Aramaic, and Mark and
      Luke 2nd & 3rd, written in Greek, one can allow that
      the translator of Hebraic Matthew into Greek had the
      latter two gospels on hand while doing his
      translating, and made some alterations at that time."

      But since I am opting for now to weigh up the more
      simple theories (Mk-Q Theory vs. Mk-Mt Theory) I will

      So looking to a piece of Triple Tradition for the kind
      of literary copying expected on the Farrer theory: Mk
      3:13-19 (the call of The Twelve). Mt has combined the
      call and the sending of The Twelve into one scene (Mt
      9:36-10:16). Even though Lk 6:12-16 does not follow
      Mk’s Greek extremely closely, he does not follow Mt
      either in utilizing Mt’s Greek or in combining both
      scenes for the calling and sending of the twelve. Lk
      simply agrees with Mk’s separation of the two events
      whereby the Twelve are not actually sent out until a
      few chapters later, and he does use disciples’ names
      in the accusative (as though following Mk). I cannot
      see Mt’s text used in any way in Lk’s calling and
      sending episodes of the Twelve. The two episodes in Lk
      both read simply as paralleling Mk’s.

      The Farrer (Mk-Mt-Lk) theory would also seem to
      require Lk’s second sending (of the seventy[two] Lk
      10:1-13) to have been taken from Mt’s version of the
      sending. But again due to differing Judgment Day
      expressions, Mt 10:15 ("at/on Day of Judgment" EN
      ‘HMERA KRISEWS) is not likely the source of Lk 10:12
      (“at/on that day” en th hmera ekeinh). Why would Lk
      copy Mt’s saying only to modify the expression to one
      that is not particularly Lukan/redactional (his
      preferred expression for sayings paralleling Mt is "at
      the judgment" EN TH KRISEI)? And surely it is
      incongruous for the Farrer theory that Mt later
      switches to using Lk’s preferred Judgment Day
      expression in 12:41-42. This should suggest that the
      supposition of Lk’s dependence on Mt for these verses
      is becoming a little “untenable.”

      Only the ‘too-much too-little harvest-workers’ saying
      (Mt 9:37-38//Lk 10:2) is a possible contender for
      something Matthean here. But there nothing necessarily
      Matthean about it. In fact Lk’s version of the sending
      of the seventy has several points of contact with Mk’s
      text such as sending disciples by ‘twos’ and them
      proclaiming “the kingdom of God has come near [to
      you]” (cf. Jesus initial proclamation in Mk 1:15,
      otherwise Mt 10:7?)

      Unless “the harvest” saying be taken as sufficient
      evidence (how would we know if it is?), then it seems
      Mt’s “document” is not Lk’s source for the call of the
      Twelve, nor the sending of the Twelve nor the sending
      of the seventy(two), nor the following woes against
      Chorazin and Bethsaida.

      Tim Lewis.

      Timothy M. Lewis
      Cranbourne, VIC 3977
      Part-time Greek Tutor at Whitley College,
      Melbourne College of Divinity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

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