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  • Bruce Potter, IRF
    [Thanks to Kathleen and Nicole for this valuable study. Abstract and Introduction below -- try to get the article on-line, if not, write to me soon for a copy.
    Message 1 of 1 , May 4, 2009
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      [Thanks to Kathleen and Nicole for this valuable
      study. Abstract and Introduction below -- try to
      get the article on-line, if not, write to me soon
      for a copy. . . bruce potter]

      >Reply-To: ksealey@...
      >Date: Sun, 3 May 2009 13:38:08 -0400
      >From: Kathleen Sullivan-Sealey <ksealey56@...>
      >To: Potter at Island Resources <bpotter@...>
      >Dear Bruce,
      >FYI - finally this article is coming out this
      >month - it was a very controversial project -
      >but this is one of several papers we submitted
      >on specific details of development management.
      >Thanks for all the good information you pass on..
      >Kathleen Sullivan Sealey
      >Associate Professor
      >Department of Biology
      >University of Miami
      >Mailing address remains:
      >Department of Biology
      >P.O. Box 249118
      >University of Miami
      >Coral Gables, Fl 33124 USA

      - - - - - - - - -

      Journal of Sustainable Tourism
      Vol. 17, No. 3, May 2009, 375-395

      Efforts, resources and costs required for long term environmental
      management of a resort development: the case of Baker's Bay Golf
      and Ocean Club, The Bahamas
      Kathleen Sullivan-Sealeya,b and Nicolle Cushiona£

      £Corresponding author. Email: nicollec@...
      ISSN 0966-9582 print / ISSN 1747-7646 online
      C 2009 Taylor & Francis
      DOI: 10.1080/09669580802275994
      Downloaded By: [Cushion, Nicolle] At: 16:43 3 May 2009

      Biology Department, University of Miami, Coral
      Gables, Florida, USA; bThe College of The
      Bahamas, Marine and Environmental Studies Institute, Nassau, The Bahamas
      (Received 15 October 2007; final version received 25 March 2008)

      The natural resources upon which the tourism
      industry relies upon are subjected to intense
      pressure during and post development. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs)
      are the generalmethod used to evaluate the
      potential impacts of a development.However,
      EIAs rarely incorporate an EIA-auditing
      mechanism, or set environmental standards,
      for evaluating the long term impacts of a
      proposed development project. The Baker's
      Bay Golf and Ocean Club (BBC) serves as a coastal
      tourism development case study,
      where an Environmental Management Program (EMP) and prescribed environmental
      goals were incorporated into the EIA. The goal of
      this paper is to document the efforts,
      resources and costs required to implement the EMP
      in an effort to meet the project goals.
      Lessons learned include the need to mitigate
      damaged environments, include measurable
      ecological goals, and establish an open
      communications system. Substantial time,
      costs and resources were necessary to implement
      the EMP and this information should
      be incorporated into development planning to
      establish a process to follow through on
      EIA recommendations.

      Keywords: coastal development; environmental management; island tourism

      The rationale behind environmentally responsible
      tourism development is that the susceptibility
      of nature can be documented and mitigated if planned properly (Miller & Auyong,
      1991). To properly plan and manage tourist
      developments, it is necessary to understand the
      physical and biological environmentwhich is to be
      developed and to ensure that themajority
      of plausible implications for the natural
      ecosystem are articulated (Miller&Auyong, 1991).
      Internationally this is facilitated by an
      Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for new
      development projects. EIA is a systematic
      procedure for enabling possible environmental
      impacts and planning alternatives to be
      considered before a decision is made whether a
      project should be given approval by the
      regulatory authorities (Dipper, Jones, & Wood,
      Environmental Impact Assessments, however, are often static exercises performed
      purely to achieve development consent, rather
      than a tool for sound environmental management
      and protection. Sadler (1998) noted that the EIA
      process is frequently viewed as
      "falling short" of realizing its full potential
      as a mechanism for informed decision making
      because of a lack of quality in the EIA
      preparation, accuracy in the prediction of

      376 K. Sullivan-Sealey and N. Cushion
      and suitable mitigation measures. Andriotis
      (2008) reviewed an EIA of a pre-development
      stage of a large-scale resort on the island of
      Crete to anticipate the tourism impacts of a
      proposed integrated resort. The study found that
      environmental issues pertaining to water
      supply, sewage and waste management, and removal
      and replacement of native vegetation
      were not fully addressed in the EIA. Further, it
      was felt that a post-EIA audit was required
      to investigate whether the EIA predictions or the
      anticipated impacts reported in the study
      would be experienced after the resort's
      construction. Warnken and Buckley (2000) found
      that the lack of post-EIA or operational phase
      monitoring of tourism facilities is a common
      issue for tourism in Australia. They reviewed 175
      tourism facilities subjected to EIAs from
      1980 to 1993 and only 13 were subjected to formal
      monitoring post-development (Warnken
      & Buckley, 2000). Those with sufficient data were
      mainly pontoon boats that were primarily
      monitored by default under mandates for the Great
      Barrier Marine Park. Hence, there
      is limited specialized literature on the design
      of formal EIA performance measures, and
      few studies exist where a tourism development
      project has been monitored and assessed,
      prior and during construction, and subsequently
      during the operational phase (Sadler,

      To monitor whether a tourist development is
      environmentally responsible or implementing
      best-known management practices, an EIA
      post-audit programme needs to be in place
      that is scientifically rigorous, with specific
      objectives that are defined before the programme
      begins (Bisset & Tomlinson, 1998). Thus, the EIA
      process needs to be advanced by outlining
      environmental and ecological goals. EIAs should
      incorporate mitigation efforts for
      degraded environments (UNEP & WTO, 2005), long
      term environmental baseline studies,
      and monitoring during the construction and
      operational phases. These are necessary so
      that impacts can be measured and resulting
      mitigations can be assessed to gauge their
      effectiveness (Andriotis, 2008; Dipper, Jones, &
      Wood 1998; Sadler, 1998). Additionally,
      the costs, efforts, and resources required to
      conduct environmental management must be
      documented and analyzed to fully understand which
      resources and finances are required.
      The term "sustainability" is best avoided in
      consideration of a single site development,
      because it perhaps applies more to a larger
      ecological scale. In addition, this concept would
      relate to social and economic factors as well as the environment.

      In The Bahamas, the Office of The Prime Minister
      and Ministry of Tourism administer
      the National Investment Policy, which promotes
      use of the country's natural resources for
      tourism development (Wells-Moultrie, 2006).
      Tourism, including the aspects related to the
      environment, is regulated by the Office of The
      Prime Minister, Ministry of Tourism, and
      the Bahamas Environmental Science and Technology
      (BEST) Commission. For proposed
      tourism developments which impact on the human
      and natural resources of The Bahamas,
      EIAs are mandatory. The BEST Commission reviews
      all EIAs, which are prepared using
      pre-approved companies. Thus, presently there is
      a national system for review and approval
      of tourism developments, but there is no
      systematic approach to the monitoring of
      developments for environmental impacts once they
      are under construction or in operation
      (Wells-Moultrie, 2006).

      Tourism is an important development pressure in
      The Bahamas, where it is estimated
      that tourism produces 50-60% of the gross
      domestic product and directly or indirectly
      employs 50-60% of the total workforce (COB-BEST, 2005). There are many types of
      tourism in The Bahamas, including cruise ships,
      yachting, large-scale and small-scale
      resorts, and vacation homes. All tourism is
      dependent on the quality of the country's
      natural resources, namely its native flora and
      fauna, beaches and coastal waters; thus efforts
      for promoting environmentally responsible tourism
      have become widely embraced (BEST,

      The goal of this paper is to document the
      efforts, costs, and resources required to
      implement the Environmental Management Program
      (EMP) for a tourist development in
      The Bahamas. The BBC is used as a case study, and
      two stages of the project have been
      documented to date. These are, first, the
      pre-development baseline studies and mitigation
      efforts; and, second, the Phase I of construction
      (lot and road clearing and infrastructure
      installation). This is the first study of its
      kind in The Bahamas and represents a unique
      collaboration between the developers, the
      Government of The Bahamas, and academics.

      Downloaded By: [Cushion, Nicolle] At: 16:43 3 May 2009
      Journal of Sustainable Tourism 377
      35 Years of Environmental Service to Small Tropical Islands
      Island Resources Foundation Fone 202/265-9712
      1718 "P" St NW, # T-4 fax 202/232-0748
      Washington, DC 20036 Potter cell: 1-443-454-9044
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      Blogs at http://pottersweal.wordpress.com/; twitter: brucepotter
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